Skip to main content

The Role of Diet and Exercise for the Maintenance of Fat-Free Mass and Resting Metabolic Rate During Weight Loss

Abstract

The incidence of obesity is increasing rapidly. Research efforts for effective treatment strategies still focus on diet and exercise programmes, the individual components of which have been investigated in intervention trials in order to determine the most effective recommendations for sustained changes in bodyweight. The foremost objective of a weight-loss trial has to be the reduction in body fat leading to a decrease in risk factors for metabolic syndrome. However, a concomitant decline in lean tissue can frequently be observed. Given that fat-free mass (FFM) represents a key determinant of the magnitude of resting metabolic rate (RMR), it follows that a decrease in lean tissue could hinder the progress of weight loss. Therefore, with respect to long-term effectiveness of weight-loss programmes, the loss of fat mass while maintaining FFM and RMR seems desirable.

Diet intervention studies suggest spontaneous losses in bodyweight following low-fat diets, and current data on a reduction of the carbohydrate-to-protein ratio of the diet show promising outcomes. Exercise training is associated with an increase in energy expenditure, thus promoting changes in body composition and bodyweight while keeping dietary intake constant. The advantages of strength training may have greater implications than initially proposed with respect to decreasing percentage body fat and sustaining FFM. Research to date suggests that the addition of exercise programmes to dietary restriction can promote more favourable changes in body composition than diet or physical activity on its own. Moreover, recent research indicates that the macronutrient content of the energy-restricted diet may influence body compositional alterations following exercise regimens. Protein emerges as an important factor for the maintenance of or increase in FFM induced by exercise training. Changes in RMR can only partly be accounted for by alterations in respiring tissues, and other yet-undefined mechanisms have to be explored. These outcomes provide the scientific rationale to justify further randomised intervention trials on the synergies between diet and exercise approaches to yield favourable modifications in body composition.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Table I
Table II
Table III

Notes

  1. 1.

    Throughout this article, the terms ‘fat-free mass’ and ‘lean body mass’ are used interchangeably.

References

  1. 1.

    World Health Organization. The world health report 2002: reducing risks, promoting health life. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2002

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    World Health Organization. Technical report series (TRS): obesity — preventing and managing the global epidemic; 1997 Jun 3–5; Geneva. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1998. Report no.: 894

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Michaud DS, Giovannucci E, Willett WC, et al. Physical activity, obesity, height, and the risk of pancreatic cancer. JAMA 2001; 286 (8): 921–929

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Hu FB, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, et al. Diet, lifestyle, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. N Engl J Med 2001; 345 (11): 790–797

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Rexrode KM, Hennekens CH, Willett WC, et al. A prospective study of body mass index, weight change, and risk of stroke in women. JAMA 1997; 277 (19): 1539–1545

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Pisunyer FX. Medical hazards of obesity. Ann Intern Med 1993; 119 (7): 655–660

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    March LM, Bagga H. Epidemiology of osteoarthritis in Australia. Med J Aust 2004; 180 (5 Suppl.): S6–S10

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Nieters A, Becker N, Linseisen J. Polymorphisms in candidate obesity genes and their interaction with dietary intake of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids affect obesity risk in a sub-sample of the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort. Eur J Nutr 2002; 41 (5): 210–221

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Bouchard C, Tremblay A. Genetic influences on the response of body fat and fat distribution to positive and negative energy balances in human identical twins. J Nutr 1997; 127: S943–S947

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Peters JC, Wyatt HR, Donahoo WT, et al. From instinct to intellect: the challenge of maintaining healthy weight in the modern world. Obes Rev 2002; 3 (2): 69–74

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Mazansky H. A review of obesity and its management in 263 cases. S Afr Med J 1975; 49 (47): 1955–1962

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Saris WHM, Astrup A, Prentice AM, et al. Randomized controlled trial of changes in dietary carbohydrate/fat ratio and simple vs complex carbohydrates on body weight and blood lipids: the CARMEN study. Int J Obes 2000; 24 (10): 1310–1318

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Poppitt SD, Keogh GF, Prentice AM, et al. Long-term effects of ad libitum low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets on body weight and serum lipids in overweight subjects with metabolic syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 75 (1): 11–20

