Background: Imbalanced levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH), serumcalcium (Ca) and phosphorous (P) are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) death and fracture in dialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). The calcimimetic agent cinacalcet can attenuate the mineral and hormonal imbalances characteristic of SHPT and may improve outcomes in such patients. Here we describe a cost-utility analysis of cinacalcet for SHPT in dialysis patients in Italy.
Methods: We developed a probabilistic Markov model to simulate the effect of cinacalcet on Ca, P and PTH levels in dialysis patients with SHPT, based on data from a European, multicentre, open-label study. The model then correlated these levels with mortality and morbidity (CV events, fractures and parathyroidectomies) using data from the literature, and incorporated Italian data for dialysis, drugs and management of events according to the national cost structure. The simulation horizon was patient lifetime; simulated treatment alternatives were standard treatment (mainly vitamin D sterols and phosphate binders) and cinacalcet + standard treatment.A 3.5% discount rate was applied to life expectancy (LE), quality-adjusted life-expectancy (QALE), costs and times below the upper ranges (time in range [TiR]) recommended by the National Kidney Foundation–Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality initiative for PTH, Ca, P and Ca × P. Utilities were derived from the published literature and took into account dialysis and the impairment of quality of life due to the occurrence of CV events and fractures. Costs were evaluated in year 2009 values from the perspective of the Italian National Healthcare System.
Results: Baseline results were calculated with 10 000 iterations. Compared with standard treatment alone, addition of cinacalcet was associated with a mean (SD) increase in TiR of 5.26 (6.59), 3.63 (6.87), 1.70 (6.66) and 2.68 (5.55) discounted patient-years for PTH, Ca and P, respectively, and combined PTH, Ca, P and Ca × P. Cinacalcet increased LE by 1.20 (3.75) life-years (LYs) and QALE by 0.89 (2.59) QALYs. When including the cost for dialysis, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was €50 012 per LY and €67 361 per QALY, while, if dialysis costs were not included, the ICER was €23 473 per LY and €31 616 per QALY.
Conclusions: The results suggest that cinacalcet treatment could be considered cost effective for treatment of SHPT in the Italian healthcare setting, but further investigations are needed to confirm these findings.
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We checked for homogeneity in sex and age, as other data were not available. With respect to these two potential confounders the subgroups were almost homogeneous, although a formal test was not possible due to low numbers in each of the 16 subgroups.
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L. Pradelli and S. Iannazzo are employees and owners of AdRes Srl, Turin, Italy, an independent health economics consulting and research company. Amgen (Europe) GmbH, Zug, Switzerland, supported the development of the model through a service contract with AdRes.
M. Eandi and G. Pontoriero cooperated with AdRes in the development of the model through a consulting agreement. S. Chiroli is employed by Amgen (Europe) GmbH.
All authors contributed to the paper and approved it. The authors thank Caterina Hatzifoti of Amgen (Europe) GmbH for editorial support. Editorial support was also provided by Julia Balfour, Medical Writer, Kilconquhar, Scotland, with financial support from Amgen.
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Eandi, M., Pradelli, L., Iannazzo, S. et al. Economic Evaluation of Cinacalcet in the Treatment of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in Italy. Pharmacoeconomics 28, 1041–1054 (2010). https://doi.org/10.2165/11538600-000000000-00000
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