Prionotus carolinus and Prionotus evolans were collected from many locations within Long Island Sound in 1971–1973, and in 1976–1977. Data from earlier collections in Block Island Sound (1943–1945) were also included. A total of 1751 specimens, 960 P. carolinus and 791 P. evolans was examined within these two time periods.
Both species entered the Sound in April and spawned during June and July. P. evolans appeared to spawn slightly earlier in summer than P. carolinus. Adults began to leave the Sound after spawning and were usually absent after November. Young-of-the-year were taken regularly from August to November and, occasionally in water over 20 m deep, into February when the bottom water temperature was 1.4°C. At the end of the first growing seasons both species exhibited large variations in standard lengths.
Back-calculations from scale annuli measurements indicated that linear growth rates during the juvenile years were similar in both species. However, P. evolans was considerably heavier than P. carolinus. During adulthood P. evolans was not only longer and heavier than P. carolinus, but lived longer. Growth rates are described by the following equations: P. carolinus Lt+1=9.60+0.68 (Lt), and p. evolans Lt+1=7.70+0.80 (Lt).
Both species were opportunistic feeders, and crustaceans were clearly the dominant group of prey. Young-of-the-year, between 3–6 cm, ate copepods. As they grew they ate larger prey, such as Neomysis americana, Diastylis quadrispinosus, various species of amphipods of small sizes, and juvenile Crangon septemspinosus. Older fish ate larger sizes of these same prey, a number of species of crabs, juvenile Homarus americanus, and Squilla empusa. Occasionally they ate polychaetes, molluscs, and juvenile fish.
Partitioning of the resources of Long Island Sound by these two species appeared to be by prey size. P. evolans ate prey that, on the average, were slightly larger than those eaten by P. carolinus. Furthermore, P. evolans ate a greater amount of nektonic species than P. carolinus, which appeared to prefer benthonic invertebrates.