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Meckling KA, Gauthier M, Grubb R, et al. Effects of a hypocaloric, low-carbohydrate diet on weight loss, blood lipids, blood pressure, glucose tolerance, and body composition in free-living overweight women. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2002; 80 (11): 1095–1105

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Glass JN, Miller WC, Szymanski LM, et al. Physiological responses to weight-loss intervention in inactive obese African-American and Caucasian women. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2002; 42 (1): 56–64

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    van Aggel-Leijssen DPC, Saris WHM, Hul GB, et al. Short-term effects of weight loss with or without low-intensity exercise training on fat metabolism in obese men. Am J Clin Nutr 2001; 73 (3): 523–531

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Brill JB, Perry AC, Parker L, et al. Dose-response effect of walking exercise on weight loss: how much is enough? Int J Obes 2002; 26 (11): 1484–1493

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Utter AC, Nieman DC, Shannonhouse EM, et al. Influence of diet and/or exercise on body composition and cardiorespirato-ry fitness in obese women. Int J Sport Nutr 1998; 8 (3): 213–222

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Borg P, Kukkonen-Harjula K, Fogelholm M, et al. Effects of walking or resistance training on weight loss maintenance in obese, middle-aged men: a randomized trial. Int J Obes 2002; 26 (5): 676–683

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Leslie WS, Lean MEJ, Baillie HM, et al. Weight management: a comparison of existing dietary approaches in a work-site setting. Int J Obes 2002; 26 (11): 1469–1475

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Byrne NM, Weinsier RL, Hunter GR, et al. Influence of distribution of lean body mass on resting metabolic rate after weight loss and weight regain: comparison of responses in white and black women. Am J Clin Nutr 2003; 77 (6): 1368–1373

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Gorin AA, Phelan S, Wing RR, et al. Promoting long-term weight control: does dieting consistency matter? Int J Obes 2004; 28 (2): 278–281

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Leser MS, Yanovski SZ, Yanovski JA. A low-fat intake and greater activity level are associated with lower weight regain 3 years after completing a very-low-calorie diet. J Am Diet Assoc 2002; 102 (9): 1252–1256

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Tataranni PA, Harper IT, Snitker S, et al. Body weight gain in free-living Pima Indians: effect of energy intake vs expenditure. Int J Obes 2003; 27 (12): 1578–1583

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Ravussin E, Lillioja S, Knowler WC, et al. Reduced rate of energy-expenditure as a risk factor for body-weight gain. N Engl J Med 1988; 318 (8): 467–472

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Seidell JC, Muller DC, Sorkin JD, et al. Fasting respiratory exchange ratio and resting metabolic-rate as predictors of weight-gain: the Baltimore Longitudinal study on aging. Int J Obes 1992; 16 (9): 667–674

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Muller MJ, Grund A, Krause H, et al. Determinants of fat mass in prepubertal children. Br J Nutr 2002; 88 (5): 545–554

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Muller MJ, Bosy-Westphal A, Kutzner D, et al. Metabolically active components of fat-free mass and resting energy expenditure in humans: recent lessons from imaging technologies. Obes Rev 2002; 3 (2): 113–122

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Layman DK, Boileau RA, Erickson DJ, et al. A reduced ratio of dietary carbohydrate to protein improves body composition and blood lipid profiles during weight loss in adult women. J Nutr 2003; 133 (2): 411–417

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Farnsworth E, Luscombe ND, Noakes M, et al. Effect of a high-protein, energy-restricted diet on body composition, glycemic control, and lipid concentrations in overweight and obese hyperinsulinemic men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 2003; 78 (1): 31–39

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Tsai AC, Sandretto A, Chung YC. Dieting is more effective in reducing weight but exercise is more effective in reducing fat during the early phase of a weight-reducing program in healthy humans. J Nutr Biochem 2003; 14 (9): 541–549

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Belko AZ, Vanloan M, Barbieri TF, et al. Diet, exercise, weight-loss, and energy-expenditure in moderately overweight women. Int J Obes 1987; 11 (2): 93–104

