, Volume 18, Issue 1, pp 285–314 | Cite as

Inputs, transformations, and transport of nitrogen and phosphorus in Chesapeake Bay and selected tributaries

  • W. R. Boynton
  • J. H. Garber
  • R. Summers
  • W. M. Kemp


In this paper we assemble and analyze quantitative annual input-export budgets for total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) for Chesapeake Bay and three of its tributary estuaries (Potomac, Patuxent, and Choptank rivers). The budgets include estimates of TN and TP sources (point, diffuse, and atmospheric), internal losses (burial in sediments, fisheries yields, and denitrification), storages in the water column and sediments, internal cycling rates (zooplankton excretion and net sediment-water flux), and net downstream exchange. Annual terrestrial and atmospheric inputs (average of 1985 and 1986 data) of TN and TP ranged from 4.3 g TN m−2 yr−1 to 29.3 g TN m−2 yr−1 and 0.32 g TP m−2 yr−1 to 2.42 g TP m−2 yr−1, respectively. These rates of TN and TP input represent 6-fold to 8-fold and 13-fold to 24-fold increases in loads to these systems since the precolonial period. A recent 11-yr record for the Susquehanna River indicates that annual loads of TN and TP have varied by about 2-fold and 4-fold, respectively. TN inputs increased and TP inputs decreased during the 11-yr period. The relative importance of nutrient sources varied among these estuaries: point sources of nutrients delivered about half the annual TN and TP load to the Patuxent and nearly 60% of TP inputs to the Choptank; diffuse sources contributed 60–70% of the TN and TP inputs to the mainstream Chesapeake and Potomac River. The direct deposition of atmospheric wet-fall to the surface waters of these estuaries represented 12% or less of annual TN and TP loads except in the Choptank River (37% of TN and 20% of TP). We found direct, although damped, relationships between annual rates of nutrient input, water-column and sediment nutrient stocks, and nutrient losses via burial in sediments and denitrification. Our budgets indicate that the annual mass balance of TN and TP is maintained by a net landward exchange of TP and, with one exception (Choptank River), a net seaward transport of TN. The budgets for all systems revealed that inorganic nutrients entering these estuaries from terrestrial and atmospheric sources are rapidly converted to particulate and organic forms. Discrepancies between our budgets and others in the literature were resolved by the inclusion of sediments derived from shoreline erosion. The greatest potential for errors in our budgets can be attributed to the absence of or uncertainties in estimates of atmospheric dry-fall, contributions of nutrients via groundwater, and the sedimentation rates used to calculate nutrient burial rates.


Total Nitrogen Denitrification Total Phosphorus Diffuse Source Atmospheric Input 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Aber, J. D., J. M. Melillo, K. J. Nadelhoffer, J. Pastor, andR. D. Boone. 1991. Factors controlling nitrogen cycling and nitrogen saturation in northern temperate forest ecosystems.Ecological Applications 1:303–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beulac, M. N. andK. H. Reckhow. 1982. An examination of land use nutrient export relationships.Water Resources Bulletin 18:1013–1023.Google Scholar
  3. Billen, G., M. Somville, E. De Becker, andP. Servais. 1985. A nitrogen budget of the Scheldt hydrographical region.Netherlands Journal of Sea Research 19:223–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blomqvist, S. 1991. Quantitative sampling of soft-bottom sediments: Problems and solutions.Marine Ecology Progress Series 72:295–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boicourt, W. C. 1992. Influences of circulation processes on dissolved oxygen in the Chesapeake Bay, p. 7–59.In D. E. Smith, M. Leffler, and G. Mackiernan (eds.), Oxygen Dynamics in the Chesapeake Bay—A Synthesis of Recent Results. Maryland Sea Grant, College Park, Maryland.Google Scholar
