Demography

, Volume 4, Issue 1, pp 196–209 | Cite as

Fertility of the jews

  • Calvin Goldscheider

Summary

The objectives of this paper were to review and summarize the existing literature on Jewish fertility and to discuss the highlights of data on fertility trends and differentials based on survey data obtained on the Jewish population of the metropolitan area of Providence, Rhode Island. The literature consistently confirmed the finding of lower fertility among Jews since the 1880’s in the United States and for the last seventy-five years in a variety of European countries.

A review of available data on fertility trends and differentials within the Jewish population indicated contradictory and inconsistent findings. The Providence survey data pointed to changing patterns of fertility among Jews and clarified a number of seeming inconsistencies. These data suggested (1) the pre-World War II decline and postwar recovery of Jewish fertility; (2) the change from an inverse relationship of social class and Jewish fertility among first-generation Jews to a direct relationship among second- and third-generation Jews; (3) the changing relationship of religiosity and Jewish fertility, which reflects social class changes.

Finally, an attempt is made to clarify the interpretation of these and related findings by placing the analysis of Jewish fertility in the context of assimilation and acculturation.

Resumen

Los objetivos de este trabajo eran revisar y resumir la literatura existente sobre la fecundidad judía y discutir los datos sobre tendencias en la fecundidad y diferenciales, teniendo como base la información obtenida en una encuesta entre la población judía del área metropolitana de Providence, Rhode Island. La literatura consistentemente ha confirmado el hallazgo de una baja fecundidad entre judíos desde los anos de 1880 en los Estados Unidos y durante los últimos 75 a~nos en diversos paises europeos.

Una revisión de los datos disponibles sobre las tendencias de la fecundidad y las diferencias dentro de la población judía dió como resultado hallazgos inconsistentes y contradictorios. Los datos de la encuesta de Providence señalaron patrones defertilidad cambiantes entre los judiós y aclararon un sinnúmero de inconsistencias. Estos datos sugirieron (1) la disminución de la fecundidad judía antes de la II Guerra Mundial, y su recuperación en el período de postguerra; (2) el cambio de la relación inversa entre clase social y fecundidad entre la primera generación de judíos, a una relación directa entre judíos de la segunda y tercera generaciones; (3) la cambiante relación entre religiosidad y fecundidad judia, lo cual refleja cambios en la close social.

