Sports Medicine

, Volume 40, Issue 3, pp 247–263 | Cite as

Muscle Carnosine Metabolism and β-Alanine Supplementation in Relation to Exercise and Training

  • Wim DeraveEmail author
  • Inge Everaert
  • Sam Beeckman
  • Audrey Baguet
Review Article


Carnosine is a dipeptide with a high concentration in mammalian skeletal muscle. It is synthesized by carnosine synthase from the amino acids L-histidine and β-alanine, of which the latter is the rate-limiting precursor, and degraded by carnosinase. Recent studies have shown that the chronic oral ingestion of β-alanine can substantially elevate (up to 80%) the carnosine content of human skeletal muscle. Interestingly, muscle carnosine loading leads to improved performance in high-intensity exercise in both untrained and trained individuals. Although carnosine is not involved in the classic adenosine triphosphate-generating metabolic pathways, this suggests an important role of the dipeptide in the homeostasis of contracting muscle cells, especially during high rates of anaerobic energy delivery. Carnosine may attenuate acidosis by acting as a pH buffer, but improved contractile performance may also be obtained by improved excitation-contraction coupling and defence against reactive oxygen species. High carnosine concentrations are found in individuals with a high proportion of fast-twitch fibres, because these fibres are enriched with the dipeptide. Muscle carnosine content is lower in women, declines with age and is probably lower in vegetarians, whose diets are deprived of β-alanine. Sprint-trained athletes display markedly high muscular carnosine, but the acute effect of several weeks of training on muscle carnosine is limited. High carnosine levels in elite sprinters are therefore either an important genetically determined talent selection criterion or a result of slow adaptation to years of training. β-alanine is rapidly developing as a popular ergogenic nutritional supplement for athletes worldwide, and the currently available scientific literature suggests that its use is evidence based. However, many aspects of the supplement, such as the potential side effects and the mechanism of action, require additional and thorough investigation by the sports science community.


Carnosine Creatine Supplementation Ergogenic Effect Muscle Carnosine Carnosine Content 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This review and the mentioned studies from our laboratory are financially supported by grants from the Research Foundation – Flanders (FWO and G0.0046.09). Audrey Baguet is a recipient of a PhD scholarship from the Research Foundation – Flanders. The authors have no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this review.


  1. 1.
    Harris RC, Tallon MJ, Dunnett M, et al. The absorption of orally supplied beta-alanine and its effect on muscle carnosine synthesis in human vastus lateralis. Amino Acids 2006; 30 (3): 279–89PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hill CA, Harris RC, Kim HJ, et al. Influence of betaalanine supplementation on skeletal muscle carnosine concentrations and high intensity cycling capacity. Amino Acids 2007; 32 (2): 225–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Boldyrev AA. Carnosine and oxidative stress in cells and tissues. New York: Nova Science Publishers, 2007Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Abe H. Role of histidine-related compounds as intracellular proton buffering constituents in vertebrate muscle. Biochemistry (Mosc) 2000; 65 (7): 757–65Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Harris RC, Marlin DJ, Dunnett M, et al. Muscle buffering capacity and dipeptide content in the thoroughbred horse, greyhound dog and man. Compar Biochem Physiol 1990; 97 (2): 249–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Baumann L, Ingvaldsen T. Concerning histidine and carnosine. The synthesis of carnosine. J Biol Chem 1918; 35: 263–76Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Drozak J, Veiga-da-Cunha M, Vertommen D, et al. Molecular identification of carnosine synthase as ATP-grasp domain containing protein 1 (ATPGD1). J Biol Chem Epub 2010 Jan; 22Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Horinishi H, Grillo M, Margolis FL. Purification and characterization of carnosine synthetase from mouse olfactory bulbs. J Neurochem 1978; 31 (4): 909–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Matthews MM, Traut TW. Regulation of N-carbamoylbeta-alanine amidohydrolase, the terminal enzyme in pyrimidine catabolism, by ligand-induced change in polymerization. J Biol Chem 1987; 262 (15): 7232–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bakardjiev A, Bauer K. Transport of beta-alanine and biosynthesis of carnosine by skeletal muscle cells in primary culture. Eur J Biochem 1994; 225 (2): 617–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Teufel M, Saudek V, Ledig JP, et al. Sequence identification and characterization of human carnosinase and a closely related