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Pediatric Psychocutaneous Disorders

A Review of Primary Psychiatric Disorders with Dermatologic Manifestations

Abstract

Psychocutaneous disorders (PCDs) are conditions that are characterized by psychiatric and skin manifestations. Classifications of PCDs and their nomenclature are matters of debate. For the purpose of this review, we adopted the classification that distinguishes primary dermatologic disorders with psychiatric comorbidity (PDDPC) from primary psychiatric disorders with dermatologic manifestations (PPDDM). PDDPC includes the psychophysiologic disorders such as atopic eczema, psoriasis, vitiligo, and alopecia areata. PPDDM includes impulse control disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, factitious disorder, factitious disorder by proxy, self-mutilation, delusions of parasitosis, psychogenic purpura/Gardner- Diamond syndrome, and cutaneous sensory disorders. Diagnosis and treatment of PCDs are challenging and require that the underlying psychopathology be addressed. A specific PCD may have different underlying psychopathologies and, at times, multiple overlapping psychopathologies may coexist. Most often, both non-pharmacologic management and psychopharmacologic treatment are necessary. The choice of psychopharmacologic agent depends on the nature of the underlying psychopathology (e.g. anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, psychosis). This article reviews the spectrum of PPDDM in children.

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Acknowledgments

No sources of funding were used to prepare this review. The authors have no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this review.

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Correspondence to Elena Pope.

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Al Hawsawi, K., Pope, E. Pediatric Psychocutaneous Disorders. Am J Clin Dermatol 12, 247–257 (2011). https://doi.org/10.2165/11589040-000000000-00000

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Keywords

  • Anorexia Nervosa
  • Bulimia Nervosa
  • Tourette Syndrome
  • Alopecia Areata
  • Impulse Control Disorder