Finalmente, se ha intentado aclarar la interpretación de estos y otros hallazgos relacionados, ubicando el análisis de la fecundidad judia dentro del contexto de la asimilación y aculturación.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Ronald Freedman, Pascal K. Whelpton, and Arthur Campbell, Family Planning, Sterility and Population Growth, (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1959); Pascal K. Whelpton, Arthur A. Campbell, and John E. Patterson, Fertility and Family Planning in the United States, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1966); Charles F. Westoff, Robert G. Potter, Jr., Philip C. Sagi, and Elliot G. Mishler, Family Growth in Metropolitan America (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1961); Charles F. Westoff, Robert G. Potter, Jr., and Philip C. Sagi, The Third Child (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1963).Google Scholar
  2. 3.
    For details of the general survey see Sidney Goldstein, The Greater Providence Jewish Community: A Population Survey (General Jewish Committee of Providence, 1964).Google Scholar
  3. 4.
    John S. Billings, “Vital Statistics of the Jews in the United States,” Census Bulletin, No. 19, December 30, 1889, pp. 4–9.Google Scholar
  4. 5.
    Calculated from the Rhode Island Census of 1905, “Conjugal Conditions, Maternity Tables (Bulletin 4, Part 1, of the annual report for 1907, Table 7, p. 551). The data are limited since they include number of children born to women 15–44 and not completed families. Cf. J. J. Spengler, The Fecundity of Native and Foreign Born Women in New England (“Pamphlet Series,” Vol. II, No. 1 [Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution, June 30, 1930]).Google Scholar
  5. 6.
    A. J. Jaffe, “Religious Differentials in the Net Reproduction Rate,” Journal of the American Statistical Association, XXXIV (June, 1939), 335–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 7.
    R. K. Stix and Frank Notestein, Controlled Fertility (Baltimore: William & Wilkins Co., 1940), p. 29; Raymond Pearl, The Natural History of Population (New York: Oxford University Press, 1939), pp. 241–42.Google Scholar
  7. 8.
    Pascal K. Whelpton and Clyde V. Kiser, “Differential Fertility among Native-White Couples in Indianapolis,” XXI (July, 1943), 226–71.Google Scholar
  8. 9.
    The main report is contained in United States Bureau of the Census, Current Population Report, Series P-20, No. 79, February 2, 1958. The fertility data were only published in the Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1958, p. 41, Table 40. See also Paul Glick, “Intermarriage and Fertility Patterns among Persons in Major Religious Groups,” Eugenics Quarterly, VII (March, 1960), 31–38.Google Scholar
  9. 10.
    See the review in Ben Seligman and Aaron Antonovsky, “Some Aspects of Jewish Demography,” in Marshall Skiare (ed.), The Jews (Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press, 1958), p. 67, Table 6; Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds, Council Reports (New York, May 21, 1963), p. 3; Sidney Goldstein, op. cit., p. 66, Table 28.Google Scholar
  10. 11.
    Freedman, Whelpton, and Campbell, op. cit.; Ronald Freedman, Pascal K. Whelpton, and John W. Smit, “Socio-economic Factors in Religious Differentials in Fertility,” American Sociological Review, XXVI (August, 1961), 608–10.Google Scholar
  11. 12.
    Whelpton, Campbell, and Patterson, op. cit., pp. 71–72, 90–91, 247–52, and Tables 33 and 46.Google Scholar
  12. 13.
    Westoff, Potter, and Sagi, op. cit., p. 89, Table 42; Westoff, Potter, Sagi, and Mishler, op. cit., Charles F. Westoff, Robert G. Potter, Jr., Philip C. Sagi, and Elliot G. Mishler, Family Growth in Metropolitan America (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1961) pp. 72–92.Google Scholar
  13. 14.
    Ibid., p. 102.Google Scholar
  14. 15.
    Mortimer Spiegelman, “The Reproductivity of Jews in Canada, 1940–42,” Population Studies, IV (December, 1950), 299–313.Google Scholar
  15. 16.
    Louis Rosenberg, “The Demography of the Jewish Community in Canada,” The Jewish Journal of Sociology, I (December, 1959), 217–33. See his discussion of Jewish and non-Jewish net reproduction rates on p. 227.Google Scholar
  16. 17.
    Nathan Goldberg, “The Jewish Population in Canada,” in Jewish People, Past and Present (New York: Central Yiddish Culture Organization, 1949), II, 35–39.Google Scholar
