Over the years, golf has become an increasingly popular sport, attracting new players of almost all ages and socioeconomic groups. Golf is practised by up to 10 to 20% of the overall adult population in many countries. Beyond the enjoyment of the sport itself, the health-related benefits of the exercise involved in walking up to 10km and of relaxing in a pleasant natural environment are often reported to be the main motives for adhering to this activity by recreational golfers.
Golf is considered to be a moderate risk activity for sports injury; however, excessive time spent golfing and technical deficiencies lead to overuse injuries. These are the 2 main causes of injuries among golfers, and each has specific differences in the pattern in which they occur in professional and amateur golfers. Golf injuries originate either from overuse or from a traumatic origin and primarily affect the elbow, wrist, shoulder and the dorsolumbar sites. Professional and weekend golfers, although showing a similar overall anatomical distribution of injuries by body segment, tend to present differences in the ranking of injury occurrence by anatomical site; these differences can be explained by their playing habits and the biomechanical characteristics of their golf swing.
Many of these injuries can be prevented by a preseason, and year-round, sportspecific conditioning programme including: (i) muscular strengthening, flexibility and aerobic exercise components; (ii) a short, practical, pre-game warm-up routine; and (iii) the adjustment of an individual’s golf swing to meet their physical capacities and limitations through properly supervised golf lessons. Finally, the correct selection of golf equipment and an awareness of the environmental conditions and etiquette of golf can also contribute to making golf a safe and enjoyable lifetime activity.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 3.Stephens T, Craig CL. Le mieux-être des Canadiens et des Canadiennes: faits saillants de l’enquête Campbell de 1988, Ottawa. Ottawa (ON): Institut canadien de la recherche sur la condition physique et le mode de vie, 1990: 6–14Google Scholar
- 4.Nolin B, Prud’homme D, Godbout M. L’activité physique de loisir au Québec: rapport de l’enquête ‘Activité physique et santé 1993’. Monographie no. 5. Montréal (PQ): Santé Québec, Ministere de la Santé et des Services Sociaux et Kino-Québec, Governement du Quebec, 1996: 59–66Google Scholar
- 5.National Golf Foundation. 11500 South US High-Way One, Jupiter (FL), US. Statistics, 1993Google Scholar
- 6.Morehouse CA. The super senior golfer. In. Cochran, ed. Science and golf. London: Chapman and Hall, 1990; 14–23Google Scholar
- 8.Thériault G, Lacoste E, Gaboury M, et al. Golf injury characteristics: a survey from 528 golfers. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1996 May; 28 (5): 565Google Scholar
- 9.Stover CN, Wiren G, Topaz GR. The modern golf swing and stress syndromes. Physician Sports Med 1976; 4: 42–7Google Scholar
- 11.McCarroll JR, Retting AC, Shelbourne KD. Injuries in the amateur golfer. Physician Sports Med 1990; 18: 122–6Google Scholar
- 15.Duda M. Golf injuries: they really do happen. Physician Sports Med 1987; 15: 191–6Google Scholar
- 17.McCarroll JR, Gioe TJ. Professional golfers and the price they pay. Physician Sports Med 1982; 10: 54–70Google Scholar
- 18.Lacoste E, Gadoury M, Thériault G, et al. La prévention des blessures au golf: effet d’un programme d’échauffement spécifique [presentation]. Association québécoise des sciences de l’activité physique; 1995 Mar; QuébecGoogle Scholar
- 21.McCarroll JR. Golf: common injuries from supposedly benign activity. J Musculoskeletal Med 1986; 3: 9–16Google Scholar
- 22.Parnianpour M, Nordin N, Frankel VH, et al. The triaxial coupling of torque generation of trunk muscles during isometric exertions and the effect of fatiguing isointertial movement on the motor output and movement patterns. Orthop Trans 1988; 12: 629–34Google Scholar
- 23.Evarard A. Golf. J R Coll Gen Pract 1970; 3: 293–5Google Scholar
- 24.Shulenburg CAR. Medical aspects and curiosities of golfing. Practitioner 1976; 217: 625–8Google Scholar
- 25.Nirschl RP. Muscle and tendon trauma: tennis elbow. In: Morrey BF, editor. The elbow and its disorders. Philadelphia (PA): WB Saunders, 1993; 5531–7Google Scholar
- 28.Murphy PM, Cooney WP. Golf-induced injuries of the wrist. Clin Sports Med 1996; 15: 85–109Google Scholar
- 30.Chao EYS, Tamai K, Cahalan TD, et al. Biomechanics of the golf swing as related to club handle design. Biomechanics in Sports 1987; 6: 107–11Google Scholar
- 34.Adams MA, Hutton WC. The effect of fatigue on the lumbar intervertebral disc. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1993; 65: 199–203Google Scholar
- 37.Pink M, Jobe FW. Shoulder injuries in athletes. Clin Management 1991; 11: 39–47Google Scholar
- 39.Jobe FW, Moynes DR. 30 Exercises for better golf. Inglewood (CA): Champion Press, 1986Google Scholar
- 41.Stover LS, Mallon WJ. Golf injuries: treating the play to treat the player. J Musculoskel Med 1992; 9 (10): 55–72Google Scholar