Sports Medicine

, Volume 36, Issue 9, pp 747–765 | Cite as

Physiological Response to Water Immersion

A Method for Sport Recovery?
  • Ian M. WilcockEmail author
  • John B. Cronin
  • Wayne A. Hing
Review Article


Recovery from exercise can be an important factor in performance during repeated bouts of exercise. In a tournament situation, where athletes may compete numerous times over a few days, enhancing recovery may provide a competitive advantage. One method that is gaining popularity as a means to enhance post-game or post-training recovery is immersion in water. Much of the literature on the ability of water immersion as a means to improve athletic recovery appears to be based on anecdotal information, with limited research on actual performance change. Water immersion may cause physiological changes within the body that could improve recovery from exercise. These physiological changes include intracellular-intravascular fluid shifts, reduction of muscle oedema and increased cardiac output (without increasing energy expenditure), which increases blood flow and possible nutrient and waste transportation through the body. Also, there may be a psychological benefit to athletes with a reduced cessation of fatigue during immersion. Water temperature alters the physiological response to immersion and cool to thermoneutral temperatures may provide the best range for recovery. Further performance-orientated research is required to determine whether water immersion is beneficial to athletes.


Muscle Damage Peripheral Resistance Water Immersion Recovery Strategy Fluid Shift 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors would like to thank the Division of Sport and Recreation and the Alumni Association of Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand, for financial support during the writing of this study. The authors have no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the contents of this review.


  1. 1.
    Bender T, Karag Z, Balint GP, et al. Hydrotherapy, balneulle otherapy, and spa treatment in pain management. Rheumatol Int 2004 [online]. Available from URL: Accessed 2004 Aug 5
  2. 2.
    Calder A. Recovery strategies for sports performance. USOC Olympic Coach E-Magazine 2003; 2003 Aug 1-Oct 31 online.Available from URL:( Accessed 2004 Aug 17
  3. 3.
    Netball New Zealand. Recovery strategies for a tournament environment [online]. Available from URL: Accessed 2004 May 1
  4. 4.
    Low J, Reed A. Electrotherapy explained: principles and practice. 2nd ed. Oxford: Butterworth and Heinemann, 1994Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bonde-Petersen F, Schultz-Pedersen L, Dragsted N. Peripheral and central blood flow in man during cold, thermoneutral, and hot water immersion. Aviat Space Environ Med 1992; 63: 346–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sramek P, Simeckova M, Jansky L, et al. Human physiological responses to immersion into water of different temperatures. Eur J Appl Physiol 2000; 81: 436–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lane KN, Wenger HA. Effect of selected recovery conditions on performance of repeated bouts of intermittent cycling separated by 24 hours. J Strength Cond Res 2004; 18 (4): 855–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Burke DG, MacNeil SA, Holt LE, et al. The effect of hot or cold water immersion on isometric strength training. J Strength Cond Res 2003; 14 (1): 23–5Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Burke DG, Holt LE, Rasmussen RL, et al. Effects of hot or cold water immersion and modified proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation flexibility exercise on hamstring length. J Athl Train 2001; 36 (1): 16–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Clarke DH. Effect of immersion in hot and cold water upon recovery of muscular strength following fatiguing isometric exercises. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1963; 44: 565–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Greenleaf JE, Kaciuba-Uscilko H. Acclimatization to heat in humans. Moffett Feild (CA): National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Ames Research Centre, 1989: 41Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Weston CEM, O’Hare JP, Evans JM, et al. Haemodynamic changes in man during immersion in water at different temperatures. Clin Sci 1987; 73: 613–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Brukner P, Khan K. Clinical sports medicine. 2nd ed. Sydney: McGraw-Hill, 2001Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cochrane R. Alternating hot and cold water immersion for athlete recovery: a review. Phys Ther Sport 2004; 5: 26–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Myrer JW, Draper DO, Durrant E. Contrast therapy and intramuscular temperature in the human leg. J Athl Train 1994; 29 (4): 318–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sanders J. Effect of contrast-temperature immersion on recovery from short-duration intense exercise [dissertation]. Canberra: University of Canberra, 1996Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Coffey V, Leveritt M, Gill N. Effect of recovery modality on 4-hour repeated treadmill running performance and changes in physiological variables. J Sci Med Sport 2004; 7 (1): 1–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cote DJ, Prentice WE, Hooker DN, et al. Comparison of three treatment procedures for