Sports Medicine

, Volume 41, Issue 10, pp 861–882 | Cite as

Physiological and Nutritional Aspects of Post-Exercise Recovery

Specific Recommendations for Female Athletes
  • Christophe HausswirthEmail author
  • Yann Le Meur
Review Article


Gender-based differences in the physiological response to exercise have been studied extensively for the last four decades, and yet the study of post-exercise, gender-specific recovery has only been developing in more recent years. This review of the literature aims to present the current state of knowledge in this field, focusing on some of the most pertinent aspects of physiological recovery in female athletes and how metabolic, thermoregulatory, or inflammation and repair processes may differ from those observed in male athletes.

Scientific investigations on the effect of gender on substrate utilization during exercise have yielded conflicting results. Factors contributing to the lack of agreement between studies include differences in subject dietary or training status, exercise intensity or duration, as well as the variations in ovarian hormone concentrations between different menstrual cycle phases in female subjects, as all are known to affect substrate metabolism during submaximal exercise. If greater fatty acid mobilization occurs in females during prolonged exercise compared with males, the inverse is observed during the recovery phase. This could explain why, despite mobilizing lipids to a greater extent than males during exercise, females lose less fat mass than their male counterparts over the course of a physical training programme.

Where nutritional strategies are concerned, no difference appears between males and females in their capacity to replenish glycogen stores; optimal timing for carbohydrate intake does not differ between genders, and athletes must consume carbohydrates as soon as possible after exercise in order to maximize glycogen store repletion. While lipid intake should be limited in the immediate post-exercise period in order to favour carbohydrate and protein intake, in the scope of the athlete’s general diet, lipid intake should be maintained at an adequate level (30%). This is particularly important for females specializing in long-duration events. With protein balance, it has been shown that a negative nitrogen balance is more often observed in female athletes than in male athletes. It is therefore especially important to ensure that this remains the case during periods of caloric restriction, especially when working with female athletes showing a tendency to limit their caloric intake on a daily basis.

In the post-exercise period, females display lower thermolytic capacities than males. Therefore, the use of cooling recovery methods following exercise, such as cold water immersion or the use of a cooling vest, appear particularly beneficial for female athletes. In addition, a greater decrease in arterial blood pressure is observed after exercise in females than in males. Given that the return to homeostasis after a brief intense exercise appears linked to maintaining good venous return, it is conceivable that female athletes would find a greater advantage to active recovery modes than males.

This article reviews some of the major gender differences in the metabolic, inflammatory and thermoregulatory response to exercise and its subsequent recovery. Particular attention is given to the identification of which recovery strategies may be the most pertinent to the design of training programmes for athletic females, in order to optimize the physiological adaptations sought for improving performance and maintaining health.


Muscle Damage Female Athlete Exercise Bout Prolonged Exercise Strength Loss 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



No sources of funding were used to assist in the preparation of this review. The authors have no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this review. The authors would like to thank Karine Schaal (IRMES) for her English editing assistance and the relevant advice she brought to this review.


  1. 1.
