Estuaries

, Volume 24, Issue 5, pp 770–786 | Cite as

Seasonal and tidal monthly patterns of particulate matter dynamics in the Columbia River estuary

  • Annika M. V. Fain
  • David A. Jay
  • Doug J. Wilson
  • Phil M. Orton
  • Antonio M. Baptista
Article

Abstract

We investigated seasonal and tidal-monthly, suspended particulate matter (SPM) dynamics in the Columbia River estuary from May to December 1997 using acoustic backscatter (ABS) and velocity data from four long-term Acoustic Doppler Profiler (ADP) moorings in or near the estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM). ABS profiles were calibrated and converted to total SPM profiles using pumped SPM samples and optical backscatter (OBS) data obtained during three seasonal cruises. Four characteristic settling velocity (Ws) classes were defined from Owen Tube samples collected during the cruises. An inverse analysis, in the form of a non-negative least squares minimization, was used to determine the contribution of the four,Ws-classes to each, total SPM profile. The outputs from the inverse analyses were 6–8 mo time-series ofWs-specific SPM concentration and transport profiles at each mooring. The profiles extended from the free surface to 1.8–2.7 m from the bed, with 0.25–0.50 m resolution. These time series, along with Owen Tube results and disaggregated size data, were used to investigate SPM dynamics. Three non-dimensional parameters were defined to investigate how river flow and tidal forcing affect particle trapping: Rouse numberP (balance between vertical mixing and settling) trapping efficiencyE (ratio of maximum SPM concentration in the estuary to fluvial source concentration), and advection numberA (ratio of height of maximum SPM concentration to friction velocity). The most effective particle trapping (maximum values ofE) occurs on low-flow neap tides. The location of the ETM and the maximal trapping migrated seasonally in a manner consistent with the increase in salinity intrusion length after the spring freshet. Maximum advection (high values ofA) occurred during highly stratified neap tides.

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Copyright information

© Estuarine Research Federation 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Annika M. V. Fain
    • 1
  • David A. Jay
    • 2
  • Doug J. Wilson
    • 2
  • Phil M. Orton
    • 2
  • Antonio M. Baptista
    • 2
  1. 1.School of OceanographyUniversity of WashingtonSeattle
  2. 2.Environmental Science and EngineeringOregon Graduate InstituteBeaverton

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