minimizing ankle sprain swelling. Phys Ther 1988; 68 (7): 1072–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hamlin MJ, Magson P. The effects of post-exercise hydrotherapy on blood lactate and performance recovery in netball players. In:2002 Conferences of the Australasian College of Sports Physicians, Sports Medicine New Zealand, and Sport Science New Zealand; 2002 Oct 30, Christchurch, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hamlin MJ, Sheen AM. The effect of contrast-temperature water therapy on performance recovery of rugby players. In: Pre-Olympic Congress: sport science thru the ages: challenges in the new millennium; 2004 Aug 5-11; Thessaloniki, Greece: International Council of Sport Science and Physical Education, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, 2004: 235–6Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Higgins D, Kaminski TW. Contrast therapy does not cause fluctuations in human gastronemius intramuscular temperature. J Athl Train 1998; 33 (4): 336–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kuligowski LA, Lephart SM, Giannantonio FP, et al. Effects of whirlpool therapy on the signs and symptoms of delayed-onset muscle soreness. J Athl Train 1998; 33 (3): 222–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Vaile J, Blazevich AJ, Gill N. The effect of contrast therapy on symptoms of delayed onset muscle soreness. Hamilton, New Zealand: Waikato Institute of Technology, 2004Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Briggs J. Sports therapy: theoretical and practical thoughts and considerations. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics, 2001Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Clover J, editor. Sports medicine essentials: core concepts in athletic training and fitness instruction. Orange (CA): Carrer Publishing, 2001Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Walsh MT. Hydrotherapy: the use of water as a therapeutic agent. In: Michlovitz SL, editor. Thermal agents in rehabilitation. Philadelphia (PA): FA Davis Company, 1996Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zuluaga M, Briggs C, Carlisle J, et al., editors. Sports physio-therapy: applied science and practice. Melbourne: Churchill Livingstone, 1995Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Viitasalo JT, Niemela K, Kaappola R, et al. Warm underwater water-jet massage improves recovery from intense physical exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 1995; 71: 431–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Vaile J. The effect of recovery strategy on symptoms of delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS). Hamilton, New Zealand: Waikato Institute of Technology, 2003Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bove AA. Medical disorders related to diving. J Intensive Care Med 2002; 17: 75–86Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Chaplin M. Water structure and behaviour online. Available from URL:( Accessed 2005 Mar 14
  32. 32.
    Farhi LE, Linnarsson D. Cardiopulmonary readjustment during graded submersion in water at 35oC. Respir Physiol 1977; 30: 35–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lollgen H, Nieding GV, Koppenhagen K, et al. Hemodynamic response to graded water immersion. Klin Wochenschr 1981; 59: 623–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Nakamura K, Takahashi H, Shimai S, et al. Effects of immersion in tepid bath water on recovery from fatigue after submaximal exercise in man. Ergonomics 1996; 39 (2): 257–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Poyhonen T, Avela J. Effect of head-out water immersion on neuromuscular function of the plantarflexor muscles. Aviat Space Environ Med 2002; 73 (12): 1215–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Poyhonen T, Keskinen KL, Hautala A, et al. Human isometric force production and electromyogram activity of knee extensor muscles in water and on dry land. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1999; 80 (1): 52–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Koryak Y. ‘Dry’ immersion induces neural and contractile adaptations in the human triceps surae muscle. Environ Med 2002; 46 (1-2): 17–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lassiter WE, Gottachalk CW. Volume and components of the body fluids. In: Mountcastle VB, editor. Medical physiology. St Louis (MO): CV Mosby, 1980Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Pappenheimer JR. Passage of molecules through capillary walls. Physiol Rev 1953; 33 (3): 387–423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Milnor WR. Capillaries and lymphatic vessels. In: Mountcastle VB, editor. Medical physiology. St Louis: CV Moby, 1980Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Arborelius M, Baildin UL, Lilja B, et al. Hemodynamic changes in man during immersion with the head above water. Aero-space Med 1972; 43: 592–8Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Johansen LB, Jensen TUS, Pump B, et al. Contribution of abdomen and legs to central blood volume expansion in humans during immersion. J Appl Physiol 1997; 83 (3): 695–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Echt M, Lange L, Gauer OH, et al. Changes of peripheral venous tone and central transmural venous pressure during immersion in a thermo-neutral bath. Pflugers Arch 1974; 352: 211–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Stocks JM, Patterson MJ, Hyde DE, et al. Effects of immersion water temperature on whole-body fluid distribution in humans. Acta Physiol Scand 2004; 182: 3–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gabrielsen A, Pump B, Bie P, et al. Atrial distention, haemodilution, and acute control of renin release during water immersion in humans. Acta Physiol Scand 2002; 174: 91–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Norsk P, Bonde-Petersen F, Warberg J. Central venous pressure and plasma arginine vasopressin during water immersion in man. Eur J Appl Physiol 1985; 54: 71–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hinghofer-Szalkay H, Harrison MH, Greenleaf JE. Early fluid and protein shifts in men during water immersion. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1987; 56 (6): 673–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Tomasik M. Effect of hydromassage on changes in blood electrolyte and lactic acid levels and haematocrit value after maximal effort. Acta Physiol Pol 1983; 34 (2): 257–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Friden J, Lieber RL. Eccentric exercise-induced injuries to contractile and cytoskeletal muscle fibre components. Acta Physiol Scand 2001; 171: 321–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Partsch H, Winiger J, Lun B. Compression stockings reduce occupational leg swelling. Dermatol Surg 2004; 30 (5): 737–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Jonkera MJ, de Boera EM, Ad HJ, et al. The oedemaerb protective effect of lycra support stockings. Dermatology 2001; 203 (4): 294–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Collins MA, Cureton KJ, Hill DW, et al. Relation of plasma volume change to intensity of weight lifting. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1989; 21 (2): 178–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Knowlton RG, Hetzler RK, Kaminsky LA, et al. Plasma volume changes and cardiovascular responses associated with weight lifting. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1987; 19 (5): 464–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Miles DS, Sawka MN, Glaser RM, et al. Plasma volume shift during progressive arm and leg exercise. J Appl Physiol 1983; 54: 491–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hildebrandt W, Schutze H, Stegemann J. Cardiovascular limitations of active recovery from strenuous exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 1992; 64: 250–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Gillen CM, Lee R, Mack GW, et al. Plasma volume expansion in humans after a single intense exercise protocol. J Appl Physiol 1991; 71 (5): 1914–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Green HJ, Thomson JA, Ball ME, et al. Alterations in blood volume following short-term supramaximal exercise. J Appl Physiol 1984; 56 (1): 145–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Mohsenin V, Gonzalez RR. Tissue pressure and plasma oncotic pressure during exercise. J Appl Physiol Respir Environ Exerc Physiol 1984; 56 (1): 102–8Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Ploutz-Snyder LL, Convertino VA, Dudley GA. Resistance exercise-induced fluid shifts: change in active muscle size and plasma volume. Am J Physiol 1995; 269: R536–R43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Tiidus PM. Radical species in inflammation and overtraining. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1998; 76 (5): 533–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Northoff H, Berg A, Weinstock C. Similarities and differences of the immune response to exercise and trauma: the IFN-??concept. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1998; 76 (5): 497–504PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Shephard RJ, Shek PN. Immune responses to inflammation and trauma: a physical training model. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1998; 76 (5): 469–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Mishra DK, Friden J, Schmitz MC, et al. Anti-inflammatory medication after muscle injury: a treatment resulting in short-term improvement but subsequent loss of muscle function. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1995; 77 (10): 1510–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Lecomte JM, Lacroix VJ, Montgomery DL. A randomized controlled trial of the effect of naproxen on delayed onset muscle soreness and muscle strength. Clin J Sport Med 1998; 8 (2): 82–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Cesari M, Penninx BW, Pahor M, et al. Inflammatory markers and physical performance in older persons: the In CHIANTI study. J Gerontol 2004; 59A (3): 242–8Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Sayers SP, Clarkson PM, Lee J. Activity and immobilization after eccentric exercise I: recovery of muscle function. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000; 32 (9): 1587–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Park KS, Choi JK, Park YS. Cardiovascular regulation during water immersion. Appl Human Sci 1999; 18 (6): 233–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Yun SH, Choi JK, Park YS. Cardiovascular responses to head-out water immersion in Korean women breath-hold divers. Eur J Appl Physiol 2004; 91: 708–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Shiraishi M, Schou M, Gybel M, et al. Comparisons of acute cardiovascular responses to water immersion and head-down tilt in humans. J Appl Physiol 2002; 92: 264–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Gabrielsen A, Videbk R, Johansen LB, et al. Forearm vascular and endocrine responses to graded water immersion in humans. Acta Physiol Scand 2000; 169: 87–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Watenpaugh DE, Pump B, Bie P, et al. Does gender influence human cardiovascular and renal responses to water immersion? J Appl Physiol 2000; 89: 621–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Hakumaki MO. Seventy years of the Bainbridge reflex. Acta Physiol Scand 1987; 130 (2): 177–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Khosla SS, DuBois AB. Fluid shifts during initial phase of immersion diuresis in man. J Appl Physiol 1979; 46 (6): 703–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Blyden G, Silverstein F, Epstein M, et al. Lidocaine pharmacokinetics during water immersion in normal humans. J Appl Physiol 1989; 66 (1): 57–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Epstein M, Levinson R, Loutzenhiser R. Effects of water immersion on renal hemodynamics in normal man. J Appl Physiol 1976; 41 (2): 230–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Clark MG, Rattigan S, Newman JMB, et al. Vascular control of nutrient delivery by flow redistribution within muscle: implications of exercise and post-exercise muscle metabolism. Int J Sport Med 1998; 19: 391–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Craig AB, Dvorak M. Thermal regulation of man exercising during water immersion. J Appl Physiol 1968; 25 (1): 28–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Toner MM, Sawka MM, Holden WL, et al. Effects of body mass and morphology on thermal response in water. J Appl Physiol 1986; 60 (2): 521–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Tikuisis P, Jacobs I, Moroz D, et al. Comparison of thermoregulatory responses between men and women immersed in cold water. J Appl Physiol 2000; 89: 1410–1Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Knight KL, Londeree BR. Comparison of blood flow in the ankle of uninjured subjects during therapeutic applications of heat, cold, and exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1980; 12 (3): 76–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Eston R, Peters D. Effects of cold water immersion on the symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage. J Sports Sci 1999; 17: 231–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Enwemeka CS, Allen C, Avila P, et al. Soft tissue thermodynamics before, during, and after cold pack therapy. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001; 34 (1): 45–50Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Smith LL. Acute inflammation: the underlying mechanism in delayed onset muscle soreness. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1990; 23 (5): 542–51Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Rawson ES, Gunn B, Clarkson PM. The effects of creatine supplementation on exercise-induced muscle damage. J Strength Cond Res 2001; 15 (2): 178–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Warren GL, Lowe DA, Armstrong RB. Measurement tools used in the study of eccentric contraction-induced injury. Sports Med 1999; 27 (1): 43–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Howatson G, Van Someren KA. Ice massage. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2003; 43 (4): 500–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Abramson DI, Chu LSW, Tuck S, et al. Effect of tissue temperatures and blood flow on motor nerve conduction velocity. JAMA 1966; 198 (10): 156–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Sauls J. Efficacy of cold for pain: fact or fallacy? The Online Journal of Knowledge Synthesis for Nursing 1999; 6: 8 [on-line]. Available from URL: ( Accessed 2002 Oct 15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Washington LL, Gibson SJ, Helme RD. Age-related differences in the endogenous analgesic response to repeated cold water immersion in human volunteers. Pain 2000; 89: 89–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Howard RL, Kraemer WJ, Stanley DC, et al. The effects of cold water immersion on muscle strength. J Strength Cond Res 1994; 8 (3): 129–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Rutkove SB. Effects of temperature on neuromuscular electro-physiology. Muscle Nerve 2001; 24: 867–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Yona M. Effects of cold stimulation of human skin on motor unit activity. Jpn J Physiol 1997; 47 (4): 341–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Johnson DJ, Leider FE. Influence of cold bath in maximal handgrip strength. Percept Mot Skills 1977; 44: 323–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Wittmers L, Savage MV. Cold water immersion. In: Wenger CB, Pozos RS, editors. Medical aspects of harsh environments. Vol. 1. Washington, DC: The Office of the Surgeon General at TMM Publications, Borden Institute, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, 2001Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Lloyd EL. ABC of sports medicine: temperature and performance I -cold. BMJ 1994; 309: 531–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Terrell T, Hough DO, Alexander R. Identifying exercise allergies: exercise-induced anaphylaxis and cholinergic urticaria. Phys Sportsmed 1996; 24 (11) online.Available from URL:( [Accessed 2005 Jul 17]
  97. 97.