    Tarnopolsky MA. Gender differences in metabolism; nutrition and supplements. J Sci Med Sport 2000; 3 (3): 287–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Clarkson PM, Hubal MJ. Are women less susceptible to exercise-induced muscle damage? Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2001; 4 (6): 527–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shephard RJ. Exercise and training in women: part I. Influence of gender on exercise and training responses Can J Appl Physiol 2000; 25 (1): 19–34Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bonen A, Haynes FJ, Watson-Wright W, et al. Effects of menstrual cycle on metabolic responses to exercise. J Appl Physiol 1983; 55 (5): 1506–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Guezennec CY. Oxidation rates, complex carbohydrates and exercise: practical recommendations. Sports Med 1995; 19 (6): 365–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Abbiss CR, Laursen PB. Models to explain fatigue during prolonged endurance cycling. Sports Med 2005; 35 (10): 865–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Snyder AC. Overtraining and glycogen depletion hypothesis. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998; 30 (7): 1146–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Speechly DP, Taylor SR, Rogers GG. Differences in ultraendurance exercise in performance-matched male and female runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1996; 28 (3): 359–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bam J, Noakes TD, Juritz J, et al. Could women outrun men in ultramarathon races? Med Sci Sports Exerc 1997; 29 (2): 244–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Froberg K, Pedersen PK. Sex differences in endurance capacity and metabolic response to prolonged, heavy exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1984; 52 (4): 446–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Friedmann B, Kindermann W. Energy metabolism and regulatory hormones in women and men during endurance exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1989; 59 (1-2): 1–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Costill DL, Fink WJ, Getchell LH, et al. Lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle of endurance-trained males and females. J Appl Physiol 1979; 47 (4): 787–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tarnopolsky MA, Bosman M, Macdonald JR, et al. Postexercise protein-carbohydrate and carbohydrate supplements increase muscle glycogen in men and women. J Appl Physiol 1997; 83 (6): 1877–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tarnopolsky LJ, MacDougall JD, Atkinson SA, et al. Gender differences in substrate for endurance exercise. J Appl Physiol 1990; 68 (1): 302–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ruby BC, Robergs RA, Waters DL, et al. Effects of estradiol on substrate turnover during exercise in amenorrheic females. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1997; 29 (9): 1160–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lamont LS. Gender differences in amino acid use during endurance exercise. Nutr Rev 2005; 63 (12Pt1): 419–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    D’Eon TM, Sharoff C, Chipkin SR, et al. Regulation of exercise carbohydrate metabolism by estrogen and progesterone in women. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2002; 283 (5): E1046–55Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ruby BC, Coggan AR, Zderic TW. Gender differences in glucose kinetics and substrate oxidation during exercise near the lactate threshold. J Appl Physiol 2002; 92 (3): 1125–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ettinger SM, Silber DH, Gray KS, et al. Effects of the ovarian cycle on sympathetic neural outflow during static exercise. J Appl Physiol 1998; 85 (6): 2075–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Horton TJ, Pagliassotti MJ, Hobbs K, et al. Fuel metabolism in men and women during and after long-duration exercise. J Appl Physiol 1998; 85 (5): 1823–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Roepstorff C, Steffensen CH, Madsen M, et al. Gender differences in substrate utilization during submaximal exercise in endurance-trained subjects. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2002; 282 (2): E435–47Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ansonoff MA, Etgen AM. Evidence that oestradiol attenuates beta-adrenoceptor function in the hypothalamus of female rats by altering receptor phosphorylation and sequestration. J Neuroendocrinol 2000; 12 (11): 1060–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Vogt M, Puntschart A, Howald H, et al. Effects of dietary fat on muscle substrates, metabolism, and performance in athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2003; 35 (6): 952–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Steffensen CH, Roepstorff C, Madsen M, et al. Myocellular triacylglycerol breakdown in females but not in males during exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2002; 282 (3): E634–42Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Tarnopolsky MA, Zawada C, Richmond LB, et al. Gender differences in carbohydrate loading are related to energy intake. J Appl Physiol 2001; 91 (1): 225–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mittendorfer B, Horowitz JF, Klein S. Gender differences in lipid and glucose kinetics during short-term fasting. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2001; 281 (6): E1333–9Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tarnopolsky MA. Sex differences in exercise metabolism and the role of 17-beta estradiol. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2008; 40 (4): 648–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Costill DL, Daniels J, Evans W, et al. Skeletal muscle enzymes and fiber composition in male and female track athletes. J Appl Physiol 1976; 40 (2): 149–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Blatchford FK, Knowlton RG, Schneider DA. Plasma ffa responses to prolonged walking in untrained men and women. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1985; 53 (4): 343–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Phillips SM, Atkinson SA, Tarnopolsky MA, et al. Gender differences in leucine kinetics and nitrogen balance in endurance athletes. J Appl Physiol 1993; 75 (5): 2134–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Melanson EL, Sharp TA, Seagle HM, et al. Effect of exercise intensity on 24-h energy expenditure and nutrient oxidation. J Appl Physiol 2002; 92 (3): 1045–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Riddell MC, Partington SL, Stupka N, et al. Substrate utilization during exercise performed with and without glucose ingestion in female and male endurance trained athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2003; 13 (4): 407–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zehnder M, Ith M, Kreis R, et al. Gender-specific usage of intramyocellular lipids and glycogen during exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2005; 37 (9): 1517–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    McKenzie S, Phillips SM, Carter SL, et al. Endurance exercise training attenuates leucine oxidation and bcoad activation during exercise in humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2000; 278 (4): E580–7Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Boisseau N. Gender differences in metabolism during exercise and recovery. Sci Sports 2004; 19: 220–7Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Oosthuyse T, Bosch AN. The effect of the menstrual cycle on exercise metabolism: implications for exercise performance in eumenorrhoeic women. Sports Med 2010; 40 (3): 207–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hamadeh MJ, Devries MC, Tarnopolsky MA. Estrogen supplementation reduces whole body leucine and carbohydrate oxidation and increases lipid oxidation in men during endurance exercise. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005; 90 (6): 3592–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Devries MC, Hamadeh MJ, Phillips SM, et al. Menstrual cycle phase and sex influence muscle glycogen utilization and glucose turnover during moderate-intensity endurance exercise. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2006; 291 (4): R1120–8Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Campbell SE, Angus DJ, Febbraio MA. Glucose kinetics and exercise performance during phases of the menstrual cycle: effect of glucose ingestion. AmJ Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2001; 281 (4): E817–25Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    McLay RT, Thomson CD, Williams SM, et al. Carbohydrate loading and female endurance athletes: effect of menstrual-cycle phase. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2007; 17 (2): 189–205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Lamont LS, Lemon PW, Bruot BC. Menstrual cycle and exercise effects on protein catabolism. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1987; 19 (2): 106–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kriengsinyos W, Wykes LJ, Goonewardene LA, et al. Phase of menstrual cycle affects lysine requirement in healthy women. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2004; 287 (3): E489–96Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bailey SP, Zacher CM, Mittleman KD. Effect of menstrual cycle phase on carbohydrate supplementation during prolonged exercise to fatigue. J Appl Physiol 2000; 88 (2): 690–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Casazza GA, Jacobs KA, Suh S, et al. Menstrual cycle phase and oral contraceptive effects on triglyceride mobilization during exercise. J Appl Physiol 2004; 97 (1): 302–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kanaley JA, Boileau RA, Bahr JA, et al. Substrate oxidation and gh responses to exercise are independent of menstrual phase and status. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1992; 24 (8): 873–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Henderson GC, Fattor JA, Horning MA, et al. Lipolysis and fatty acid metabolism in men and women during the postexercise recovery period. J Physiol 2007; 584 (Pt3): 963–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Donnelly JE, Smith BK. Is exercise effective for weight loss with ad libitum diet? Energy balance, compensation, and gender differences. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2005; 33 (4): 169–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Phelain JF, Reinke E, Harris MA, et al. Postexercise energy expenditure and substrate oxidation in young women resulting from exercise bouts of different intensity. J Am Coll Nutr 1997; 16 (2): 140–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kuo CC, Fattor JA, Henderson GC, et al. Lipid oxidation in fit young adults during postexercise recovery. J Appl Physiol 2005; 99 (1): 349–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Henderson GC, Fattor JA, Horning MA, et al. Glucoregulation is more precise in women than in men during postexercise recovery. Am J Clin Nutr 2008; 87 (6): 1686–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kuipers H, Saris WH, Brouns F, et al. Glycogen synthesis during exercise and rest with carbohydrate feeding in males and females. Int J Sports Med 1989; 10 Suppl.1: S63–7Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ivy JL, Goforth HWJ, Damon BM, et al. Early postexercise muscle glycogen recovery is enhanced with a carbohydrate-protein supplement. J Appl Physiol 2002; 93 (4): 1337–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Ivy JL, Lee MC, Brozinick JTJ, et al. Muscle glycogen storage after different amounts of carbohydrate ingestion. J Appl Physiol 1988; 65 (5): 2018–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Roy BD, Luttmer K, Bosman MJ, et al. The influence of post-exercise macronutrient intake on energy balance and protein metabolism in active females participating in endurance training. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2002; 12 (2): 172–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Berardi JM, Price TB, Noreen EE, et al. Postexercise muscle glycogen recovery enhanced with a carbohydrateprotein supplement. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2006; 38 (6): 1106–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Burke LM, Kiens B, Ivy JL. Carbohydrates and fat for training and recovery. J Sports Sci 2004; 22 (1): 15–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Burke LM, Collier GR, Hargreaves M. Muscle glycogen storage after prolonged exercise: effect of the glycemic index of carbohydrate feedings. J Appl Physiol 1993; 75 (2): 1019–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Manore MM. Nutritional needs of the female athlete. Clin Sports Med 1999; 18 (3): 549–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Manore MM. Dietary recommendations and athletic menstrual dysfunction. Sports Med 2002; 32 (14): 887–901PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Larson-Meyer DE, Newcomer BR, Hunter GR. Influence of endurance running and recovery diet on intramyocellular lipid content in women: a 1hNMR study. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2002; 282 (1): E95–106Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Larson-Meyer DE, Borkhsenious ON, Gullett JC, et al. Effect of dietary fat on serum and intramyocellular lipids and running performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2008; 40 (5): 892–902PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Beals KA, Manore MM. Nutritional status of female athletes with subclinical eating disorders. J Am Diet Assoc 1998; 98 (4): 419–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Muoio DM, Leddy JJ, Horvath PJ, et al. Effect of dietary fat on metabolic adjustments to maximal VO2 and endurance in runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1994; 26 (1): 81–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Leddy J, Horvath P, Rowland J, et al. Effect of a high or a low fat diet on cardiovascular risk factors in male and female runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1997; 29 (1): 17–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Pettersson U, Stålnacke B, Ahlénius G, et al. Low bone mass density at multiple skeletal sites, including the appendicular skeleton in amenorrheic runners. Calcif Tissue Int 1999; 64 (2): 117–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Howat PM, Carbo ML, Mills GQ, et al. The influence of diet, body fat,menstrual cycling, and activity upon the bone density of females. J Am Diet Assoc 1989; 89 (9): 1305–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Hoffman J, Falvo M. Protein: which is best? J Sport Sci Med 2004; 3: 118–30Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Akabas SR, Dolins KR. Micronutrient requirements of physically active women: what can we learn from iron? Am J Clin Nutr 2005; 81 (5): 1246S–51SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Volek JS, Forsythe CE, Kraemer WJ. Nutritional aspects of women strength athletes. Br J Sports Med 2006; 40 (9): 742–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Manore MM. Exercise and the institute of medicine recommendations for nutrition. Curr Sports Med Rep 2005; 4 (4): 193–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Allen DG. Fatigue in working muscles. J Appl Physiol 2009; 106 (2): 358–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Ahmaidi S, Granier P, Taoutaou Z, et