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Schwartz RS, Jaeger LF, Veith RC, et al. The effect of diet or exercise on plasma norepinephrine kinetics in moderately obese young men. Int J Obes 1990; 14 (1): 1–11

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    van Aggel-Leijssen DP, Saris WH, Hul GB, et al. Long-term effects of low-intensity exercise training on fat metabolism in weight-reduced obese men. Metabolism 2002; 51 (8): 1003–1010

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Torbay N, Baba NH, Sawaya S, et al. High protein vs high carbohydrate hypoenergetic diet in treatment of obese normoinsulinemic and hyperinsulinemic subjects. Nutr Res 2002; 22 (5): 587–598

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Deriaz O, Fournier G, Tremblay A, et al. Lean-body-mass composition and resting energy-expenditure before and after long-term overfeeding. Am J Clin Nutr 1992; 56 (5): 840–847

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Bitar A, Fellmann N, Vernet J, et al. Variations and determinants of energy expenditure as measured by whole-body indirect calorimetry during puberty and adolescence. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 69 (6): 1209–1216

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Sparti A, DeLany JP, de la Bretonne JA, et al. Relationship between resting metabolic rate and the composition of the fat-free mass. Metabolsim 1997; 46 (10): 1225–1230

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Freake HC, Oppenheimer JH. Thermogenesis and thyroid-function. Annu Rev Nutr 1995; 15: 263–291

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Astrup A, Toubro S, Dalgaard LT, et al. Impact of the v/v 55 polymorphism of the uncoupling protein 2 gene on 24-h energy expenditure and substrate oxidation. Int J Obes 1999; 23 (10): 1030–1034

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Menozzi R, Bondi M, Baldini A, et al. Resting metabolic rate, fat-free mass and catecholamine excretion during weight loss in female obese patients. Br J Nutr 2000; 84 (4): 515–520

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Doucet E, St Pierre S, Almeras N, et al. Changes in energy expenditure and substrate oxidation resulting from weight loss in obese men and women: is there an important contribution of leptin? J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000; 85 (4): 1550–1556

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Harper M-E, Dent R, Monemdjou S, et al. Decreased mitochondrial proton leak and reduced expression of uncoupling protein 3 in skeletal muscle of obese diet-resistant women. Diabetes 2002; 51 (8): 2459–2466

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Pelletier C, Doucet E, Imbeault P, et al. Associations between weight loss-induced changes in plasma organochlorine concentrations, serum T3 concentration, and resting metabolic rate. Toxicol Sci 2002; 67 (1): 46–51

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Rosenbaum M, Hirsch J, Murphy E, et al. Effects of changes in body weight on carbohydrate metabolism, catecholamine excretion, and thyroid function. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 71 (6): 1421–1432

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Sandoval DA, Davis SN. Leptin: metabolic control and regulation. J Diabetes Complications 2003; 17 (2): 108–113

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Filozof CM, Murua C, Sanchez MP, et al. Low plasma leptin concentration and low rates of fat oxidation in weight-stable post-obese subjects. Obes Res 2000; 8 (3): 205–210

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Jenkins AB, Markovic TP, Fleury A, et al. Carbohydrate intake and short-term regulation of leptin in humans. Diabetologia 1997; 40 (3): 348–351

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Demling RH, DeSanti L. Effect of a hypocaloric diet, increased protein intake and resistance training on lean mass gains and fat mass loss in overweight police officers. Ann Nutr Metab 2000; 44 (1): 21–29

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Whitehead JM, McNeill G, Smith JS. The effect of protein intake on 24-h energy expenditure during energy restriction. Int J Obes 1996; 20 (8): 727–732

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Sloth B, Krog-Mikkelsen I, Flint A, et al. No difference in body weight decrease between a low-glycemic-index and a high-glycemic-index diet but reduced LDL cholesterol after 10-wk ad libitum intake of the low-glycemic-index diet. Am J Clin Nutr 2004; 80 (2): 337–347

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Mueller-Cunningham WM, Quintana R, Kasim-Karakas SE. An ad libitum, very low-fat diet results in weight loss and changes in nutrient intakes in postmenopausal women. J Am Diet Assoc 2003; 103 (12): 1600–1606