non-specific dipeptidase. J Biol Chem 2003; 278 (8): 6521–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sauerhofer S, Yuan G, Braun GS, et al. L-Carnosine, a substrate of carnosinase-1, influences glucose metabolism. Diabetes 2007; 56 (10): 2425–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Harding J, Margolis FL. Denervation in the primary olfactory pathway of mice: III, effect on enzymes of carnosine metabolism. Brain Res 1976; 110 (2): 351–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Otani H, Okumura N, Hashida-Okumura A, et al. Identification and characterization of a mouse dipeptidase that hydrolyzes L-carnosine. J Biochem 2005; 137 (2): 167–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Baguet A, Reyngoudt H, Pottier A, et al. Carnosine loading and washout in human skeletal muscles. J Appl Physiol 2009; 106 (3): 837–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jappar D, Hu Y, Keep RF, et al. Transport mechanisms of carnosine in SKPT cells: contribution of apical and basolateral membrane transporters. Pharm Res 2009; 26 (1): 172–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bakardjiev A, Bauer K. Biosynthesis, release, and uptake of carnosine in primary cultures. Biochemistry (Mosc) 2000; 65 (7): 779–82Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bhardwaj RK, Herrera-Ruiz D, Eltoukhy N, et al. The functional evaluation of human peptide/histidine transporter 1 (hPHT1) in transiently transfected COS-7 cells. Eur J Pharm Sci 2006; 27 (5): 533–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kamal MA, Jiang H, Hu Y, et al. Influence of genetic knockout of Pept2 on the in vivo disposition of endogenous and exogenous carnosine in wild-type and Pept2 null mice. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2009; 296 (4): R986–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nagai K, Niijima A, Yamano T, et al. Possible role of L-carnosine in the regulation of blood glucose through controlling autonomic nerves. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2003; 228 (10): 1138–45Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nordsborg N, Mohr M, Pedersen LD, et al. Muscle interstitial potassium kinetics during intense exhaustive exercise: effect of previous arm exercise. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2003; 285 (1): R143–8Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dunnett M, Harris RC, Dunnett CE, et al. Plasma carnosine concentration: diurnal variation and effects of age, exercise and muscle damage. Equine Vet J Suppl 2002 (34): 283–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gutierrez A, Anderstam B, Alvestrand A. Amino acid concentration in the interstitium of human skeletal muscle: a microdialysis study. Eur J Clin Invest 1999; 29 (11): 947–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Dupin AM, Stvolinskii SL. Changes in carnosine levels in muscles working in different regimens of stimulation. Biokhimiia 1986; 51 (1): 160–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gardner ML, Illingworth KM, Kelleher J, et al. Intestinal absorption of the intact peptide carnosine in man, and comparison with intestinal permeability to lactulose. J Physiol 1991; 439: 411–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Araujo EC, Suen VM, Marchini JS, et al. Muscle mass gain observed in patients with short bowel syndrome subjected to resistance training. Nutr Res 2008; 28 (2): 78–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ririe DG, Roberts PR, Shouse MN, et al. Vasodilatory actions of the dietary peptide carnosine. Nutrition 2000; 16 (3): 168–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    O’Dowd A, O’Dowd JJ, Miller DJ. The dipeptide carnosine constricts rabbit saphenous vein as a zinc complex apparently via a serotonergic receptor. J Physiol 1996; 495 (Pt2): 535–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Tanida M, Niijima A, Fukuda Y, et al. Dose-dependent effects of L-carnosine on the renal sympathetic nerve and blood pressure in urethane-anesthetized rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2005; 288 (2): R447–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Shen J, Yao JF, Tanida M, et al. Regulation of sympathetic nerve activity by L-carnosine in mammalian white adipose tissue. Neurosci Lett 2008; 441 (1): 100–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yamano T, Niijima A, Iimori S, et al. Effect of L-carnosine on the hyperglycemia caused by intracranial injection of 2-deoxy-D-glucose in rats. Neurosci Lett 2001; 313 (1-2): 78–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Shen Y, Hu WW, Fan YY, et al. Carnosine protects against NMDA-induced neurotoxicity in differentiated rat PC12 cells through carnosine-histidine-histamine pathway and H (1)/H (3) receptors. Biochem Pharmacol 2007 Mar 1; 73 (5): 709–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Janssen B, Hohenadel D, Brinkkoetter P, et al. Carnosine as a protective factor in diabetic