  6. Bormann, F. H., G. E. Likens, andJ. M. Mellillo. 1977. Nitrogen budget for an aggrading northern hardwood forest ecosystem.Science 196:981–983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boynton, W. R., J. H. Garber, W. M. Kemp, J. M. Barnes, L. L. Matteson, J. L. Watts, S. Stammerjohn, andF. M. Rohland. 1990. Ecosystem Processes Component. Maryland Chesapeake Bay Water Quality Monitoring Program. Interpretive Report, Level One No 7. Chesapeake Biological Laboratory (CBL), University of Maryland System, Solomons, Maryland. [UMCEES] CBL Ref. No. 90-062.Google Scholar
  8. Boynton, W. R. andW. M. Kemp. 1985. Nutrient regeneration and oxygen consumption by sediments along an estuarine salinity gradient.Marine Ecology Progress Series 23:45–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boynton, W. R., W. M. Kemp, J. M. Barnes, J. L. W. Cowan, S. E. Stammerjohn, L. L. Matteson, F. M. Rohland, M. Marvin, and J. H. Garber. 1991. Long-term characteristics and trends of benthic oxygen and nutrient fluxes in the Maryland portion of Chesapeake Bay, p. 339–354.In J. A. Mirhursky and A. Chaney (eds.), New Perspectives in the Chesapeake System: A Research and Management Partnership. Proceedings of a Conference. Chesapeake Research Concortium Publication No. 137. Solomons, Maryland.Google Scholar
  10. Boynton, W. R., W. M. Kemp, andC. W. Keefe. 1982. A comparative analysis of nutrients and other factors influencing estuarine phytoplankton production, p. 69–90.In V. S. Kennedy (ed.), Estuarine Comparisons. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  11. Boynton, W. R., L. Murray, W. M. Kemp, J. D. Hagy, and C. Stokes. 1992. Maryland Coastal Bays: An assessment of aquatic ecosystems, pollutant loadings and management options. Report to Maryland Department of the Environment, Baltimore, Maryland.Google Scholar
  12. Brush, G. 1984a. Stratigraphic evidence of eutrophication in an estuary.Water Resources Research 20:531–541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brush, G. 1984b. Patterns of recent sediment accumulation in Chesapeake Bay (Virginia-Maryland, U.S.A.) tributaries.Chemical Geology 44:227–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brush, G. S., E. A. Martin, R. S. DeFries, andC. A. Rice. 1982. Comparisons of210Pb and pollen methods for determining rates of estuarine sediment accumulation.Quaternary Research 18:196–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cerco, C. andT. Cole. 1992. Application of the Three-dimensional Eutrophication Model CE-QUAL-ICM to Chesapeake Bay. Draft Technical Report. United States Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi.Google Scholar
  16. Chao, S.-Y. andW. C. Boicourt. 1986. Onset of estuarine plumes.Journal of Physical Oceanography 16:2137–2149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cooper, L. H. N. andG. A. Steven. 1948. An experiment in marine fish cultivation.Nature (London) 161:631–633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cooper, S. R. andG. S. Brush. 1991. Long-term history of Chesapeake Bay anoxia.Science 254:992–996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cronin, W. B. and D. W. Pritchard. 1975. Additional Statistics on the Dimensions of the Chesapeake Bay and its Tributaries: Cross-section Widths and Segment Volumes Per Meter Depth. Special Report 42. Chesapeake Bay Institute, The Johns Hopkins University. Reference 75-3. Baltimore, Maryland.Google Scholar
  20. Crusius, J. andR. F. Anderson. 1991. Core compression and surficial sediment loss of lake sediments of high porosity caused by gravity coring.Limnology and Oceanography 36:1021–1030.Google Scholar
  21. Degobbis, D., M. Gilmartin, andN. Revelante. 1986. An annotated nitrogen budget calculation for the Northern Adriatic Sea.Marine Chemistry 20:159–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dibbs, J. E. 1988. The dynamics of Beryllium-7 in Chesapeake Bay. Ph.D. Dissertation, State University of New York. Binghamton, New York.Google Scholar
  23. Duffy, P. D., J. D. Schreiber, D. C. McClurkin, andL. L. McDowell. 1978. Aqueous- and sediment-phase phosphorus yields from five southern pine watersheds.Journal of Environmental Quality 7:45–50.Google Scholar
