Estuaries

, Volume 3, Issue 2, pp 142–147 | Cite as

Rainfall input of toxaphene to a South Carolina estuary

  • Howard W. Harder
  • Eric C. Christensen
  • Janis R. Matthews
  • Terry F. Bidleman
Article

Abstract

Toxaphene concentrations in rainfall over a South Carolina salt marsh were monitored from 1976–1978. This insecticide is toxic to some organisms in the low μg/kg range and causes sublethal effects in the very low ng/kg range. Rainfall was sampled by both continuously exposed collectors and by collectors which were exposed only during actual precipitation. Toxaphene concentrations in individual rainstorms showed a high day-to-day variation, and in general were 10–100 times higher than PCB and DDT levels. Washout ratios for toxaphene were higher than those reported for other chlorinated hydrocarbons, but lower than those of trace metals. During and immediately following the summer use season, toxaphene levels in rain exceeded by several times those concentrations reported to produce bone damage to young fish in laboratory experiments. The estimated aerial input of toxaphene to the 26 km2 estuary was 1.2 kg over a 4-month period. Most of this input appeared to be due to rainfall rather than dry deposition. *** DIRECT SUPPORT *** A01BY010 00007

Keywords

Brook Trout Chlordane Silicic Acid Column Rain Sample Rainfall Input 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Estuarine Research Federation 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Howard W. Harder
    • 1
    • 2
  • Eric C. Christensen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Janis R. Matthews
    • 1
    • 2
  • Terry F. Bidleman
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Belle W. Baruch Institute for Marine Biology and Coastal ResearchUniversity of South CarolinaColumbia
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryUniversity of South CarolinaColumbia

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