Fatigue during High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise

Application to Bodybuilding

Abstract

Resistance exercise is an activity performed by individuals interested in competition, those who wish to improve muscle mass and strength for other sports, and for individuals interested in improving their strength and physical appearance. In this review we present information suggesting that phosphocreatine depletion, intramuscular acidosis and carbohydrate depletion are all potential causes of the fatigue during resistance exercise. In addition, recommendations are provided for nutritional interventions, which might delay muscle fatigue during this type of activity.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Table I

References

  1. 1.

    Fiatarone MA, O’Neill EF, Ryan ND, et al. Exercise training and nutritional supplementation for physical frailty in very elderly people. N Engl J Med 1994; 330: 1769–75

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Fiatarone MA, Marks EC, Ryan ND, et al. High-intensity strength training in nonagenarians: effects on skeletal muscle. JAMA 1990; 263: 3029–34

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Campbell W, Crim MC, Young VR, et al. Increased energy requirements and changes in body composition with resistance training in older adults. Am J Clin Nutr 1994; 60: 167–75

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Pratley R, Nicklas B, Rubin M, et al. Strength training increases resting metabolic rate and norepinephrine levels in healthy 50- to 65-yr -old men. J Appl Physiol 1994; 76: 133–7

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Kelley GA, Kelley KS, Tran ZV. Resistance training and bone mineral density in women: a meta-analysis of controlled trials. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2001; 80: 65–77

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    McComas AJ, McCartney N, Jones NL. Morphological changes in human skeletal muscle following strength training and immobilization. In: Jones NL, editor. Human muscle power. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics, 1986: 269–84

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Saltin B, Sjogaard G, Gaffny FA, et al. Potassium, lactate, and water fluxes in human quadriceps muscles during static muscle contractions. Circ Res 1981; 48 Suppl. 1: 18–24

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Barnes WS. The relationship between maximum isometric strength and intramuscular circulatory occlusion. Ergonomics 1980; 23: 351–7

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Andersen P, Saltin B. Maximal perfusion of skeletal muscle in man. J Physiol 1985; 366: 233–49

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Harris RC, Hultman E, Kaijser L, et al. The effect of circulatory occlusion on isometric exercise capacity and energy metabolism of the quadriceps muscle in man. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1975; 35: 87–95

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Yoshida T, Watari H. Effect of circulatory occlusion on human muscle metabolism during exercise and recovery. Eur J Appl Physiol 1997; 75: 200–5

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    MacDougall JD, Ray S, Sale DG, et al. Muscle substrate utilization and lactate production during weightlifting. Can J Appl Physiol 1999; 24: 209–15

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Medbo JI, Tabata I. Anaerobic energy release in working muscle during 30 s to 3 min of exhausting bicycling. J Appl Physiol 1993; 75: 1654–60

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    McCartney N, Spriet L, Heigenhauser GJF, et al. Muscle power and metabolism in maximal intermittent exercise. J Appl Physiol 1986; 60: 1164–9

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Katz A, Broberg S, Sahlin K, et al. Leg glucose uptake during maximal dynamic exercise in humans. Am J Physiol 1986; 251: E65–70

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Robergs RA, Pearson DR, Costill DL, et al. Muscle glycogenolysis during differing intensities of weight-resistance exercise. J Appl Physiol 1991; 70: 1700–6

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Miller RG, Boska MD, Moussavi RS, et al. 31P nuclear magnetic resonance studies of high energy phosphates and pH in human muscle fatigue: comparison of aerobic and anaerobic exercise. J Clin Invest 1988; 81: 1190–6

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Casey A, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Howell S, et al. Creatine ingestion favorably affects performance and muscle metabolism during maximal exercise in humans. Am J Physiol 1996; 271: E31–7

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Earnest CP, Snell PG, Rodriguez R, et al. The effect of creatine monohydrate ingestion on anaerobic power indices, muscular strength and body composition. Acta Physiol Scand 1995; 153: 207–9

