Sports Medicine

, Volume 26, Issue 3, pp 169–176 | Cite as

Pronation in Runners

Implications for Injuries
  • Beat Hintermann
  • Benno M. Nigg
Review Article


In spite of some significant progress in the understanding of the biomechanics of the ankle joint complex, especially the coupling mechanism between foot and leg, various mechanisms causing overuse injuries in the lower extremities are still poorly understood. Some increased pronation of the foot is often physiological, but excessive pronation is potentially harmful. Compensatory overpronation may occur for anatomical reasons. However, not only the amount of foot eversion, but also the way this eversion is transferred into tibial rotation may be crucial to the overloading stress on the knee. In other words, the individual transfer mechanism of foot eversion into internal tibial rotation may be of some predictable value for lower extremity overloading and related injuries.

Further research is necessary to improve the functional understanding of anatomical and biomechanical abnormalities and their pathological value in predicting overuse injuries.


Adis International Limited Ground Reaction Force Overuse Injury Subtalar Joint Tibial Rotation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Adis International Limited. All rights reserved 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Beat Hintermann
    • 1
  • Benno M. Nigg
    • 2
  1. 1.Orthopaedic DepartmentUniversity of BaselBaselSwitzerland
  2. 2.Human Performance LaboratoryThe University of CalgaryCalgaryCanada

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