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    Schlundt DG, Hill JO, Popecordle J, et al. Randomized evaluation of a low-fat ab libitum carbohydrate-diet for weight-reduction. Int J Obes 1993; 17 (11): 623–629

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Turley ML, Skeaff CM, Mann JI, et al. The effect of a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet on serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride. Eur J Clin Nutr 1998; 52 (10): 728–732

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Brand-Miller JC, Holt SHA, Pawlak DB, et al. Glycemic index and obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 76 (1): 281S–285S

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    Brehm BJ, Spang SE, Lattin BL, et al. The role of energy expenditure in the differential weight loss in obese women on low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005; 90 (3): 1475–1482

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    Skov AR, Toubro S, Ronn B, et al. Randomized trial on protein vs carbohydrate in ad libitum fat reduced diet for the treatment of obesity. Int J Obes 1999; 23 (5): 528–536

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  58. 58.

    Baba NH, Sawaya S, Torbay N, et al. High protein vs high carbohydrate hypoenergetic diet for the treatment of obese hyperinsulinemic subjects. Int J Obes 1999; 23 (11): 1202–1206

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  59. 59.

    Luscombe-Marsh ND, Noakes M, Wittert GA, et al. Carbohydrate-restricted diets high in either monounsaturated fat or protein are equally effective at promoting fat loss and improving blood lipids. Am J Clin Nutr 2005; 81 (4): 762–772

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    Luscombe ND, Clifton PM, Noakes M, et al. Effect of a high-protein, energy-restricted diet on weight loss and energy expenditure after weight stabilization in hyperinsulinemic subjects. Int J Obes 2003; 27 (5): 582–590

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  61. 61.

    McCrory MA, Suen VMM, Roberts SB. Biobehavioral influences on energy intake and adult weight gain. J Nutr 2002; 132 (12): 3830S–3834S

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  62. 62.

    de Jonge L, Bray GA. The thermic effect of food and obesity: a critical review. Obes Res 1997; 5 (6): 622–631

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  63. 63.

    Nair KS, Halliday D, Garrow JS. Thermic response to isoenergetic protein, carbohydrate or fat meals in lean and obese subjects. Clin Sci 1983; 65 (3): 307–312

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  64. 64.

    Jequier E. Pathways to obesity. Int J Obes 2002; 26: S12–S17

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  65. 65.

    Layman DK, Baum JI. Dietary protein impact on glycemic control during weight loss. J Nutr 2004; 134 (4): 968S–973S

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  66. 66.

    McCrory MA, Fuss PJ, Saltzman E, et al. Dietary determinants of energy intake and weight regulation in healthy adults. J Nutr 2000; 130 (2): 276S–279S

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  67. 67.

    Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Rolland V, Wilson SAJ, et al. Satiety related to 24h diet-induced thermogenesis during high protein carbohydrate vs high fat diets measured in a respiration chamber. Eur J Clin Nutr 1999; 53 (6): 495–502

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  68. 68.

    Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Lejeune M, Nijs I, et al. High protein intake sustains weight maintenance after body weight loss in humans. Int J Obes 2004; 28 (1): 57–64

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  69. 69.

    Poppitt SD, McCormack D, Buffenstein R. Short-term effects of macronutrient preloads on appetite and energy intake in lean women. Physiol Behav 1998; 64 (3): 279–285

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  70. 70.

    Latner JD, Schwartz M. The effects of a high-carbohydrate, high-protein or balanced lunch upon later food intake and hunger ratings. Appetite 1999; 33 (1): 119–128

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  71. 71.

    Stubbs RJ, van Wyk MCW, Johnstone AM, et al. Breakfasts high in protein, fat or carbohydrate: effect on within-day appetite and energy balance. Eur J Clin Nutr 1996; 50 (7): 409–417

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  72. 72.

    Raben A, Agerholm-Larsen L, Flint A, et al. Meals with similar energy densities but rich in protein, fat, carbohydrate, or alcohol have different effects on energy expenditure and substrate metabolism but not on appetite and energy intake. Am J Clin Nutr 2003; 77 (1): 91–100

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  73. 73.

