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Sports Medicine

, Volume 23, Issue 3, pp 173–210 | Cite as

Interactions of Physical Training and Heat Acclimation

The Thermophysiology of Exercising in a Hot Climate
  • Yukitoshi Aoyagi
  • Tom M. McLellan
  • Roy J. Shephard
Review Article

Summary

Physical training and heat acclimation are both commonly adopted tactics to improve performance and/or tolerance times when individuals must compete or work in the heat. Potential benefits include: (i) improved aerobic fitness and thus a greater cardiovascular reserve (probably seen mainly after training); (ii) a lower resting body temperature that allows greater heat storage (probably seen mainly after acclimation); (iii) a decreased energy cost of a given intensity of exercise (seen after acclimation and also as the learning component of training); (iv) an enhanced sweating response at a given percentage of maximal effort (probably developed by both treatments); (v) a slower increase in body temperature owing to (iii) and/or (iv) [seen after both treatments]; (vi) a reduced cardiovascular stress because of changes in the autonomic nervous system (probably realised mainly by training), expansion of blood volume (seen after both treatments) and/or a decreased peripheral pooling of blood (probably found after both treatments); and (vii) improved subjective tolerance reflecting a decrease in the relative intensity of a given activity (probably seen mainly after training), a reduction in the physiological strain (found after both treatments) and/or habituation to heat-exercise stress (probably developed by both treatments). Factors affecting improvements in physiological and psychological responses to a given set of conditions include: (i) the individual’s initial fitness and acclimatisation to heat; (ii) age, gender, hydration, sleep deprivation, circadian rhythms and in women the menstrual cycle; (iii) use of ergogenic aids such as fluid ingestion, carbohydrate and/or electrolyte replacement and blood doping; (iv) event or test conditions such as the mode of exercise, the severity of environmental heat stress and the type of clothing worn; and (v) treatment conditions such as the intensity, duration and frequency of exercise and/or heat exposure, the length of any rest intervals and cumulative depletion of body water and minerals.

Keywords

Skin Temperature Physical Training Respiratory Quotient Skin Blood Flow Protective Clothing 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Adis International Limited 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yukitoshi Aoyagi
    • 1
  • Tom M. McLellan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Roy J. Shephard
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Graduate Department of Community HealthUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Defence and Civil Institute of Environmental MedicineNorth YorkCanada
  3. 3.School of Physical and Health EducationUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

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