  24. Fisher, D., J. Ceraso, T. Mathew, andM. Oppenheimer. 1988. Polluted Coastal Waters: The Role of Acid Rain. Environmental Defense Fund. New York.Google Scholar
  25. Fisher, D. andM. Oppenheimer. 1991. Atmospheric nitrogen deposition and the Chesapeake Bay estuary.Ambio 20:102–108.Google Scholar
  26. Fisher, T. R., L. W. Harding, Jr.,D. W. Stanley, andL. G. Ward. 1988. Phytoplankton, nutrients, and turbidity in the Chesapeake, Delaware, and Hudson estuaries.Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 27:61–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fisher, T. R., A. B. Gustafson, K. G. Sellner, and R. B. Lacouture. 1994. Progress Report: August 1990-December 1993. Nutrient bioassays in Chesapeake Bay to assess nutrients limiting algal growth. Report to the Maryland Department of the Environment, Baltimore, Maryland.Google Scholar
  28. Holland, A. F., A. T. Shaughnessy, L. C. Scott, B. A. Dickens, J. Gerritsen, andJ. A. Ranasinghe. 1989. Long-term benthic monitoring and assessment program of the Maryland portion of Chesapeake Bay: Interpretive Report. CBRM-LTB/EST 89-2. Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis, Maryland.Google Scholar
  29. Howarth, R. W., R. Marino, andJ. Lane. 1988. Nitrogen fixation in freshwater, estuarine, and marine ecosystems. 1. Rates and importance.Limnology and Oceanography 33:669–687.Google Scholar
  30. Ibison, N. A., C. W. Frye, J. E. Frye, C. L. Hill, andN. H. Burger. 1990. Sediment and nutrient contribution of selected eroding banks of the Chesapeake Bay estuarine system. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Gloucester Point, Virginia.Google Scholar
  31. Jacobs, F. 1989. Macrozooplankton Component. Maryland Chesapeake Bay Water Quality Monitoring Program. Interpretive Report. Maryland Department of Environment, Baltimore, Maryland.Google Scholar
  32. Jaworski, N. A., P. M. Groffman, A. A. Keller, andJ. C. Prager. 1992. A watershed nitrogen and phosphorus balance: The upper Potomac River basin.Estuaries Vol 15:83–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jenkins, M. C. andW. M. Kemp. 1984. The coupling of nitrification and denitrification in two estuarine sediments.Limnology and Oceanography 29:609–619.Google Scholar
  34. Johnson, D. W. 1992. Nitrogen retention in forest soils.Journal of Environmental Quality 21:1–12.Google Scholar
  35. Kauppi, L. 1979. Effects of land use on the diffuse load of phosphorus and nitrogen.Nordic Hydrology 9:79–88.Google Scholar
  36. Keefe, C. W. 1994. The contribution of inorganic compounds to the particulate carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in suspended matter and surface sediments of Chesapeake Bay.Estuaries 17:122–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kemp, W. M. andW. R. Boynton. 1992. Benthic-pelagic interactions: Nutrients and oxygen dynamics, p. 149–209.In D. E. Smith, M. Leffler, and G. Mackiernan (eds.), Oxygen Dynamics in the Chesapeake Bay—A Synthesis of Recent Results. A Maryland Sea Grant Book, College Park, Maryland.Google Scholar
  38. Kemp, W. M., P. Sampou, J. Caffrey, M. Mayer, K. Henriksen, andW. R. Boynton. 1990. Ammonium recycling versus denitrification in Chesapeake Bay sediments.Limnology and Oceanography 35:1545–1563.Google Scholar
  39. Kemp, W. M., R. R. Twilley, J. C. Stevenson, W. R. Boynton, andJ. C. Means. 1983. The decline of submerged vascular plants in upper Chesapeake Bay: Summary of results concerning possible causes.Marine Technology Society Journal 17: 78–89.Google Scholar
  40. Kerhin, R. T., J. P. Halka, E. L. Hennessee, P. J. Blakeslee, D. V. Wells, N. Zoltan, andR. H. Cuthbertson. 1983. Physical Characteristics and Sediment Budget for Bottom Sediments in the Maryland Portion of Chesapeake Bay. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  41. Kjerfve, B. J. andJ. A. Proehl. 1979. Velocity variability in a cross-section of a well-mixed estuary.Journal of Marine Research 37:409–418.Google Scholar
  42. Larsson, U., R. Elmgren, andF. Wulff. 1985. Eutrophication and the Baltic Sea: Causes and consequences.Ambio 14:9–14.Google Scholar
