Advertisement

Demography

, Volume 22, Issue 4, pp 515–544 | Cite as

Entry into marriage and parenthood by young men and women: The influence of family background

  • Robert T. Michael
  • Nancy Brandon Tuma
Articles

Abstract

We investigate the influence of family background on early entry into marriage and parenthood among white, Hispanic, and black men and women ages 14 to 22 in the first (1979) wave of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Family background is highly associated with early entry into marriage for whites of both genders and female Hispanics and also with early entry into parenthood for all groups except black males. Large group differences in family characteristics explain most of the difference between white and Hispanic women in early marriage and parenthood and about half the difference in early parenthood between black and white women but do not explain the observed variations among other race-gender groups.

Keywords

Background Variable White Male Family Background Black Male White Female 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bean, F. D., and C. H. Wood. 1974. Ethnic variation in the relationship between income and fertility. Demography 11:629–640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Becker, G. S. 1974. A Theory of Marriage. Pp. 299–344 in Theodore W. Schultz (ed.), Economics of the Family: Marriage, Children and Human Capital. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  3. — 1981. A Treatise on the Family. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Becker, G. S., E. M. Landes, and R. T. Michael. 1977. An economic analysis of marital instability. Journal of Political Economy 85:1141–1187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Card, J. J., and L. L. Wise. 1978. Teenage mothers and teenage fathers: the impact of early childbearing on the parents’ personal and professional lives. Family Planning Perspectives 10:199–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carter, H. and P. C. Glick. 1970. Marriage and Divorce: A Social and Economic Study. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Chilman, C. S. 1980. Adolescent Sexuality in a Changing American Society: Social and Psychological Perspectives. NIH Publication No. 80-1426. Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  8. Coale, A. J., and D. R. McNeil. 1972. The distribution by age of the frequency of first marriage in a female cohort. Journal of the American Statistical Association 67:743–749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cox, D. R. 1972. Regression models and life tables. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B34:187–220.Google Scholar
  10. — 1975. Partial likelihood. Biometrika 62:269–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Davis, K. 1980. A Theory of Teenage Pregnancy in the United States. Pp. 309–336 in C. S. Chilman (ed.), Adolescent Pregnancy and Childbearing. NIH Publication No. 81-2077, Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  12. Efron, B. 1977. The Efficiency of Cox’s Likelihood Function for Censored Data. Journal of the American Statistical Association 72:557–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Elandt-Johnson, R. C., and N. L. Johnson. 1980. Survival Models and Data Analysis. New York: John Wiley.Google Scholar
  14. Elder, G. H., and R. C. Rockwell. 1976. Marital timing in women’s life patterns. Journal of Family History 1:34–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Freiden, A. 1974. The United States’ Marriage Market. Pp. 352–371 in Theodore W. Schultz (ed.), Economics of the Family. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  16. Furstenberg, F. F., Jr. 1976. Unplanned Parenthood: The Social and Economic Consequences. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  17. Furstenberg, F. F., Jr., R. Lincoln, and J. Menken. 1981. Teenage Sexuality, Pregnancy and Childbearing. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  18. The Alan Guttmacher Institute. 1981. Teenage Pregnancy: The Problem that Hasn’t Gone Away. New York.Google Scholar
  19. Hannan, M. T., N. B. Tuma, and L. P. Groeneveld. 1977. Income and marital events. American Journal of Sociology 82:1186–1211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. —. 1978. Income and independence effects on marital dissolution. American Journal of Sociology 84:611–633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jacobson, P. H. 1959. American Marriage and Divorce. New York: Rinehart.Google Scholar
  22. Kalbfleisch, J. D., and R. L. Prentice. 1980. The Statistical Analysis of Failure Time Data. New York: John Wiley.Google Scholar
  23. Kaplan, E. L., and P. Meier. 1958. Nonparametric estimation from incomplete observations. Journal of the American Statistical Association 53:457–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kiernan, K. E. 1985. Teenage Marriage and Marital Breakdown: A Longitudinal Study. Centre for Population Studies, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Mimeo.Google Scholar
