Advertisement

Demography

, Volume 21, Issue 2, pp 171–183 | Cite as

A dynamic analysis of women’s employment exits

  • Diane H. Felmlee
Article

Abstract

This research examines women’s rates of leaving a job to become nonemployed (unemployed or out of the labor force) using a stochastic, continuous-time model. The data consist of employment histories of white women constructed from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women (1968-1973). The results demonstrate the importance of examining the underlying processes in women’s employment. Several differences are found between the determinants of employment exits and what might be expected from the cross-sectional and panel literature on female labor force participation. The findings also provide evidence of the interdependence of fertility and employment, with young children increasing rates of employment exits and with high wages on ajob decreasing rates ofleaving a job because of a pregnancy. Finally, involuntary employment terminations are examined, and their transition rates are found to decrease with job wages and job tenure and to increase when a woman has children.

Keywords

Labor Force Transition Rate Labor Force Participation Female Labor Force Participation National Longitudinal Survey 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allison, P. D. 1982. Discrete-time Methods for the Analysis of Event Histories. Pp, 61–98 in Samuel Leinhardt (ed.), Sociological Methodology 1982. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  2. Bowen, W. G. and T. A. Finegan. 1969. The Economics of Labor Force Participation. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Bumpass, L. and C. F. Westoff. 1970. The Latter Years of Childbearing. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Cain, G. 1966. Married Women in the Labor Force: An Economic Analysis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  5. Cramer, J. C. 1979. Employment Trends of Young Mothers and the Opportunity Cost of Babies in the United States. Demography 16:177–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. — 1980. Fertility and Female Employment: Problems of Causal Direction. American Sociological Review 45:167–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Felmlee, D. H. 1981. The Consequences of Employment Discontinuity for Women’s Occupational Attainment. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Sociological Association, Toronto, 1981.Google Scholar
  8. — 1982. Women’s Job Mobility Processes within and between Employers. American Sociological Review 47:142–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ginsberg, R. B. 1971. Semi-Markov Processes and Mobility. Journal of Mathematical Sociological Review 1:233–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Griffin, L. J., A. L. Kalleberg, and K. L. Alexander. 1981. Determinants of Early Labor Market Entry and Attainment: A Study of Labor Market Segmentation. Sociology of Education 54:206–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kalleberg, A. L. 1977. Work Values and Job Rewards: A Theory of Job Satisfaction. American Sociological Review 42:124–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kreps, J. M. 1976. Women and the American Economy. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  13. Lindert, P. 1978. Fertility and Scarcity in America. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Ryder, N. B. and C. F. Westoff. 1971. Reproduction in the United States. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Smith-Lovin, L. and A. R. Tickamyer. 1978. Labor Force Participation, Fertility Behavior, and Sex Role Attitudes. American Sociological Review 43:541–556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Stolzenberg, R. M. and L. J. Waite. 1977. Age, Fertility Expectations, and Plans for Employment. American Sociological Review 42:769–782.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Sweet, J. A. 1973. Women in the Labor Force. New York: Seminar Press.Google Scholar
  18. Tuma, N. B. and M. T. Hannan. 1978. Approaches to the Censoring Problem in Analysis of Event Histories. Pp. 209–240 in Karl Scheussler (ed.), Sociological Methodology, 1979. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  19. —, M. T. Hannan and L. T. Groeneveld. 1979. Dynamic Analysis of Event Histories. American Journal of Sociology 84:820–854.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Waite, L. J. and R. M. Stolzenberg. 1976. Intended Childbearing and Labor Force Participation of Young Women: Insights from Nonrecursive Models. American Sociological Review 41:235–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Whelpton, P. K., A. A. Campbell, and J. E. Patterson. 1966. Fertility and Family Planning in the United States. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Population Association of America 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Diane H. Felmlee
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of SociologyIndiana UniversityBloomington

Personalised recommendations