  17. 18.
    E. Lewis-Fanning, Report on an Enquiry into Family Limitation and Its Influence on Human Fertility during the Past Fifty Years (London: Papers of the Royal Commission on Population, H.M.S.O.), I, 82.Google Scholar
  18. 19.
    Hannah Neustatter, “Demographic and Other Statistical Aspects of Anglo-Jewry,” in Maurice Freedman (ed.), A Minority in Britain (London: Vallentine, Mitchell & Co., 1955), p. 82.Google Scholar
  19. 20.
    Maurice Freedman, “The Jewish Population of Great Britain,” The Jewish Journal of Sociology, IV (June, 1962), 95.Google Scholar
  20. 21.
    See Kurt B. Mayer, “Recent Demographic Developments in Switzerland,” Social Research, XXIV (Summer, 1957), 350-51; Roberto Bachi, “The Demographic Development of Italian Jewry from the Seventeenth Century,” The Jewish Journal of Sociology, IV (December, 1962), 184, Table 13; “Dutch Jewry: A Demographic Analysis,” The Jewish Journal of Sociology, III (December, 1961), 195–243.Google Scholar
  21. 22.
    Uriah Z. Engelman, “Sources of Jewish Statistics,” in Louis Finkelstein (ed.), The Jews: Their History, Culture, and Religion (2d rev. ed.; Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1960), II, 1527, Table 8.Google Scholar
  22. 23.
    Liebman Hersch, “Jewish Population Trends in Europe,” in Jewish People, Past and Present, II, 11, Table 10.Google Scholar
  23. 24.
    Rhode Island Census of 1905, op. cit., Calculated from the Rhode Island Census of 1905, “Conjugal Conditions, Maternity Tables (Bulletin 4, Part 1, of the annual report for 1907, Table 7, p. 551). The data are limited since they include number of children born to women 15–44 and not completed families. Cf. J. J. Spengler, The Fecundity of Native and Foreign Born Women in New England (“Pamphlet Series,” Vol. II, No. 1 [Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution, June 30, 1930]). pp. 550–53, Tables 7 and 8.Google Scholar
  24. 25.
    Uriah Z. Engelman, “A Study of Size of Families in the Jewish Population of Buffalo,” University of Buffalo Series, XVI (November, 1938), 23, Chart III.Google Scholar
  25. 26.
    Uriah Z. Engelman, “The Jewish Population of Charleston,” Jewish Social Studies, XIII (July, 1951), 195–210.Google Scholar
  26. 27.
    Nathan Goldberg, “Jewish Population in America,” Jewish Review, V (January–December, 1948), 36–48.Google Scholar
  27. 28.
    David Goldberg and Harry Sharp, “Some Characterististics of Detroit Area Jews and Non-Jewish Adults,” in Sklare (ed.), op. cit., p. 110.Google Scholar
  28. 29.
    For a more detailed discussion and presentation of the data, see Calvin Goldscheider, “Nativity, Generation, and Jewish Fertility,” Sociological Analysis, XXVI (Fall, 1965), 137–47; and “Trends in Jewish Fertility,” Sociology and Social Research, L (January, 1966), 173–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 30.
    Cf. Whelpton, Campbell, and Patterson, op. cit., p. 304, 321, and chapter viii; Pascal K. Whelpton, “Trends and Differentials in the Spacing of Births,” Demography, I (1964), 83-93; Paul C. Glick and Robert Parke, Jr., “New Approaches in Studying the Life Cycle of the Family,” Demography, II (1965), 190.Google Scholar
  30. 31.
    See Erwin S. Solomon, “Social Characteristics and Fertility,” Eugenics Quarterly, III (June, 1956), 101; Myer Greenberg, “The Reproductive Rate of the Families of Jewish Students at the University of Maryland,” Jewish Social Studies, X (July, 1948), 230.Google Scholar
  31. 33.
    Westoff, Potter, Sagi, and Mishler, op. cit., ; p. 185, Table 41.Google Scholar
  32. 34.
    Greenberg, op. cit.,, pp. 231–32.Google Scholar
  33. 35.
    Westoff, Potter, Sagi, and Mishler, op. cit., pp. 215–16.Google Scholar
  34. 36.
    Westoff, Potter, Sagi, and Sagi, op. cit., p. 115, Table 60.Google Scholar
  35. 37.
    Pascal K. Whelpton and Clyde V. Kiser, (eds.) Social and Psychological Factors Affecting Fertility, V (New York: Milbank Memorial Fund, 1958), V, 1331–41.Google Scholar
  36. 38.
    Charles F. Westoff, Robert G. Potter, Jr., and Philip C. Sagi, “Some Selected Findings of the Princeton Fertility Study: 1961,” Demography, I (1964), 134.Google Scholar
  37. 39.
    Nathan Goldberg, “Demographic Characterisctics of American Jews,” in Jacob Fried (ed.), Jews in the Modern World (New York: Twayne Publishers, 1962), II, 699–700.Google Scholar