nephropathy: association with a leucine repeat of the carnosinase gene CNDP1. Diabetes 2005; 54 (8): 2320–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hipkiss AR. Glycation, ageing and carnosine: are carnivorous diets beneficial? Mech Ageing Dev 2005; 126 (10): 1034–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Goodall MC. Carnosine phosphates as phosphate donor in muscular contraction. Nature 1956; 178 (4532): 539–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Cain DF, Delluva AM, Davies RE. Carnosine phosphate as phosphate donor in muscular contraction. Nature 1958; 182 (4637): 720–1PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ellington WR. Evolution and physiological roles of phosphagen systems. Annu Rev Physiol 2001; 63: 289–325PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Cain DF, Infante AA, Davies RE. Chemistry of muscle contraction: adenosine triphosphate and phosphorylcreatine as energy supplies for single contractions of working muscle. Nature 1962; 196: 214–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Davey CL. The significance of carnosine and anserine in striated skeletal muscle. Arch Biochem Biophys 1960; 89: 303–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Skulachev VP. Membrane-linked energy buffering as the biological function of Na+/K+ gradient. FEBS Lett 1978; 87 (2): 171–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kohen R, Yamamoto Y, Cundy KC, et al. Antioxidant activity of carnosine, homocarnosine, and anserine present in muscle and brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1988; 85 (9): 3175–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Pavlov AR, Revina AA, Dupin AM, et al. The mechanism of interaction of carnosine with superoxide radicals in water solutions. Biochim Biophys Acta 1993; 1157 (3): 304–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Boldyrev A, Bulygina E, Leinsoo T, et al. Protection of neuronal cells against reactive oxygen species by carnosine and related compounds. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 2004; 137 (1): 81–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Boldyrev AA, Yuneva MO, Sorokina EV, et al. Antioxidant systems in tissues of senescence accelerated mice. Biochemistry (Mosc) 2001; 66 (10): 1157–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Trombley PQ, Horning MS, Blakemore LJ. Interactions between carnosine and zinc and copper: implications for neuromodulation and neuroprotection. Biochemistry (Mosc) 2000; 65 (7): 807–16Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hipkiss AR, Michaelis J, Syrris P. Non-enzymatic glycosylation of the dipeptide L-carnosine, a potential antiprotein-cross-linking agent. FEBS Lett 1995; 371 (1): 81–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Quinn PJ, Boldyrev AA, Formazuyk VE. Carnosine: its properties, functions and potential therapeutic applications. Mol Aspects Med 1992; 13 (5): 379–444PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gallant S, Semyonova M, Yuneva M. Carnosine as a potential anti-senescence drug. Biochemistry (Mosc) 2000; 65 (7): 866–8Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Temperini C, Scozzafava A, Puccetti L, et al. Carbonic anhydrase activators: x-ray crystal structure of the adduct of human isozyme II with L-histidine as a platform for the design of stronger activators. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2005; 15 (23): 5136–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Nakagawa K, Ueno A, Nishikawa Y. Interactions between carnosine and captopril on free radical scavenging activity and angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in vitro. Yakugaku Zasshi 2006; 126 (1): 37–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Begum G, Cunliffe A, Leveritt M. Physiological role of carnosine in contracting muscle. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2005; 15 (5): 493–514PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hipkiss AR, Brownson C, Bertani MF, et al. Reaction of carnosine with aged proteins: another protective process? Ann N Y Acad Sci 2002; 959: 285–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Derave W, Ozdemir MS, Harris RC, et al. Beta-alanine supplementation augments muscle carnosine content and attenuates fatigue during repeated isokinetic contraction bouts in trained sprinters. J Appl Physiol 2007; 103 (5): 1736–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Dunnett M, Harris RC. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of imidazole dipeptides, histidine, 1-methylhistidine and 3-methylhistidine in equine and camel muscle and individual muscle fibres. J Chromatogr B 1997; 688 (1): 47–5555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    O’Dowd JJ, Robins DJ, Miller DJ. Detection, characterisation, and quantification of carnosine and other histidyl derivatives in cardiac and skeletal muscle. Biochim Biophys Acta 1988; 967 (2): 241–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ozdemir MS, Reyngoudt H, De DY, et al. Absolute quantification of carnosine in human calf muscle by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Phys Med Biol 2007; 52 (23): 6781–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Pan JW, Hamm JR, Rothman DL, et al. Intracellular pH in human skeletal muscle by 1H NMR. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1988; 85 (21): 7836–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Harris RC, Dunnett M, Greenhaff PL. Carnosine and taurine contents in individual fibres of human vastus lateralis muscle. J Sports Sci 1998; 16 (7): 639–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kendrick IP, Kim HJ, Harris RC, et al. The effect of 4 weeks beta-alanine supplementation and isokinetic training on carnosine concentrations in type I and II human skeletal muscle fibres. Eur J Appl Physiol 2009; 106 (1): 131–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Dunnett M, Harris RC, Soliman MZ, et al. Carnosine, anserine and taurine contents in individual fibres from the middle gluteal muscle of the camel. Res Vet Sci 1997; 62 (3): 213–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Dunnett M, Harris RC. Carnosine and taurine contents of different fibre types in the middle gluteal muscle of the thoroughbred horse. Equine Vet J (Suppl.) 1995; 18: 214–7Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Mannion AF, Jakeman PM, Dunnett M, et al. Carnosine and anserine concentrations in the quadriceps femoris muscle of healthy humans. Eur J Appl Physiol 1992; 64 (1): 47–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Mannion AF, Jakeman PM, Willan PL. Skeletal muscle buffer value, fibre type distribution and high intensity exercise performance in man. Exp Physiol 1995; 80 (1): 89–101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Simoneau JA, Bouchard C. Human variation in skeletal muscle fiber-type proportion and enzyme activities. Am J Physiol 1989; 257 (4Pt1): E567–72Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Komi PV, Karlsson J. Skeletal muscle fibre types, enzyme activities and physical performance in young males and females. Acta Physiol Scand 1978; 103 (2): 210–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Penafiel R, Ruzafa C, Monserrat F, et al. Gender-related differences in carnosine, anserine and lysine content of murine skeletal muscle. Amino Acids 2004; 26 (1): 53–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Marlin DJ, Harris RC, Gash SP, et al. Carnosine content of the middle gluteal muscle in thoroughbred horses with relation to age, sex and training. Comp Biochem Physiol A Comp Physiol 1989; 93 (3): 629–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Johnson P, Hammer JL. Histidine dipeptide levels in ageing and hypertensive rat skeletal and cardiac muscles. Comp Biochem Physiol B 1992; 103 (4): 981–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Derave W, Jones G, Hespel P, et al. Creatine supplementation augments skeletal muscle carnosine content in senescence-accelerated mice (SAMP8). Rejuvenation Res 2008; 11 (3): 641–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Tallon MJ, Harris RC, Maffulli N, et al. Carnosine, taurine and enzyme activities of human skeletal muscle fibres from elderly subjects with osteoarthritis and young moderately active subjects. Biogerontology 2007; 8 (2): 129–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Stuerenburg HJ. The roles of carnosine in aging of skeletal muscle and in neuromuscular diseases. Biochemistry (Mosc) 2000; 65 (7): 862–5Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Kim HJ. Comparison of the carnosine and taurine contents of vastus lateralis of elderly Korean males, with impaired glucose tolerance, and young elite Korean swimmers. Amino Acids 2009; 36 (2): 359–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Tallon MJ, Harris RC, Boobis LH, et al. The carnosine content of vastus lateralis is elevated in resistance-trained bodybuilders. J Strength Cond Res 2005; 19 (4): 725–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Parkhouse WS, McKenzie DC, Hochachka PW, et al. Buffering capacity of deproteinized human vastus lateralis muscle. J Appl Physiol 1985; 58 (1): 14–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kendrick IP, Harris RC, Kim HJ, et al. The effects of 10 weeks of resistance training combined with beta-alanine supplementation on whole body strength, force production, muscular endurance and body composition. Amino Acids 2008; 34 (4): 547–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Mannion AF, Jakeman PM, Willan PL. Effects of isokinetic training of the knee extensors on high-intensity exercise performance and skeletal muscle buffering. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1994; 68 (4): 356–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Suzuki Y, Ito O, Takahashi H, et al. The effect of sprint training on skeletal muscle carnosine in humans. Int J Sport Health Sci 2004; 2: 105–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Hirakoba K. Buffering capacity in human skeletal muscle: a brief review. Bulletin of the Faculty of Computer Science and Systems Engineering Kyushu Institute of Technology (Human Sciences) 1999; 12: 1–21Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Edge J, Bishop D, Goodman C. Effects of chronic NaHCO3 ingestion during interval training on changes to muscle buffer capacity, metabolism, and short-term endurance performance. J Appl Physiol 2006; 101 (3): 918–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Park YJ, Volpe SL, Decker EA. Quantitation of carnosine in humans plasma after dietary consumption of beef. J Agric Food Chem 2005; 53 (12): 4736–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Dunnett M, Harris RC. Influence of oral b-alanine and histidine supplementation on the carnosine content of the gluteus medius. Equine Vet J (Suppl.) 1999; 30: 499–504Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Tamaki N, Tsunemori F, Wakabayashi M, et al. Effect of histidine-free and -excess diets on anserine and carnosine contents in rat gastrocnemius muscle. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 1977; 23 (4): 331–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Harris RC, Jones G, Hill CA, et al. The carnosine content of V lateralis in vegetarians and omnivores [abstract]. FASEB J 2007; 21 (6): A944Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Sato M, Karasawa N, Shimizu M, et al. Safety evaluation of chicken breast extract containing carnosine and anserine. Food Chem Toxicol 2008; 46 (2): 480–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Suzuki Y, Nakao T, Maemura H, et al. Carnosine and anserine ingestion enhances contribution of nonbicarbonate buffering. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2006; 38 (2): 334–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Hill CA, Harris RC, Kim HJ, et al. The effect of betaalanine and creatine monohydrate supplementation on muscle composition and exercise performance [abstract]. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2005; 37 (5): S348Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Crozier RA, Ajit SK, Kaftan EJ, et al. MrgD activation inhibits KCNQ/M-currents and contributes to enhanced neuronal excitability. J Neurosci 2007; 27 (16): 4492–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Harris RC, Jones G, Wise JA. The plasma concentration-time profile of beta-alanine using a controlled-release formulation (Carnosyn®) [abstract]. FASEB J 2008; 22: 701Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Parkhouse WS, McKenzie DC. Possible contribution of skeletal muscle buffers to enhanced anaerobic performance: a brief review. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1984; 16 (4): 328–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Suzuki Y, Ito O, Mukai N, et al. High level of skeletal muscle carnosine contributes to the latter half of exercise performance during 30-s maximal cycle ergometer sprinting. Jpn J Physiol 2002; 52 (2): 199–205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Ponte J, Harris RC, Hill CA, et al. Effect of 14 and 28 days β-alanine supplementation on isometric endurance of the knee extensors (abstract). J Sports Sci 2006; 25: 344Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Stout JR, Cramer JT, Zoeller RF, et al. Effects of betaalanine supplementation on the onset of neuromuscular fatigue and ventilatory threshold in women. Amino Acids 2007; 32 (3): 381–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Stout JR, Graves BS, Smith AE, et al. The effect of betaalanine supplementation on neuromuscular fatigue in elderly (55-92 years): a double-blind randomized study. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2008; 5: 21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Van Thienen R, Van Proeyen K, Van den Eynde B, et al. Beta-alanine improves sprint performance in endurance cycling. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2009; 41: 898–903PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Boldyrev AA, Petukhov VB. Localization of carnosine effect on the fatigued muscle preparation. Gen Pharmacol 1978; 9 (1): 17–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Severin SE, Kirzon MV, Kaftanova TM. Effect of carnosine and anserine on action of isolated frog muscles [in Russian]. Dokl Akad Nauk SSSR 1953; 91 (3): 691–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Baguet A, Koppo K, Pottier A, et al. Beta-alanine supplementation reduces acidosis but not oxygen uptake response during high-intensity cycling exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 2010; 108 (3): 495–503PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Lamb GD, Stephenson DG, Bangsbo J, et al. Point/counterpoint: lactic acid accumulation is an advantage/disadvantage during muscle activity. J Appl Physiol 2006; 100: 1410–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Linderman JK, Gosselink KL. The effects of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on exercise performance. Sports Med 1994; 18 (2): 75–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Hultman E, Sahlin K. Acid-base balance during exercise. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 1980; 8: 41–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Eberstein A, Sandow A. Fatigue in phasic and tonic fibers of frog muscle. Science 1961; 134: 383–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Rubtsov AM. Molecular mechanisms of regulation of the activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-release channels (ryanodine receptors), muscle fatigue, and Severin’s phenomenon. Biochemistry (Mosc) 2001; 66 (10): 1132–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Batrukova MA, Rubtsov AM, Boldyrev AA. Effect of carnosine on Ca2+-release channels of skeletal-muscle sarcoplasmicreticulum. Biochemistry (Mosc) 1992; 57 (6): 619–23Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Batrukova MA, Rubtsov AM. Histidine-containing dipeptides as endogenous regulators of the activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-release channels. Biochim Biophys Acta 1997; 1324 (1): 142–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Dutka TL, Lamb GD. Effect of carnosine on excitationcontraction coupling in mechanically-skinned rat skeletal muscle. J Muscle Res Cell Motil 2004; 25 (3): 203–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Lamont C, Miller DJ. Calcium sensitizing action of carnosine and other endogenous imidazoles in chemically skinned striated muscle. J Physiol 1992; 454: 421–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Mishima T, Yamada T, Sakamoto M, et al. Chicken breast attenuates high-intensity-exercise-induced decrease in rat sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ handling. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2008; 18 (4): 399–411PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Reid MB. Free radicals and muscle fatigue: of ROS, canaries, and the IOC. Free Radic Biol Med 2008; 44 (2): 169–79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Antonini FM, Petruzzi E, Pinzani P, et al. The meat in the diet of aged subjects and the antioxidant effects of carnosine. Arch Gerontol Geriatr Suppl 2002; 8: 7–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Moopanar TR, Allen DG. Reactive oxygen species reduce myofibrillar Ca2+ sensitivity in fatiguing mouse skeletal muscle at 37 degrees C. J Physiol 2005; 564 (Pt1): 189–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Tipton KD, Jeukendrup AE, Hespel P. Nutrition for the sprinter. J Sports Sci 2007; 25 Suppl. 1: 5–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Smith AE, Walter AA, Graef JL, et al. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on endurance performance and body composition in men: a double-blind trial. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2009; 6: 5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Hoffman J, Ratamess N, Kang J, et al. Effect of creatine and beta-alanine supplementation on performance and endocrine responses in strength/power athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2006; 16 (4): 430–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Hoffman JR, Ratamess NA, Faigenbaum AD, et al. Shortduration beta-alanine supplementation increases training volume and reduces subjective feelings of fatigue in college football players. Nutr Res 2008; 28 (1): 31–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Harris RC, Söderlund K, Hultman E. Elevation of creatine in resting and exercised muscle of normal subjects by creatine supplementation. Clin Sci 1992; 83: 367–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Robinson TM, Sewell DA, Hultman E, et al. Role of submaximal exercise in promoting creatine and glycogen accumulation in human skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol 1999; 87 (2): 598–604PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Derave W, Eijnde BO, Hespel P. Creatine supplementation in health and disease: what is the evidence for long-term efficacy? Mol Cell Biochem 2003; 244 (1-2): 49–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Clarkson PM. Nutrition for improved sports performance: current issues on ergogenic aids. Sports Med 1996; 21 (6): 393–401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Bishop D, Edge J, Davis C, et al. Induced metabolic alkalosis affects muscle metabolism and repeated-sprint ability. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2004; 36 (5): 807–13PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis Data Information BV 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wim Derave
    • 1
    Email author
  • Inge Everaert
    • 1
  • Sam Beeckman
    • 1
  • Audrey Baguet
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Movement and Sports SciencesGhent UniversityGhentBelgium

Personalised recommendations