  43. Legg, P. 1991. Summary of 1984–1990 Maryland point source loadings to Chesapeake Bay with projections from 1991–2000. Draft Report. Maryland Department of Environment, Baltimore Maryland.Google Scholar
  44. Lomax, K. M. andJ. C. Stevenson. 1982. Diffuse Source Loadings from Flat Coastal Plain Watersheds: Water Movement and Nutrient Budgets. Coastal Resources Division, Tidewater Administration. Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis, Maryland.Google Scholar
  45. Lugbill, J. 1990. Potomac River Basin Nutrient Inventory. The Metropolitan Council of Governments, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  46. Macknis, J. 1988. Point Source Atlas, Chesapeake Bay Program. United States Environmental Protection Agency. CBP/TRS 22/88. Annapolis, Maryland.Google Scholar
  47. Magnien, R. E., D. K. Austin andB. D. Michael. 1990. Chemical/Physical Properties component. Level I Data Report. December, 1990. Maryland Department of the Environment. Chesapeake Bay Water Quality Monitoring Program Baltimore, Maryland.Google Scholar
  48. Magnien, R. E., R. M. Summers, andK. G. Sellner. 1992. External nutrient sources, internal nutrient pools, and phytoplankton production in Chesapeake Bay.Estuaries 15:497–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Maryland Department of Economic and Employment Development. 1989. Maryland Statistical Abstract. Maryland Department of Economic and Employment Development, Baltimore, Maryland.Google Scholar
  50. Maryland Department of Environment. 1987. Monitoring for Environmental Actions. Maryland Chesapeake Bay Water Quality Monitoring Program. First Biennial Report. Baltimore, Maryland.Google Scholar
  51. Maryland Department of Natural Resources. 1989. Commercial fisheries statistics. Tidewater Administration, Annapolis, Maryland.Google Scholar
  52. Maxwell, C. andS. Mahn. 1987. The Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Precipitation Chemistry across Maryland in 1984. Volume I. Maryland Power Plant Research Program. Maryland Department of Natural Resources. Annapolis, Maryland.Google Scholar
  53. Meade, R. H. 1969. Landward transport of bottom sediments in estuaries of the Atlantic coastal plain.Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 39:222–234.Google Scholar
  54. Meybeck, M., D. Chapman, andR. Helmer. 1989. Global freshwater quality. WHO/UNEP Publication, Blackwell Ltd., Oxford, England.Google Scholar
  55. National Eutrophication Survey. 1974. Relationships between drainage area characteristics and non-point source nutrients in streams. Pacific Northwest Environmental Research Laboratory and USEPA, Corvallis, Oregon.Google Scholar
  56. National Marine Fisheries Service. 1991. Fishery Statistics of the United States, 1989. United States Department of Commerce, Silver Springs, Maryland.Google Scholar
  57. National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration/Environmental Protection Agency. 1989. Strategic Assessment of Near Coastal Waters, Susceptibility of East Coast Estuaries to Nutrient Discharges: Passamaquoddy Bay to Chesapeake Bay. Strategic Assessment Branch, National Ocean Survey/National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, Rockville, Maryland.Google Scholar
  58. National Research Council. 1990. Managing Troubled Waters: The Role of Marine Environmental Monitoring. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  59. Nevissi, A. E., G. J. Shott, andE. A. Crecelius. 1989. Comparison of two gravity coring devices for sedimentation rate measurement by210Pb dating techniques.Hydrobiologia 179: 261–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Nixon, S. W. 1987. Chesapeake Bay nutrient budgets—A reassessment.Biogeochemistry 4:77–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Nixon, S. W. 1990. Marine eutrophication: A growing international Problem.Ambio 19:101.Google Scholar
  62. Nixon, S. W., C. D. Hunt, and B. L. Nowicki. 1986a. The retention of nutrients (C, N, P), heavy metals (Mn, Cd, Pb, Cu), and petroleum hydrocarbons in Narragansett Bay, p. 99–122.In P. Lasserre and J. M. Martin (eds.), Biogeochemical Processes at the Land-Sea Boundary. Elsevier Oceanography Series, 43. New York.Google Scholar