    Vozzo R, Wittert G, Cocchiaro C, et al. Similar effects of foods high in protein, carbohydrate and fat on subsequent spontaneous food intake in healthy individuals. Appetite 2003; 40 (2): 101–107

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  74. 74.

    Foster GD, Wyatt HR, Hill JO, et al. A randomized trial of a low-carbohydrate diet for obesity. N Engl J Med 2003; 348 (21): 2082–2090

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  75. 75.

    Samaha FF, Iqbal N, Seshadri P, et al. A low-carbohydrate as compared with a low-fat diet in severe obesity. N Engl J Med 2003; 348 (21): 2074–2081

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  76. 76.

    Eisenstein J, Roberts SB, Dallal G, et al. High-protein weight-loss diets: are they safe and do they work? A review of the experimental and epidemiologic data. Nutr Rev 2002; 60 (7): 189–200

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  77. 77.

    Kerstetter JE, O’Brien KO, Insogna KL. Dietary protein, calcium metabolism, and skeletal homeostasis revisited. Am J Clin Nutr 2003; 78 (3): 584S–592S

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  78. 78.

    Massey LK. Dietary animal and plant protein and human bone health: a whole foods approach. J Nutr 2003; 133 (3): 862S–865S

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  79. 79.

    Ryan AS. Insulin resistance with aging: effects of diet and exercise. Sports Med 2000; 30 (5): 327–346

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  80. 80.

    Maehlum S, Grandmontagne M, Newsholme EA, et al. Magnitude and duration of excess postexercise oxygen-consumption in healthy-young subjects. Metabolism 1986; 35 (5): 425–429

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  81. 81.

    Borsheim E, Bahr R. Effect of exercise intensity, duration and mode on post-exercise oxygen consumption. Sports Med 2003; 33 (14): 1037–1060

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  82. 82.

    Frey GC, Byrnes WC, Mazzeo RS. Factors influencing excess postexercise oxygen-consumption in trained and untrained women. Metabolism 1993; 42 (7): 822–828

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  83. 83.

    Short KR, Sedlock DA. Excess postexercise oxygen consumption and recovery rate in trained and untrained subjects. J Appl Physiol 1997; 83 (1): 153–159

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  84. 84.

    Sjodin AM, Forslund AH, Westerterp KR, et al. The influence of physical activity on BMR. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1996; 28 (1): 85–91

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  85. 85.

    Melby C, Scholl C, Edwards G, et al. Effect of acute resistance exercise on postexercise energy-expenditure and resting metabolic-rate. J Appl Physiol 1993; 75 (4): 1847–1853

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  86. 86.

    Tonkonogi M, Krook A, Walsh B, et al. Endurance training increases stimulation of uncoupling of skeletal muscle mitochondria in humans by non-esterified fatty acids: an uncou-pling-protein-mediated effect? Biochem J 2000; 351: 805–810

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  87. 87.

    Schrauwen P, Hesselink M. Uncoupling protein 3 and physical activity: the role of uncoupling protein 3 in energy metabolism revisited. Proc Nutr Soc 2003; 62 (3): 635–643

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  88. 88.

    Short KR, Vittone JL, Bigelow ML, et al. Age and aerobic exercise training effects on whole body and muscle protein metabolism. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2004; 286 (1): E92–E101

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  89. 89.

    Poehlman ET, Gardner AW, Goran MI. Influence of endurance training on energy intake, norepinephrine kinetics, and metabolic rate in older individuals. Metabolism 1992; 41 (9): 941–948

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  90. 90.

    Horton TJ, Drougas HJ, Sharp TA, et al. Energy-balance in endurance-trained female cyclists and untrained controls. J Appl Physiol 1994; 76 (5): 1937–1945

    Google Scholar 

  91. 91.

    Westerterp KR, Meijer GAL, Schoffelen P, et al. Body-mass, body-composition and sleeping metabolic-rate before, during and after endurance training. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1994; 69 (3): 203–208

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  92. 92.

    Venables MC, Achten J, Jeukendrup AE. Determinants of fat oxidation during exercise in healthy men and women: a cross-sectional study. J Appl Physiol 2005 Jan; 98 (1): 160–167. Epub 2004 Aug 27

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  93. 93.

    Abdel-Hamid TK. Modeling the dynamics of human energy regulation and its implications for obesity treatment. System Dynamics Rev 2002; 18 (4): 431–471

    Article  Google Scholar 

  94. 94.

    van Aggel-Leijssen DP, Saris WH, Wagenmakers AJ, et al. The effect of low-intensity exercise training on fat metabolism of obese women. Obes Res 2001; 9 (2): 86–96

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  95. 95.

    Wilmore JH, Despres JP, Stanforth PR, et al. Alterations in body weight and composition consequent to 20 wk of endurance training: the HERITAGE Family Study. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 70 (3): 346–352

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  96. 96.

    Donnelly JE, Hill JO, Jacobsen DJ, et al. Effects of a 16-month randomized controlled exercise trial on body weight and composition in young, overweight men and women: the midwest excercise trial. Arch Intern Med 2003; 163 (11): 1343–1350

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  97. 97.

    Kirk EP, Jacobsen DJ, Gibson C, et al. Time course for changes in aerobic capacity and body composition in overweight men and women in response to long-term exercise: the Midwest Exercise Trial (MET). Int J Obes 2003; 27 (8): 912–919

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  98. 98.

    Wilmore JH, Stanforth PR, Hudspeth LA, et al. Alterations in resting metabolic rate as a consequence of 20 wk of endurance training: the HERITAGE Family Study. Am J Clin Nutr 1998; 68 (1): 66–71

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  99. 99.

    Grediagin MA, Cody M, Rupp J, et al. Exercise intensity does net effect body-composition change in untrained, moderately overfat women. J Am Diet Assoc 1995; 95 (6): 661–665

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  100. 100.

    Donnelly JE, Jacobsen DJ, Heelan KS, et al. The effects of 18 months of intermittent vs continuous exercise on aerobic capacity, body weight and composition, and metabolic fitness in previously sedentary, moderately obese females. Int J Obes 2000; 24 (5): 566–572

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  101. 101.

    Sykes K, Choo LL, Cotterrell M. Accumulating aerobic exercise for effective weight control. J R Soc Health 2004; 124 (1): 24–28

    Article  Google Scholar 

  102. 102.

    Schmitz KH, Jensen MD, Kugler KC, et al. Strength training for obesity prevention in midlife women. Int J Obes 2003; 27 (3): 326–333

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  103. 103.

    Cullinen K, Caldwell M. Weight training increases fat free mass and strength in untrained young women. J Am Diet Assoc 1998; 98 (4): 414–418

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  104. 104.

    Byrne HK, Wilmore JH. The effects of a 20-week exercise training program on resting metabolic rate in previously sedentary, moderately obese women. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2001; 11 (1): 15–31

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  105. 105.

    Walberg JL. Aerobic exercise and resistance weight-training during weight-reduction: implications for obese persons and athletes. Sports Med 1989; 7 (6): 343–356

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  106. 106.

    Speakman JR, Selman C. Physical activity and resting metabolic rate. Proc Nutr Soc 2003; 62: 621–634

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  107. 107.

    Warwick PM, Garrow JS. The effect of addition of exercise to a regime of dietary restriction on weight-loss, nitrogen-balance, resting metabolic-rate and spontaneous physical-activity in 3 obese women in a metabolic ward. Int J Obes 1981; 5 (1): 25–32

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  108. 108.

    Woo R, Garrow JS, Pisunyer FX. Effect of exercise on spontaneous calorie intake in obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 1982; 36 (3): 470–477

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  109. 109.

    Klausen B, Toubro S, Ranneries C, et al. Increased intensity of a single exercise bout stimulates subsequent fat intake. Int J Obes 1999; 23 (12): 1282–1287

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  110. 110.

    Lluch A, King NA, Blundell JE. No energy compensation at the meal following exercise indietary restrained and unrestrained women. Br J Nutr 2000; 84 (2): 219–225

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  111. 111.

    Kempen KPG, Saris WHM, Westerterp KR. Energy-balance during an 8-wk energy-restricted diet with and without exercise in obese women. Am J Clin Nutr 1995; 62 (4): 722–729

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  112. 112.

    Stubbs RJ, Sepp A, Hughes DA, et al. The effect of graded intake and balance levels of exercise on energy in free-living women. Int J Obes 2002; 26 (6): 866–869

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  113. 113.

    Stubbs RJ, Hughes DA, Johnstone AM, et al. Rate and extent of compensatory changes in energy intake and expenditure in response to altered exercise and diet composition in humans. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2004; 286 (2): R350–R358

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  114. 114.

    Provencher V, Drapeau V, Tremblay A, et al. Eating behaviors and indexes of body composition in men and women from the Quebec family study. Obes Res 2003; 11 (6): 783–792

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  115. 115.

    Visona C, George VA. Impact of dieting status and dietary restraint on postexercise energy intake in overweight women. Obes Res 2002; 10 (12): 1251–1258

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  116. 116.

    Frey-Hewitt B, Vranizan KM, Dreon DM, et al. The effect of weight loss by dieting or exercise on resting metabolic rate in overweight men. Int J Obes 1990; 14 (4): 327–334

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  117. 117.

    Hays NP, Starling RD, Liu XL, et al. Effects of an ad libitum low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet on body weight, body composition, and fat distribution in older men and women: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med 2004; 164 (2): 210–217

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  118. 118.

    Okura T, Nakata Y, Tanaka K. Effects of exercise intensity on physical fitness and risk factors for coronary heart disease. Obes Res 2003; 11 (9): 1131–1139

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  119. 119.

    Racette SB, Schoeller DA, Kushner RF, et al. Effects of aerobic exercise and dietary carbohydrate on energy-expenditure and body-composition during weight-reduction in obese rate. Am J Clin Nutr 1995; 61 (3): 486–494

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  120. 120.

    Gornall J, Villani RG. Short-term changes in body composition and metabolism with severe dieting and resistance exercise. Int J Sport Nutr 1996; 6 (3): 285–294

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  121. 121.

    Doi T, Matsuo T, Sugawara M, et al. New approach for weight reduction by a combination of diet, light resistance exercise and the timing of ingesting a protein supplement. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2001; 10 (3): 226–232

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  122. 122.

    Rice B, Janssen I, Hudson R, et al. Effects of aerobic or resistance exercise and/or diet on glucose tolerance and plasma insulin levels in obese men. Diabetes Care 1999; 22 (5): 684–691

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  123. 123.

    Janssen I, Fortier A, Hudson R, et al. Effects of an energy-restrictive diet with or without exercise on abdominal fat, intermuscular fat, and metabolic risk factors in obese women. Diabetes Care 2002; 25 (3): 431–438

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  124. 124.

    Geliebter A, Maher MM, Gerace L, et al. Effects of strength or aerobic training on body composition, resting metabolic rate, and peak oxygen consumption in obese dieting subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1997; 66 (3): 557–563

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  125. 125.

    Bryner RW, Ullrich IH, Sauers J, et al. Effects of resistance vs. aerobic training combined with an 800 calorie liquid diet on lean body mass and resting metabolic rate. J Am Coll Nutr 1999; 18 (2): 115–121

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  126. 126.

    Marks BL, Ward A, Morris DH, et al. Fat-free mass is maintained in women following a moderate diet and exercise program. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1995; 27 (9): 1243–1251

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  127. 127.

    Wadden TA, Vogt RA, Kuehnel RH, et al. Exercise in the treatment of obesity: effects of four interventions on body composition, resting energy expenditure, appetite, and mood. J Consult Clin Psychol 1997; 65 (2): 269–277

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  128. 128.

    Kraemer WJ, Volek JS, Clark KL, et al. Physiological adaptations to a weight-loss dietary regimen and exercise programs in women. J Appl Physiol 1997; 83 (1): 270–279

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  129. 129.

    Svendsen OL, Hassager C, Christiansen C. Effect of an energy-restrictive diet, with or without exercise, on lean tissue mass, resting metabolic-rate, cardiovascular risk-factors, and bone in overweight postmenopausal women. Am J Med 1993; 95 (2): 131–140

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  130. 130.