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Greenhaff PL, Casey A, Short AH, et al. Influence of oral creatine supplementation on muscle torque during repeated bouts of maximal voluntary exercise in man. Clin Sci 1993; 84: 565–71

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Greenhaff PL, Bodin K, Soderlund K, et al. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on skeletal muscle phosphocreatine resynthesis. Am J Physiol 1994; 266 (5 Pt 1): E725–30

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Maganaris CN, Maughan RJ. Creatine supplementation enhances maximum voluntary isometric force and endurance capacity in resistance trained men. Acta Physiol Scand 1998; 163: 279–87

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Costill DL, Verstappen F, Kuipers H, et al. Acid-base balance during repeated bouts of exercise: influence of HCO3. Int J Sports Med 1984; 5: 228–31

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Portington KJ, Pascoe DD, Webster MJ, et al. Effect of induced alkalosis on exhaustive leg press performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998; 30: 523–8

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Webster MJ, Webster MN, Crawford RE, et al. Effect of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on exhaustive resistance exercise performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1993; 25: 960–5

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Linnossier MT, Dormois D, Bregere P, et al. Effect of sodium citrate on performance and metabolism of human skeletal muscle during supramaximal cycling exercise. Eur J Appl Phyiol 1997; 76: 48–54

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    McNaughton LR. Sodium citrate and anaerobic performance: implications of dosage. Eur J Appl Phyiol 1990; 61: 392–7

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Ball D, Maughan RJ. The effect of sodium citrate ingestion on the metabolic response to intense exercise following diet manipulation in man. Exp Physiol 1997; 82: 1041–56

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Hultman E, Del Canale S, Sjoholm H. Effect of induced metabolic acidosis on intracellular pH, buffer capacity and contraction force of human skeletal muscle. Clin Sci 1985; 69: 505–10

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Jacobs I, Hermiston AJ, Symons JD. Effects of prior exercise or ammonium chloride ingestion on muscular strength and endurance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1993; 25: 809–14

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Haff GG, Stone MH, Warren BJ, et al. The effect of carbohydrate supplementation on multiple sessions and bouts of resistance exercise. J Strength Cond Res 1999; 13: 111–7

    Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Haff GG, Koch AJ, Potteiger JA, et al. Carbohydrate supplementation attenuates muscle glycogen loss during acute bouts of resistance exercise. Int J Sports Nutr Exerc Metab 2000; 10: 326–39

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Lambert CP, Flynn MG, Boone JB, et al. Effects of carbohydrate feeding on multiple bout resistance exercise. J Appl Sport Sci Res 1991; 5: 192–7

    Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Leveritt M, Abernathy PJ. Effects of carbohydrate restriction on strength performance. J Strength Cond Res 1999; 13: 52–7

    Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Nicholas C, Tsintzas K, Boobis L, et al. Carbohydrate-electrolyte ingestion during intermittent high-intensity running. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999; 31: 1280–6

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Mitchell JB, Dilauro PC, Pizza FX, et al. The effect of preexercise carbohydrate status on resistance exercise performance. Int J Sport Nutr 1997; 7 (3): 185–96

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Ingwall JS, Morales MF, Stockdale FE. Creatine and the control of myosin synthesis in differentiating skeletal muscle. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 1972; 69: 2250–3

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Ingwall JS, Weiner CD, Morales MF, et al. Specificity of creatine in the control of muscle protein synthesis. J Cell Biol 1974; 63: 145–51

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Ingwall JS, Wildenthal K. Role of creatine in the regulation of cardiac protein synthesis. J Cell Biol 1976; 68: 159–63

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Volek JS, Kraemer WJ, Bush JA, et al. Creatine supplementation enhances muscular performance during high-intensity resistance exercise. J Am Diet Assoc 1997; 97: 765–70

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Vandenberghe K, Goris M, Van Hecke P, et al. Long-term creatine intake is beneficial to muscle performance during resistance training. J Appl Physiol 1997; 83: 2055–63