al. Effects of active recovery on plasma lactate and anaerobic power following repeated intensive exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1996; 28 (4): 450–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Esbjörnsson-Liljedahl M, Bodin K, Jansson E. Smaller muscle atp reduction in women than in men by repeated bouts of sprint exercise. J Appl Physiol 2002; 93 (3): 1075–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Ruby BC, Robergs RA. Gender differences in substrate utilisation during exercise. Sports Med 1994; 17 (6): 393–410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Jacobs I, Tesch PA, Bar-Or O, et al. Lactate in human skeletal muscle after 10 and 30 s of supramaximal exercise. J Appl Physiol 1983; 55 (2): 365–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Russ DW, Lanza IR, Rothman D, et al. Sex differences in glycolysis during brief, intense isometric contractions. Muscle Nerve 2005; 32 (5): 647–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Coggan AR, Spina RJ, King DS, et al. Skeletal muscle adaptations to endurance training in 60- to 70-yr-old men and women. J Appl Physiol 1992; 72 (5): 1780–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Wüst RCI, Morse CI, de Haan A, et al. Sex differences in contractile properties and fatigue resistance of human skeletal muscle. Exp Physiol 2008; 93 (7): 843–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Burke LM. Nutritional practices of male and female endurance cyclists. Sports Med 2001; 31 (7): 521–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Deutz RC, Benardot D, Martin DE, et al. Relationship between energy deficits and body composition in elite female gymnasts and runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000; 32 (3): 659–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Hinton PS, Sanford TC, Davidson MM, et al. Nutrient intakes and dietary behaviors of male and female collegiate athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2004; 14 (4): 389–405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Loucks AB. Energy availability, not body fatness, regulates reproductive function in women. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2003; 31 (3): 144–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Nutrition and athletic performance: position of the American Dietetic Association, Dieteticians of Canada and the American College of Sports Medicine. J Am Diet Assoc 2000; 100 (12): 1543–56 [online]. Available from URL: [Accessed 2011 Aug 11]
  84. 84.
    Volek JS, Sharman MJ. Diet and hormonal responses: potential impact on body composition. In: Kramer WJ, Rogol AD, editors. The endocrine system in sports and exercise. Malden (MA): Blackwell Publishing, 2005: 426–43Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Shumate JB, Brooke MH, Carroll JE, et al. Increased serum creatine kinase after exercise: a sex-linked phenomenon. Neurology 1979; 29 (6): 902–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Apple FS, Rogers MA, Casal DC, et al. Skeletal muscle creatine kinase mb alterations in women marathon runners. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1987; 56 (1): 49–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Janssen GM, Scholte HR, Vaandrager-Verduin MH et al. Muscle carnitine level in endurance training and running a marathon. Int J Sports Med 1989; 10 ( Suppl.3): S153–5Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Nieman DC, Henson DA, Smith LL, et al. Cytokine changes after a marathon race. J Appl Physiol 2001; 91 (1): 109–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Borsa PA, Sauers EL. The importance of gender on myokinetic deficits before and after microinjury. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000; 32 (5): 891–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Rinard J, Clarkson PM, Smith LL, et al. Response of males and females to high-force eccentric exercise. J Sports Sci 2000; 18 (4): 229–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Häkkinen K. Neuromuscular fatigue and recovery in male and female athletes during heavy resistance exercise. Int J Sports Med 1993; 14 (2): 53–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Linnamo V, Häkkinen K, Komi PV. Neuromuscular fatigue and recovery in maximal compared to explosive strength loading. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1998; 77 (1-2): 176–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Sayers SP, Clarkson PM. Force recovery after eccentric exercise in males and females. Eur J Appl Physiol 2001; 84 (1-2): 122–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Sewright KA, Hubal MJ, Kearns A, et al. Sex differences in response to maximal eccentric exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2008; 40 (2): 242–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Tiidus PM, Holden D, Bombardier E, et al. Estrogen effect on post-exercise skeletal muscle neutrophil infiltration and calpain activity. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2001; 79 (5): 400–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Enns DL, Tiidus PM. The influence of estrogen on skeletal muscle: sex matters. Sports Med 2010; 40 (1): 41–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Stupka N, Tiidus PM. Effects of ovariectomy and estrogen on ischemia-reperfusion injury in hindlimbs of female rats. J Appl Physiol 2001; 91 (4): 1828–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    MacIntyre DL, Reid WD, Lyster DM, et al. Different effects of strenuous eccentric exercise on the accumulation of neutrophils in muscle in women and men. Eur J Appl Physiol 2000; 81 (1-2): 47–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Stupka N, Lowther S, Chorneyko K, et al. Gender differences in muscle inflammation after eccentric exercise. J Appl Physiol 2000; 89 (6): 2325–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Tiidus PM, Deller M, Bombardier E, et al. Estrogen supplementation failed to attenuate biochemical indices of neutrophil infiltration or damage in rat skeletal muscles following ischemia. Biol Res 2005; 38 (2-3): 213–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Peake J, Nosaka K, Suzuki K. Characterization of inflammatory responses to eccentric exercise in humans. Exerc Immunol Rev 2005; 11: 64–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Enwemeka CS, Allen C, Avila P, et al. Soft tissue thermodynamics before, during, and after cold pack therapy. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2002; 34 (1): 45–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Schaser K, Stover JF, Melcher I, et al. Local cooling restores microcirculatory hemodynamics after closed softtissue trauma in rats. J Trauma 2006; 61 (3): 642–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Merrick MA, Rankin JM, Andres FA, et al. A preliminary examination of cryotherapy and secondary injury in skeletal muscle. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999; 31 (11): 1516–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Nattiv A. Stress fractures and bone health in track and field athletes. J Sci Med Sport 2000; 3 (3): 268–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Weitzmann MN, Pacifici R. Estrogen deficiency and bone loss: an inflammatory tale. J Clin Invest 2006; 116 (5): 1186–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Kameda T, Mano H, Yuasa T, et al. Estrogen inhibits bone resorption by directly inducing apoptosis of the boneresorbing osteoclasts. J Exp Med 1997; 186 (4): 489–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Kopp-Woodroffe SA, Manore MM, Dueck CA, et al. Energy and nutrient status of amenorrheic athletes participating in a diet and exercise training intervention program. Int J Sport Nutr 1999; 9 (1): 70–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Josse AR, Tang JE, Tarnopolsky MA, et al. Body composition and strength changes in women with milk and resistance exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2010; 42 (6): 1122–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Laughlin GA, Yen SS. Nutritional and endocrinemetabolic aberrations in amenorrheic athletes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996; 81 (12): 4301–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    De Souza MJ, Williams NI. Beyond hypoestrogenism in amenorrheic athletes: energy deficiency as a contributing factor for bone loss. Curr Sports Med Rep 2005; 4 (1): 38–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Marcus R, Cann C, Madvig P, et al. Menstrual function and bone mass in elite women distance runners. endocrine and metabolic features Ann Intern Med 1985; 102 (2): 158–63Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Grinspoon S, Miller K, Coyle C, et al. Severity of osteopenia in estrogen-deficient women with anorexia nervosa and hypothalamic amenorrhea. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999; 84 (6): 2049–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Eastell R. Role of oestrogen in the regulation of bone turnover at the menarche. J Endocrinol 2005; 185 (2): 223–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Grant WB, Holick MF. Benefits and requirements of vitamin d for optimal health: a review. Altern Med Rev 2005; 10 (2): 94–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Heyman E, DE Geus B, Mertens I, et al. Effects of four recovery methods on repeated maximal rock climbing performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2009; 41 (6): 1303–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Watts PB, Daggett M, Gallagher P, et al. Metabolic response during sport rock climbing and the effects of active versus passive recovery. Int J Sports Med 2000; 21 (3): 185–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Yoshida T, Watari H, Tagawa K. Effects of active and passive recoveries on splitting of the inorganic phosphate peak determined by 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. NMR Biomed 1996; 9: 13–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Fairchild TJ, Armstrong AA, Rao A, et al. Glycogen synthesis in muscle fibers during active recovery from intense exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2003; 35 (4): 595–602PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Carter S, McKenzie S, Mourtzakis M, et al. Short-term 17beta-estradiol decreases glucose r(a) but not