    Paz JC, West MP. Acute care handbook for physical therapists.2nd ed. Boston (MA): Butterworth Heinemann, 2002Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Lippman SM, Winn L, Grumet FC, et al. Evans’ syndrome as a presenting manifestation of atypical paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria. Am J Med 1987; 82 (5): 1065–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Myrer JW, Measom G, Durrant E, et al. Cold and hot-pack contrast therapy: subcutaneous and intramuscular temperature change. J Athl Train 1997; 32 (3): 238–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Whitney JD, Wickline MM. Treating chronic and acute wounds with warming: review of the science and practice implications. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs 2003; 30 (4): 199–209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Robertson VJ, Duck FA. A review of therapeutic ultrasound: biophysical effects. Phys Ther 2001; 81: 1351–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Michlovitz SL, editor. Thermal agents in rehabilitation. 3rd ed. Philadelphia (PA): FA Davis Company, 1996Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Wyper DJ, McNiven DR. Effects of some physiotherapeutic agents on skeletal muscle blood flow. Physiotherapy 1976; 62: 83–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Cotts BE, Knight KL, Myrer JW, et al. Contrast-bath therapy and sensation over the anterior talofibular ligament. J Sport Rehabil 2004; 13: 114–21Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Wilk KE, Macrina LC, Reinold MM, et al. Team physician’s corner: common modalities in sports medicine. Sport-sMedicine Update 2004; July August [online]. Available from URL: [Accessed 2005 Jul 17]Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Kaul MP, Herring SA. Superficial heat and cold: how to maximise the benefits. Phys Sportsmed 1994; 22 (12): 65–74Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Tonnessen D. Strains and sprains: hot and cold therapy. In: Aldred HE, editor. Sports injuries sourcebook: basic consumer health information about common sports injuries.Detroit (MI): Omnigraphics, 1999Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Sawyer PC, Unl TL, Mattacola CG, et al. Effects of moist heat on hamstring flexibility and muscle temperature. J Strength Cond Res 2003; 17 (2): 285–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Taylor BF, Waring CA, Brashear TA. The effects of therapeutic application of heat or cold followed by static stretch on hamstring muscle length. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1995; 21 (5): 283–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Henricson AS, Fredriksson K, Persson I, et al. The effect of heat and stretching on the range of hip motion. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1984; 6: 110–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Prentice WE. An electromyographic analysis of the effectiveness of heat and cold and stretching for inducing relaxation in injured muscle. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1982; 3 (3): 133–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Bigos SJ, Bowyer OR, Braen GR, et al. Acute low back problems in adults. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services, 1994Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Nadler SF, Steiner DJ, Erasala GN, et al. Continuous low-level heat wrap therapy provides more efficacy than ibuprofen and acetaminophen for acute low back pain. Spine 2002; 27 (10): 1012–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Nadler SF, Steiner DJ, Petty SR, et al. Overnight use of continuous low-level heatwrap therapy for relief of low back pain. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2003; 84: 333–42Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Nadler SF, Steiner DJ, Erasala GN, et al. Continuous low-level heatwrap therapy for treating acute non-specific low back pain. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2003; 84: 329–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Wallace L, Knortz K, Esterson P. Immediate care of ankle injuries. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1979; 1: 46–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Barnes L. Cryotherapy: putting injury on ice. Phys Sportsmed 1979; 7 (6): 130–6Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Magness J, Garrett TR, Erickson DI. Swelling of the upper extremity during whirlpool baths. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1970; 51 (5): 297–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Feibel A, Fast A. Deep heating of joints: a reconsideration. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1976; 57 (11): 513–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Turner B, Pennefather J, Edmonds C. Cardiovascular effects of hot water immersion (suicide soup). Med J Aust 1980; 2 (1): 39–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Nagasawa Y, Komori S, Sato M, et al. Effects of hot bath immersion on autonomic activity and hemodynamics: comparison of the elderly patient and the healthy young. Jpn Circ J 2001; 65 (7): 587–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Stanton DB, Bear-Lehman J, Graziano M, et al. Contrast baths: what do we know about their use? J Hand Ther 2003; 16 (4): 343–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Connolly DAJ, Brennan KM, Lauzon CD. Effects of active versus passive recovery on power output during repeated bouts of short term, high intensity exercise. J Sports Sci Med 2003; 2 (2): 47–51Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Thiriet P, Gozal D, Wouassi D, et al. The effects of various recovery modalities on subsequent performance, in consecutive supramaximal exercise. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1993; 33 (2): 118–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Signorile JF, Ingalls C, Tremblay LM. The effects of active and passive recovery on short-term, high intensity power output. Can J Appl Physiol 1993; 18 (1): 31–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Kauppinen K. Sauna, shower, and ice water immersion: physiological responses to brief exposures to heat, cool and cold: part II -circulation. Arctic Med Res 1989; 48 (2): 64–74PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis Data Information BV 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ian M. Wilcock
    • 1
    Email author
  • John B. Cronin
    • 1
  • Wayne A. Hing
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Sport and Recreation Research New Zealand, Division of Sport and Recreation, Faculty of Health and Environmental SciencesAuckland University of TechnologyAucklandNew Zealand
  2. 2.School of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health and Environmental SciencesAuckland University of TechnologyAucklandNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations