Sports Medicine

, Volume 39, Issue 3, pp 179–206

Physiological Differences Between Cycling and Running

Lessons from Triathletes
  • Gregoire P. Millet
  • V. E. Vleck
  • D. J. Bentley
Review Article

DOI: 10.2165/00007256-200939030-00002

Cite this article as:
Millet, G.P., Vleck, V.E. & Bentley, D.J. Sports Med (2009) 39: 179. doi:10.2165/00007256-200939030-00002


The purpose of this review was to provide a synopsis of the literature concerning the physiological differences between cycling and running. By comparing physiological variables such as maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2max), anaerobic threshold (AT), heart rate, economy or delta efficiency measured in cycling and running in triathletes, runners or cyclists, this review aims to identify the effects of exercise modality on the underlying mechanisms (ventilatory responses, blood flow,muscle oxidative capacity, peripheral innervation and neuromuscular fatigue) of adaptation. The majority of studies indicate that runners achieve a higher V̇O2max on treadmill whereas cyclists can achieve a V̇O2max value in cycle ergometry similar to that in treadmill running. Hence, V̇O2max is specific to the exercise modality. In addition, the muscles adapt specifically to a given exercise task over a period of time, resulting in an improvement in submaximal physiological variables such as the ventilatory threshold, in some cases without a change in V̇O2max. However, this effect is probably larger in cycling than in running. At the same time, skill influencing motor unit recruitment patterns is an important influence on the anaerobic threshold in cycling. Furthermore, it is likely that there is more physiological training transfer from running to cycling than vice versa. In triathletes, there is generally no difference in V̇O2max measured in cycle ergometry and treadmill running. The data concerning the anaerobic threshold in cycling and running in triathletes are conflicting. This is likely to be due to a combination of actual training load and prior training history in each discipline. The mechanisms surrounding the differences in the AT together with V̇O2max in cycling and running are not largely understood but are probably due to the relative adaptation of cardiac output influencing V̇O2max and also the recruitment of muscle mass in combination with the oxidative capacity of this mass influencing the AT. Several other physiological differences between cycling and running are addressed: heart rate is different between the two activities both for maximal and submaximal intensities. The delta efficiency is higher in running. Ventilation is more impaired in cycling than in running. It has also been shown that pedalling cadence affects the metabolic responses during cycling but also during a subsequent running bout. However, the optimal cadence is still debated. Central fatigue and decrease in maximal strength are more important after prolonged exercise in running than in cycling.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gregoire P. Millet
    • 1
  • V. E. Vleck
    • 2
  • D. J. Bentley
    • 3
  1. 1.ISSEPUniversity of LausanneLausanneSwitzerland
  2. 2.School of BiosciencesUniversity of WestminsterLondonUK
  3. 3.Health and Exercise, School of Medical ScienceUniversity of New South WalesSydneyAustralia

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