    Evans WJ. Protein nutrition and resistance exercise. Can J Appl Physiol 2001; 26: S141–S152

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  131. 131.

    Doi T, Matsuo T, Sugawara M, et al. New approach for weight reduction by a combination of diet, light resistance exercise and the timing of ingesting a protein supplement. Asia Pacific J Clin Nutr 2001; 10 (3): 226–232

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  132. 132.

    Lafortuna CL, Resnik M, Galvani C, et al. Effects of non-specific vs individualized exercise training protocols on aerobic anaerobic and strength performance in severely obese subjects during a short-term body mass reduction program. J Endocrinol Invest 2003; 26 (3): 197–205

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  133. 133.

    Forbes GB. Diet and exercise in obese subjects: self-report versus controlled measurements. Nutr Rev 1993; 51 (10): 296–300

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  134. 134.

    Andersen RE, Franckowiak SC, Bartlett SJ, et al. Physiologic changes after diet combined with structured aerobic exercise or lifestyle activity. Metabolism 2002; 51 (12): 1528–1533

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  135. 135.

    Forbes GB. Body fat content influences the body composition response to nutrition and exercise. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2000; 904: 359–365

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  136. 136.

    Lennon D, Nagle F, Stratman F, et al. Diet and exercise training effects on resting metabolic rate. Int J Obes 1985; 9 (1): 39–47

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  137. 137.

    Poehlman ET. Exercise and its influence on resting energy-metabolism in man: a review. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1989; 21 (5): 515–525

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  138. 138.

    Poehlman ET, Horton ES. The impact of food-intake and exercise on energy-expenditure. Nutr Rev 1989; 47 (5): 129–137

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  139. 139.

    Schuenke MD, Mikat RP, McBride JM. Effect of an acute period of resistance exercise on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption: implications for body mass management. Eur J Appl Physiol 2002; 86 (5): 411–417

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  140. 140.

    Osterberg KL, Melby CL. Effect of acute resistance exercise on postexercise oxygen consumption and resting metabolic rate in young women. Int J Sport Nutr 2000; 10 (1): 71–81

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  141. 141.

    De Feo P, Di Loreto C, Lucidi P, et al. Metabolic response to exercise. J Endocrinol Invest 2003; 26 (9): 851–854

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  142. 142.

    Reynolds TH, Brown MD, Supiano MA, et al. Aerobic exercise training improves insulin sensitivity independent of plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels in older female hypertensives. Metabolism 2002; 51 (11): 1402–1406

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  143. 143.

    Goodpaster BH, Katsiaras A, Kelley DE. Enhanced fat oxidation through physical activity is associated with improvements in insulin sensitivity in obesity. Diabetes 2003; 52 (9): 2191–2197

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  144. 144.

    Schrauwen P, Lichtenbelt WDV, Saris WHM, et al. Fat balance in obese subjects: role of glycogen stores. Am J Physiol 1998; 37 (6): E1027–E1033

    Google Scholar 

  145. 145.

    Binzen CA, Swan PD, Manore MM. Postexercise oxygen consumption and substrate use after resistance exercise in women. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001; 33 (6): 932–938

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  146. 146.

    Mayo MJ, Grantham JR, Balasekaran G. Exercise-induced weight loss preferentially reduces abdominal fat. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2003; 35 (2): 207–213

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  147. 147.

    Lindstrom J, Louheranta A, Mannelin M, et al. The Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS). Diabetes Care 2003; 26 (12): 3230–3236

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

Support for the preparation of this manuscript was provided by the School of Biosciences, University of Westminster. The authors have no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this review.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Petra Stiegler.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Stiegler, P., Cunliffe, A. The Role of Diet and Exercise for the Maintenance of Fat-Free Mass and Resting Metabolic Rate During Weight Loss. Sports Med 36, 239–262 (2006). https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200636030-00005

Download citation

Keywords

  • Body Composition
  • Exercise Training
  • Resistance Training
  • Resistance Exercise
  • Aerobic Exercise