  25. Kiernan, K. E., and I. Diamond. 1983. The age at which childbearing starts: a longitudinal study. Population Studies 37:363–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Marini, M. M. 1984. Determinants of the Timing of Adult Role Entry. Paper presented at the Seventy-fifth Annual Meetings of the American Sociological Association, San Antonio, August 27–31.Google Scholar
  27. Massey, D. S. 1981. Dimensions of the New Immigration to the United States and Prospects for Assimilation. Pp. 57–85 in Ralph H. Turner and James F. Short, Jr., (eds.), Annual Review of Sociology 7. Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews, Inc.Google Scholar
  28. McHenry, P. C., L. H. Walters, and C. Johnson. 1979. Adolescent pregnancy: a review of the literature. The Family Coordinator 28: 17–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Menken, J. 1980. The Health and Demographic Consequences of Adolescent Pregnancy and Childbearing. Pp. 157–200 in C. S. Chilman (ed.), Adolescent Pregnancy and Childbearing. NIH Publication No. 81-2077, Washington D. C.: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  30. — 1981. The Health and Social Consequences of Teenage Childbearing. Pp. 167–183 in F. F. Furstenberg, Jr., R. Lincoln and J. Menken (eds.), Teenage Sexuality, Pregnancy, and Childbearing. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  31. Menken, J., J. Trussell, D. Stempel, and O. Babakol. 1981. Proportional hazards life table models: an illustrative analysis of socio-demographic influences on marriage dissolution in the United States. Demography 18:181–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Michael, R. T. 1979. Determinants of Divorce. Pp. 223–254 in L. Levy-Garboua (ed.), Sociological Economics. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  33. Millman, S. R., and G. E. Hendershot. 1980. Early fertility and lifetime fertility. Family Planning Perspectives 12:139–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Moore, K. A., and M. R. Burt. 1981. Teenage Childbearing and Welfare: Policy Perspectives on Sexual Activity, Pregnancy, and Public Dependency. Washington, D. C.: The Urban Institute.Google Scholar
  35. Moore, K. A., and L. J. Waite. 1977. Early childbearing and educational attainment. Family Planning Perspectives 9:220–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mosher, W. D., and G. E. Hendershot. 1984. Religion and fertility: a replication. Demography 21:185–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Preston, S. H., and A. T. Richards. 1975. The influence of women’s work opportunities on marriage rates. Demography 12:209–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Rindfuss, R. R., S. P. Morgan, and C. G. Swicegood. 1984. The transition to motherhood: the intersection of structural and temporal dimensions. American Sociological Review 49:359–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ross, H. L., and I. V. Sawhill. 1975. Time of Transition: The Growth of Families Headed by Women. Washington, D. C.: The Urban Institute.Google Scholar
  40. Rubin, L. B. 1976. Worlds of Pain. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  41. Santos, F. P. 1975. The Economics of Marital Status. Pp. 244–268 in C. B. Lloyd (ed.), Sex, Discrimination, and the Division of Labor. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Trussell, J., and J. Menken. 1978. Early childbearing and subsequent fertility. Family Planning Perspectives 10:209–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Tsiatis, A. 1981. A large sample study of Cox’s regression model. Annals of Statistics 9:93–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Tuma, N. B. 1982. Nonparametric and Partially Parameteric Approaches to Event History Analysis. Pp. 1–60 in S. Leinhardt (ed.), Sociological Methodology 1982. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  45. Tuma, N. B., and M. T. Hannan. 1984. Social Dynamics: Models and Methods. San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  46. Tuma, N. B., and R. T. Michael. 1985. A comparison of statistical models for life course analysis with an application to first marriage. Current Perspectives on Aging and the Life Cycle 2, in press.Google Scholar
  47. U. S. Bureau of the Census. 1982. Statistical Abstract of the United States 1982–83 (103rd Edition). Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  48. Waite, L. J., and G. D. Spitze. 1981. Young women’s transition to marriage. Demography 18:681–694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Westoff, C. F., and E. F. Jones. 1979. The end of ‘Catholic’ fertility. Demography 16:209–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Population Association of America 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert T. Michael
    • 1
  • Nancy Brandon Tuma
    • 2
  1. 1.NORCChicago
  2. 2.Department of SociologyStanford UniversityStanford

Personalised recommendations