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    McCartney N, Heigenhauser GJF, Jones NL. Effects of pH on maximal power output and fatigue during short-termdynamic exercise. J Appl Physiol 1983; 55: 225–9

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Jacobs I. Lactate, muscle glycogen and exercise performance in man. Acta Physiol Scand Suppl 1981; 495: 1–35

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Bangsbo J, Graham TE, Kiens B, et al. Elevated muscle glycogen and anaerobic energy production during exhaustive exercise in man. J Appl Physiol 1992; 451: 205–27

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Hultman E, Sjoholm H. Substrate availability. In: Knuttgen HG, Vogel JA, Poortsmans J, editors. Biochemistry of exercise. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics, 1983: 63–75

    Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Greenhaff PL, Ren JM, Soderlund K, et al. Energy metabolism in single human muscle fibers during contraction without and with epinephrine infusion. Am J Physiol 1991; 260 (5 Pt 1): E713–8

    Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Tesch PA, Colliander EB, Kaiser P. Muscle metabolism during intense, heavy-resistance exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 1986; 55: 362–6

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Vollestad NK, Tabata I, Medbo JI. Glycogen breakdown in different human muscle fibre types during exhaustive exercise of short duration. Acta Physiol Scand 1991; 144: 135–41

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Balsom PD, Gaitanos GC, Soderlund K, et al. High-intensity exercise and muscle glycogen availability in humans. Acta Physiol Scand 1999; 165: 337–45

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Greenhaff PL, Nevill ME, Soderlund K, et al. The metabolic responses of human type I and II muscle fibres during maximal treadmill sprinting. J Physiol 1994; 478 (1): 149–55

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Davis JM, Jackson DA, Broadwell MS, et al. Carbohydrate drinks delay fatigue during intermittent, high-intensity cycling in active men and women. Int J Sport Nutr 1997; 7: 261–73

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Spriet LL, Lindinger MI, McKelvie RS, et al. Muscle glycogenolysis and H+ concentration during maximal intermittent cycling. J Appl Physiol 1989; 66: 8–13

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    Kirwan JP, Hickner RC, Yarasheski KE, et al. Eccentric exercise induces transient insulin resistance in healthy individuals. J Appl Physiol 1992; 72: 2197–202

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Gibala MJ, Interisano SA, Tarnopolsky MA, et al. Myofibrillar disruption following acute concentric and eccentric resistance exercise in strength-trained men. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2000; 78: 656–61

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Costill DL, Pascoe DD, Fink WJ, et al. Impaired muscle glycogen resynthesis after eccentric exercise. J Appl Physiol 1990; 69: 46–50

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    Essen B. Intramuscular substrate utilization during prolonged exercise. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1977; 301: 30–44

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    Pascoe DD, Costill DL, Fink WJ, et al. Glycogen resynthesis in skeletal muscle following resistive exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1993; 25: 349–54

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  58. 58.

    MacDougall JD, Ward GR, Sale DG, et al. Muscle glycogen repletion after high-intensity intermittent exercise. J Appl Physiol 1977; 42: 129–32

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  59. 59.

    Hultman E, Soderlund K, Timmons JA, et al. Muscle creatine loading in men. J Appl Physiol 1996; 81: 232–7

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    Guerrero-Ontiveros ML, Walliman T. Creatine supplementation in health and disease. Effects of chronic creatine ingestion in vivo: down-regulation of the expression of the creatine transporter isoforms in skeletal muscle. Mol Cell Biochem 1998; 184: 427–37

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Charles P. Lambert.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Lambert, C.P., Flynn, M.G. Fatigue during High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise. Sports Med 32, 511–522 (2002). https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200232080-00003

Download citation

Keywords

  • Resistance Training
  • Resistance Exercise
  • Muscle Glycogen
  • Glycogen Concentration
  • Creatine Monohydrate