  38. 40.
    Westoff, Potter, Sagi, and Mishler, op. cit., p. 80.Google Scholar
  39. 41.
    David Goldberg, “The Fertility of Two Generation Urbanites,” Population Studies, XII (March, 1959), 214–22; “Another Look at the Indianapolis Fertility Data,” Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly, XXXVIII (January, 1960), 23–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 42.
    Westoff, Potter, and Sagi, “Some Selected Findings…,” p. 134.Google Scholar
  41. 43.
    For a fuller discussion and presentation of data see Calvin Goldscheider, “Socio-economic Status and Jewish Fertility,” The Jewish Journal of Sociology, VII (December, 1965), 221–37.Google Scholar
  42. 44.
    Cf. Ronald Freedman, “American Studies of Family Planning and Fertility: A Review of Major Trends and Issues,” in Clyde V. Kiser (ed.), Research in Family Planning (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1962), pp. 220–21; Kurt B. Mayer, “Fertility Changes and Population Forecasts in the United States,” Social Research, XXVI (Autumn, 1959), 347-66.Google Scholar
  43. 45.
    Greenberg, op. cit., p. 233.Google Scholar
  44. 46.
    Ibid., p. 234.Google Scholar
  45. 47.
    Westoff, Potter, Sagi, and Mishler, op. cit., pp. 196–98.Google Scholar
  46. 48.
    For a more detailed discussion of ideological factors in Jewish fertility and the presentation of the data, see Calvin Goldscheider, “Ideological Factors in Jewish Fertility Differentials,” The Jewish Journal of Sociology, VII (June, 1965), 92–105.Google Scholar
  47. 49.
    Freedman, Whelpton, and Campbell, op. cit., p. 104; Whelpton, Campbell, and Patterson, op. cit., Pascal K. Whelpton, Arthur A. Campbell, and John E. Patterson, Fertility and Family Planning in the United States, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1966) pp. 72–73.Google Scholar
  48. 50.
    William Petersen, Population (New York: Macmillan Co., 1961), p. 223. See also Ralph Thomlinson, Population Dynamics (New York: Random House, 1965), p. 179. For a similar approach see Erich Rosenthal, “Jewish Fertility in the United States,” Eugenics Quarterly, VIII (December, 1961), 198–217.Google Scholar
  49. 51.
    United States Bureau of the Census, op. cit., p. 7, Table 3.Google Scholar
  50. 52.
    Freedman, Whelpton, and Smit, op. cit., Ronald Freedman, Pascal K. Whelpton, and Arthur Campbell, Family Planning, Sterility and Population Growth, (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1959) p. 608.Google Scholar
  51. 53.
    Ibid., Ronald Freedman, Pascal K. Whelpton, and Arthur Campbell, Family Planning, Sterility and Population Growth, (New York: McGraw-Hill p. 612. See Westoff, Potter, and Sagi, The Third Child, p. 227, Table 112, and Footnote 5, and Goldscheider, “Socioeconomic Status…,” pp. 221-37.Google Scholar
  52. 54.
    Freedman, Whelpton, and Campbell, op. cit., p. 287; Whelpton, Campbell, and Patterson, op. cit., Pascal K. Whelpton, Arthur A. Campbell, and John E. Patterson, Fertility and Family Planning in the United States, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1966) p. 73.Google Scholar
  53. 55.
    Cf. Nathan Goldberg, “The Jewish Population in the United States,” in Jewish People…, pp. 28-29; Nathan Goldberg, “Jewish Population in America,” Jewish Review, pp. 30–55; Charles F. Westoff, “The Social-Psychological Structure of Fertility,” International Population Conference (Vienna 1959), pp. 301–62.Google Scholar
  54. 56.
    Cited and discussed in “New Patterns in U.S. Fertility,” Population Bulletin, XX (September, 1964), 130; Whelpton, Campbell, and Patterson, op. cit., Ronald Freedman, Pascal K. Whelpton, and Arthur Campbell, Family Planning, Sterility and Population Growth, (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1959) p. 104; chapter viii.Google Scholar
  55. 57.
    United States Bureau of the Census, 1960 Census of the Population: Women by Number of Children Ever Born, PC (2)-3A, Table 25; Anders S. Lunde, “White—Non-White Fertility Differentials in the United States,” Health, Education and Welfare Indicators, September, 1965, p. 7.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Population Association of America 1967

Authors and Affiliations

  • Calvin Goldscheider
    • 1
  1. 1.University of CaliforniaBerkeley

Personalised recommendations