whole body metabolism during endurance exercise. J Appl Physiol 2001; 90 (1): 139–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Takahashi T, Miyamoto Y. Influence of light physical activity on cardiac responses during recovery from exercise in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol 1998; 77: 1137–44Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Jakeman JR, Byrne C, Eston RG. Lower limb compression garment improves recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage in young, active females. Eur J Appl Physiol 2010; 109 (6): 1137–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Morton RH. Contrast water immersion hastens plasma lactate decrease after intense anaerobic exercise. J Sci Med Sport 2007; 10 (6): 467–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Armstrong L, Casa D, Millard-Stafford M, et al. Exertional heat illness during training and competition. American College of Sports Medicine position stand Med Sci Sports Exerc 2007; 39: 556–72Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Maughan R, Shirreffs S. Exercise in the heat: challenges and opportunities. J Sports Sci 2004; 22 (10): 917–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Kaciuba-Uscilko H, Grucza R. Gender differences in thermoregulation. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2001; 4 (6): 533–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Bar-Or O, Lundegren HM, Buskirk ER. Heat tolerance of exercising obese and lean women. J Appl Physiol 1969; 26 (4): 403–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Nunneley SA. Physiological responses of women to thermal stress: a review. Med Sci Sports 1978; 10 (4): 250–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Saat M, Tochihara Y, Hashiguchi N, et al. Effects of exercise in the heat on thermoregulation of Japanese and Malaysian males. J Physiol Anthropol Appl Human Sci 2005; 24 (4): 267–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Grucza R. Efficiency of thermoregulatory system in man under endogenous and exogenous heat loads. Acta Physiol Pol 1990; 41 (4-6): 123–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Broad EM, Burke LM, Cox GR, et al. Body weight changes and voluntary fluid intakes during training and competition sessions in team sports. Int J Sport Nutr 1996; 6 (3): 307–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Shirreffs SM, Sawka MN, Stone M. Water and electrolyte needs for football training and match-play. J Sports Sci 2006; 24 (7): 699–707PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Maughan RJ, Shirreffs SM. Recovery from prolonged exercise: restoration of water and electrolyte balance. J Sports Sci 1997; 15 (3): 297–303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Kenny GP, Jay O. Sex differences in postexercise esophageal and muscle tissue temperature response. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2007; 292 (4): R1632–40Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Kenny GP, Murrin JE, Journeay WS, et al. Differences in the postexercise threshold for cutaneous active vasodilation between men and women. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2006; 290 (1): R172–9Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Hessemer V, Brück K. Influence of menstrual cycle on shivering, skin blood flow, and sweating responses measured at night. J Appl Physiol 1985; 59 (6): 1902–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Pivarnik JM, Marichal CJ, Spillman T, et al. Menstrual cycle phase affects temperature regulation during endurance exercise. J Appl Physiol 1992; 72 (2): 543–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Marsh SA, Jenkins DG. Physiological responses to the menstrual cycle: implications for the development of heat illness in female athletes. Sports Med 2002; 32 (10): 601–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Vaile J, Halson S, Gill N, et al. Effect of cold water immersion on repeat cycling performance and thermoregulation in the heat. J Sports Sci 2008; 26 (5): 431–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Halson SL, Quod MJ, Martin DT, et al. Physiological responses to cold water immersion following cycling in the heat. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2008; 3 (3): 331–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Duffield R. Cooling interventions for the protection and recovery of exercise performance from exercise-induced heat stress. Med Sport Sci 2008; 53: 89–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Wendt D, van Loon LJC, Lichtenbelt WDVM. Thermoregulation during exercise in the heat: strategies for maintaining health and performance. Sports Med 2007; 37 (8): 669–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Martin PG, Marino FE, Rattey J, et al. Reduced voluntary activation of human skeletal muscle during shortening and lengthening contractions in whole body hyperthermia. Exp Physiol 2005; 90 (2): 225–36PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis Data Information BV 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Department-11National Institute of Sport, for Expertise and Performance (INSEP)ParisFrance

Personalised recommendations