  63. Nixon, S. W., C. A. Oviatt, J. Frithsen, andB. Sullivan. 1986b. Nutrients and the productivity of estuarine and coastal marine systems.Journal of the Limnological Society of South Africa 12:43–71.Google Scholar
  64. Nowicki, B. L. andC. A. Oviatt. 1990. Are estuaries traps for anthropogenic nutrients? Evidence from estuarine mesocosms.Marine Ecology Progress Series 66:131–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Officer, C. B., T. J. Smayda, andR. Mann. 1982. Benthic filter feeding: A natural eutrophication control.Marine Ecology Progress Series 9:203–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Officer, C. B., D. R. Lynch, G. R. Setlock, andG. R. Helz. 1984. Recent sedimentation rates in Chesapeake Bay, p. 131–157.In V. S. Kennedy (ed.), The Estuary as a Filter. Academic Press, Orlando, Florida.Google Scholar
  67. Perierls, B. L., N. F. Caraco, M. L. Pace, andJ. J. Cole. 1991. Human influence on river nitrogen.Nature 350:386–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Postma, H. andK. S. Dijkema. 1983. Hydrography of the Wadden Sea: Movements and properties of water and particulate matter, p. 2/1–2/75.In W. J. Wolff (ed.), Ecology of the Wadden Sea. A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam.Google Scholar
  69. Pritchard, D. W. 1967. Observations of circulation in coastal plain estuaries, p. 37–44.In G. Lauff (ed.), Estuaries. AAAS Publication No. 83., Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  70. Sanford, L. P. andW. C. Boicourt. 1990. Wind-forced salt intrusion into a tributary estuary.Journal of Geophysical Research 95:357–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Schreiber, J. D., P. D. Duffy, andD. C. McClurkin. 1976. Dissolved nutrient losses in storm runoff from five southern pine watersheds.Journal of Environmental Quality 5:201–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Settzinger, S. P., S. W. Nixon, andM. E. Pilson. 1984. The importance of denitrification and nitrous oxide production in the ecology and nitrogen dynamics of a coastal marine ecosystem.Limnology and Oceanography 29:73–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Seitzinger, S. P. 1988. Denitrification in freshwater and coastal marine ecosystem: Ecological and geochemical significance.Limnology and Oceanography 33:702–724.Google Scholar
  74. Seliger, H. H., J. A. Boggs, andW. H. Biggley. 1985. Catastrophic anoxia in the Chesapeake Bay in 1984.Science 228: 70–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Sellner, K. G., D. C. Brownlee, andS. G. Brownlee. 1989. Phytoplankton and Microzooplankton Component, 1989. Maryland Chesapeake Bay Water Quality Monitoring Program. The Academy of Natural Sciences, Benedict Estuarine Research Laboratory, Benedict, Maryland.Google Scholar
  76. Smith, R. A., R. B. Alexander, andM. G. Wolman. 1987. Water-quality trends in the nation's rivers.Science 235:1607–1615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Smith, S. V., W. J. Kimmerer, E. A. Laws, R. E. Brock, andT. W. Walsh. 1981. Kaneohe Bay sewage diversion experiment: Perspectives on ecosystem responses to nutritional pertubation.Pacific Science 35:279–395.Google Scholar
  78. Smullen, J. T., J. L. Taft, and J. Macknis. 1982. Nutrient and sediment loads to the tidal Chesapeake Bay system, p. 147–258.In United States Environmental Protection Agency, Chesapeake Bay Program. Technical Studies: A Synthesis. Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  79. Stammerjohn, S. E., E. Smith, W. R. Boynton, and W. M. Kemp. 1991. Potential impacts from marinas and boats in Baltimore Harbor. Chesapeake Research Consortium Publication Number 139. Solomons, Maryland.Google Scholar
  80. Staver, K. W. and R. B. Brinsfield. 1991. Groundwater discharge patterns in Maryland coastal plain agricultural systems, p. 593–603.In J. A. Mirhursky and A. Chaney (eds.), New Perspectives in the Chesapeake System: A Research and Management Partnership. Proceedings of a Conference. Chesapeake Research Concortium Publication No. 137. Solomons, Maryland.Google Scholar
  81. Summers, R. M. 1989. Point and non-point source nitrogen and phosphorus loading to the northern Chesapeake Bay. Maryland Department of the Environment, Water Management Administration, Chesapeake Bay Special Projects Program. Baltimore, Maryland.Google Scholar
  82. Summers, R., S. Preston, L. Zynjuk, and T. Cohn 1991. Water quality trend analysis at Maryland Chesapeake Bay river input monitoring stations, p. 371.In J. A. Mirhursky and A. Chaney (eds.), New Perspectives in the Chesapeake System: A Research and Management Partnership. Proceedings of a Conference. Chesapeake Research Concortium Publication No. 137. Solomons, Maryland.Google Scholar
  83. Twitley, R. R. andW. M. Kemp. 1987. Estimates of Sediment Denitrification and its Influence on the Fate of Nitrogen in Chesapeake Bay. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Chesapeake Bay Program, Annapolis, Maryland.Google Scholar
  84. United States Army Corps of Engineers. 1990. Chesapeake Bay Shoreline Erosion Study, Feasibility Report. United States Army Corps of Engineers, Baltimore, Maryland.Google Scholar
  85. United States Enviromental Protection Agency. 1976. Land Use-Water Quality Relationships. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  86. United States Environmental Protection Agency. 1982. Chesapeake Bay Program, Technical Studies: A Synthesis. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  87. United States Environmental Protection Agency. 1983. Chesapeake Bay Program, Chesapeake Bay: A Framework for Action. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
  88. Uttormark, P. D., J. D. Chapin, andK. M. Green. 1974. Estimating nutrient loading of lakes from non-point sources. Water Resources Center, University of Wisconsin. Madison, Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  89. Vitousek, P. M., J. R. Gosz, C. C. Grier, J. M. Melillo, W. A. Reiners, andR. L. Todd. 1979. Nitrate losses from disturbed ecosystems.Science 204:469–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Walsh, J. J., G. T. Rowe, R. L. Iverson, andC. P. McRoy. 1981. Biological export of shelf carbon is a sink of the global CO2 cycle.Nature 291:196–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Watson, V. J., O. L. Loucks, J. Mitchell, andN. L. Clesceri. 1979. Impact of development on watershed hydrologic and nutrient budgets.Journal of Water Pollution Control 51:2876–2885.Google Scholar
  92. Wies, R. A. andR. J. O'Melia. 1989. Acid rain deposition monitoring. Air Management Division. Maryland Department of the Environment. Baltimore, Maryland.Google Scholar
  93. Weisberg, R. H. andW. Sturges. 1976. Velocity observations in the west passage of Narragansett Bay: A partially mixed estuary.Journal of Physical Oceanography 6:345–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Wong, K. C. andR. W. Garvine. 1984. Observations of windinduced, subtidal variability in the Delaware Estuary.Journal of Geophysical Research 89:10,589–10,597.Google Scholar
  95. Wulff, F., A. Stigerbrandt, andL. Rahm 1990. Nutrient dynamics of the Baltic.Ambio 14:126–133.Google Scholar
  96. Yarbo, L. A., P. R. Carlson, T. R. Fisher, J. P. Chanton, andW. M. Kemp. 1983. A sediment budget for the Choptank River estuary in Maryland, U.S.A..Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 17:555–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Estuarine Research Federation 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. R. Boynton
    • 1
  • J. H. Garber
    • 2
  • R. Summers
    • 3
  • W. M. Kemp
    • 4
  1. 1.Center for Environmental and Estuarine Studies Chesapeake Biological LaboratoryUniversity of Maryland SystemSolomons
  2. 2.Narragansett LaboratoryUnited States Environmental Protection AgencyNarragansett
  3. 3.Chesapeake Bay Special ProjectsMaryland Department of the EnvironmentBaltimore
  4. 4.Center for Environmental and Estuarine Studies Horn Point Environmental LaboratoryUniversity of Maryland SystemCambridge

Personalised recommendations