Sports Medicine

, Volume 21, Issue 4, pp 277–291 | Cite as

The Effects of Acute and Chronic Exercise on Sleep

A Meta-Analytic Review
  • Karla A. Kubitz
  • Daniel M. Landers
  • Steven J. Petruzzello
  • Myungwoo Han
Review Article

Summary

Studies attempting to ascertain the effects of acute and chronic exercise on measures of sleep have yielded conflicting results and interpretations. Methodological differences among studies may explain this lack of consensus; however, small sample sizes and subsequently low statistical power may also have contributed. In an attempt to resolve these issues, this review used meta-analytical techniques to: (a) re-examine the effects of exercise on sleep; and (b) examine possible moderators of these effects. Studies meeting the selection criteria were included in the analysis. Analyses of moderating factors were performed for stage 4 sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The results indicated that acute and chronic exercise increased slow wave sleep (SWS) and total sleep time but decreased sleep onset latency and REM sleep. Moderating variables influencing the magnitude and direction of these effects were related to characteristics of the individual (e.g. sex, age, fitness level) and the exercise (e.g. time of day exercise was completed, type of exercise, exercise duration). Mechanisms which have been suggested to explain the relationship between exercise and sleep are discussed and directions for further research are provided.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Hauri P. Effects of evening activities on early night sleep. Psychophysiology 1968; 4: 267–77Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Trinder J, Montgomery I, Paxton SJ. The effect of exercise on sleep: the negative view. Acta Physiol Scand 1988; 133 Suppl. 574: 14–20Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Horne JA. Human sleep and tissue restitution: some qualifications and doubts. Clin Sci 1983; 65: 569–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Berger RJ. Slow wave sleep, shallow torpor and hibernation: homologous states of diminished metabolism and body temperature. Biol Psychol 1984; 19: 305–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rechtschaffen A, Kales A. A manual of standardized terminology, techniques and scoring system for sleep stages of human subjects. Washington (DC): Government Printing Office, 1968Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Baekeland F, Lasky, R. Exercise and sleep patterns in college athletes. Percept Mot Skills 1966; 23: 1203–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Home JA. The effects of exercise upon sleep: a critical review. Biol Psychol 1981; 12: 241–90Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Torsvall L. Sleep after exercise: a literature review. J Sports Med 1981; 21: 218–25Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Shapiro CM. Sleep and the athlete. Br J Sports Med 1981; 15: 51–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shapiro CM, Driver HS. Exercise and sleep — a review. NATO Colloquium, New York: Plenum Press, 1988Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Glass GV. Integrating findings: the meta-analysis of research. Rev Res Educ 1978; 5: 351–79Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sacks HS, Berrier K, Reitman D, et al. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. N Eng J Med 1987; 316: 450–5Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kubitz KA, Landers DM, Salazar W, et al. A meta-analytic review of the effects of exercise on total sleep time. Psychophysiology 1989; 26: S40Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Home JA, Moore VJ. Sleep EEG effects of exercise with and without additional body cooling. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 1985; 60: 33–8Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Glass GV, McGaw B, Smith ML. Meta-analysis in social research. Beverly Hills (CA): Sage Publications, 1981Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Thomas JR, French KE. The use of meta-analysis in exercise and sport: a tutorial. Res Q 1986; 57: 196–204Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hedges LV. Fitting categorical models to effect sizes from a series of experiments. J Educ Stat 1981; 7: 119–37Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rosenthal R. Combining results of independent studies. Psychol Bull 1978; 85: 185–93Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hedges LV, Olkin I. Statistical methods for meta-analysis. New York: Academic Press, 1985Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hauri P. The influence of evening activity on the onset of sleep. Psychophysiology 1969; 5: 426–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Home JA, Porter JM. Time of day effects with standardized exercise on subsequent sleep. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 1976; 40: 178–84Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Porter JM, Home JA. Exercise and sleep behaviour: a questionnaire approach. In: Koella WP, editor. Sleep 1980. Basel: Karger, 1981; 406–7Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Maloletnev VI, Telia ZA. The influence of exercise on the night sleep in man. Hum Animal Physiol 1975; 77: 449–52Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Revis CJ. Sleep differences in aerobically fit and unfit older adults [dissertation]. Mississippi: University of Southern Mississippi, 1989Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Shapiro CM. Effect of exercise on sleep. S Afr Sports Med 1979; 6: 9–12Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Davies B, Shapiro CM, Daggett A, et al. Physiological changes and sleep responses during and following a world record continuous walking record. Br J Sports Med 1984; 18: 173–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zloty RB, Burdick JA, Adamson JD. Sleep of distance runners. Act Nerv Super 1973; 15: 217–21Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hasan J, Urponen H, Vuori I, et al. Exercise habits and sleep in a middle-aged Finnish population. Acta Physiol Scand 1988; 133: 33–5Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Shapiro CM, Bachmayer D. Epidemiological aspects of sleep in general public and hospital outpatient samples. Acta Physiol Scand 1988; 133: 41–3Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Vuori I, Urponen H, Hasan J, et al. Epidemiology of exercise effects on sleep. Acta Physiol Scand 1988; 133: 3–7Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gary V, Gutherie G. The effect of jogging on physical fitness and self concept in hospitalized alcoholics. J Stud Alcohol 1972; 33: 1073–8Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Porter JM, Horne JA. Exercise and sleep behaviour: a questionnaire approach. Ergonomics 1981; 24: 511–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Nakazawa Y, Hasuzawa H, Ohkawa T, et al. Slow wave sleep, behavioural pattern and physical constitution. Sleep Res 1978; 7: 202Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Shapiro CM, Bartel PR, Griesel RD. Effect of fatigue on electro-cerebral excitability. Biol Psychol 1980; 11: 282Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Shapiro CM, Bortz R. Sleep after exercise in a hot environment. Sleep Res 1980; 9: 149Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Shapiro CM, Bortz R, Mitchell D, et al. Slow wave sleep: a recovery period after exercise. Science 1981; 214: 1253–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Torsvall L. EEG, catecholamines, and subjective ratings of sleep after different degrees of daytime exercise: a pilot study with two fit subjects [report no. 146]. Reports from the Laboratory for Clinical Stress Research; 1981 Feb: 1–12Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Browman CP, Cartwright RD. Exercise and sleep. Sleep Res 1980; 9: 144Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Iguchi Y, Kobayashi T, Yamamoto T. Slow wave sleep due to daytime activities and individual differences. Jpn J Psychiatry Neurol 1988; 42: 165–6Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Roussel B, Buguet A. Changes in human heart rate during sleep following daily physical exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 1982; 49: 409–16Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ryback RS, Lewis OF. Effects of prolonged bedrest on EEG sleep patterns in young, healthy volunteers. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 1971; 31: 395–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Shapiro CM, Griesel RD, Bartel PR, et al. Sleep patterns after graded exercise. J Appl Physiol 1975; 39: 187–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Horne JA, Porter JM. Exercise and human sleep. Nature 1975; 256: 573–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bonnet MH. Sleep performance and mood after the energy expenditure equivalent of 40 hours of sleep deprivation. Psychophysiology 1980; 17: 56–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Boland BD, Dewsbury DA. Characteristics of sleep following sexual activity and wheel running in male rats. Physiol Behav 1971; 6: 145–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Harma MI, Ilmarinen J, Knauth P, et al. Physical training intervention in female shift workers: I. The effects of intervention of fitness fatigue, sleep, and psychosomatic symptoms. Ergonomics 1988; 31: 39–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Trinder J, Stevenson J, Paxton SJ, et al. Physical fitness, exercise and REM sleep cycle length. Psychophysiology 1982; 19: 89–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hobson JA. Sleep after exercise. Science 1968; 162: 1503–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Trinder J, Bruck D, Paxton SJ, et al. Physical fitness, exercise, age and human sleep. Aust J Psychol 1982; 34: 131–8Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Montgomery I, Trinder J, Paxton S. Energy expenditure and total sleep time: effect of physical exercise. Sleep 1982; 5: 159–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hauri P. Effects of evening activities on subsequent sleep and dreams [dissertation]. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1966Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Desjardins J, Healey T, Broughton R. Early evening exercise and sleep. Sleep Res 1974; 3: 31Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Stevenson JS, Topp R. Effects of moderate and low intensity long-term exercise by older adults. Res Nurs Health 1990; 13: 209–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Shapiro CM, Vershoor GJ. Sleep pattems after a marathon. S Afr J Sci 1979; 75: 415–6Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Lipsey MW, Wilson DB. The efficacy of psychological, educational, and behavioral treatment. Am Psychol 1993; 48: 1181–209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    North TC, McCullagh P, Tran ZV. Effect of exercise on depression. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 1990; 18: 379–415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Crews DJ, Landers DM. A meta-analytic review of aerobic fitness and reactivity to psychosocial stressors. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1987; 19: 114–20Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Petruzzello SJ, Landers DM, Hatfield BD, et al. A meta-analysis on the anxiety-reducing effects of acute and chronic exercise. Sports Med 1991; 11: 143–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Horne JA. Why we sleep: the functions of sleep in humans and other mammals. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Horne JA, Staff LHE. Exercise and sleep: body heating effects. Sleep 1983; 6: 36–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Horne JA, Reid AJ. Night-time sleep EEG changes following body heating in a warm bath. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 1985; 60: 154–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Horne JA, Shackell BS. Slow wave sleep elevations after body heating: proximity to sleep and effects of aspirin. Sleep 1987; 10: 383–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hori M, Mayzumi M, Tanaka N, et al. Oxygen intake of men and women during exercise and recovery in a hot environment and a comfortable environment. In: Folinsbee LJ, Wagner JA, Borgia JF, et al., editors. Environmental stress. New York: Academic Press, 1978: 39–52Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Paxton SJ, Trinder J, Shapiro C, et al. Effect of physical fitness and body composition on sleep and sleep related hormone concentrations. Sleep 1984; 7: 339–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Paxton SJ, Trinder J, Montgomery I, et al. Body composition and human sleep. Aust J Psychol 1984; 36: 181–9Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Shapiro CM, Catterall J, Warren P, et al. Lean body mass and non-rapid eye movement sleep. BMJ 1987; 294: 22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Griffin SJ, Trinder J. Physical fitness, exercise and human sleep. Psychophysiology 1978; 15: 447–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Montgomery I, Trinder J, Fraser G, et al. Aerobic fitness and exercise: effects on the sleep of younger and older adults. Aust J Psychol 1987; 39: 259–71Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Paxton SJ, Trinder J, Montgomery I. Does aerobic fitness affect sleep? Psychophysiology 1983; 20: 320–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Trinder J, Bruck D, Paxton S, et al. Physical fitness, exercise, age and human sleep. Aust J Psychol 1982; 34: 131–8Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Walker JM, Floyd TC, Fein G, et al. Effects of exercise on sleep. J Appl Physiol 1978; 44: 945–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Driver HS, Meintjes AF, Rogers GG, et al. Submaximal exercise effects on sleep pattems in young women before and after an aerobic training program. Acta Physiol Scand 1988; 133: 8–13Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Meintjes AF, Driver HS, Shapiro CM. Improved physical fitness failed to alter the EEG patterns of sleep in young women. Eur J Appl Physiol 1989; 59: 123–7Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Shapiro CM, Warren PM, Trinder J, et al. Fitness facilitates sleep. Eur J Appl Physiol 1984; 53: 1–4Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Browman CP, Tepas DI. The effects of presleep activity on all-night sleep. Psychophysiology 1976; 13: 536–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Adamson L, Hunter WM, Ogunremi OO, et al. Growth hormone increase during sleep after daytime exercise. J Endocrin 1974; 62: 473–8Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Zir LM, Smith RA, Parker DC. Human growth hormone release in sleep: effect of daytime exercise. J Clin Endocrinol 1971; 32: 662–5Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Baekeland F. Exercise deprivation. Sleep and psychological reactions. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1970; 22: 365–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Bunnell D, Bevier WC, Horvath SM. Nocturnal sleep, cardiovascular function, and adrenal activity following maximum capacity exercise. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 1983; 56: 186–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Bunnell D, Bevier WC, Horvath SM. Effects of exhaustive exercise on the sleep of men and women. Psychophysiology 1983; 20: 50–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Browman CP. Sleep following sustained exercise. Psychophysiology 1980; 17: 577–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Buguet A, Roussel B, Angus R, et al. Human sleep and adrenal individual reactions to exercise. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 1980; 49: 515–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Torsvall L, Akerstedt T, Lindbeck G. Effects on sleep stages and EEG power density of different degrees of exercise in fit subjects. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 1984; 57: 347–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Paxton SJ, Montgomery I, Trinder J, et al. Sleep after exercise of variable intensity in fit and unfit subjects. Aust J Psychol 1982; 34: 289–96Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Kupfer DJ, Sewitch DE, Epstein LH, et al. Exercise and subsequent sleep in male runners: failure to support the slow wave sleep-mood hypothesis. Neuropsychobiolgy 1985; 14: 5–12Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Trinder J, Paxton SJ, Montgomery I, et al. Endurance as opposed to power training: their effect on sleep. Psychophysiology 1985; 22: 668–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Matsumoto K, Saito Y, Abe M, et al. The effects of daytime exercise on night sleep. J Human Ergol 1984; 13: 31–6Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Walsh BT, Puig-Antich J, Goetz R, et al. Sleep and growth hormone secretion in women athletes. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 1984; 57: 528–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Shapiro CM. Sleepiness of the long-distance runner. J Physiol 1978; 276: 50–1Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Montgomery I, Trinder J, Paxton S, et al. Physical exercise and sleep: the effect of age and sex of the subjects and type of exercise. Acta Physiol Scand 1988; 133: 36–40Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Shapiro CM, Bortz R, Mitchell D, et al. Effect of exercise in a hot environment on human sleep patterns. S Afr J Sci 1985; 81: 624–7Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Matsumoto K, Saito Y, Furmi K, et al. Effect of night exercise during 27-hr total sleep deprivation on the subsequent sleep. Percept Mot Skills 1985; 60: 915–24Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Jennings SE. The effect of a 9-week conditioning program on slow wave sleep and mood states of physically inactive women [dissertation]. University Park (PA): Pennsylvania State University, 1981Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Moses J, Lubin A, Naitoh P, et al. Exercise and sleep loss: effects on recovery sleep. Psychophysiology 1977; 14: 414–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Bevier WC. Sleep of older adults and the effects of exercise [dissertation]. Santa Barbara (CA): University of California, 1985Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Montgomery I, Trinder J, Paxton S, et al. Sleep disruption following a marathon. J Sports Med 1985; 25: 69–74Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Weydahl A. Sleep-quality among girls with different involvement in competitive sports during fall in the Arctic Circle. Percept Mot Skills 1991; 73: 883–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Buchegger R, Fritsch R, Meier-Koll A, et al. Does trampolining and anaerobic physical fitness affect sleep? Percept Mot Skills 1991;73: 243–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Bunnell DE, Bevier WC, Horvath SM. Effects of exhaustive submaximal exercise on cardiovascular function during sleep. J Appl Physiol 1985; 58: 1909–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Buchegger J, Meier-Koll A. Motor learning and ultradian sleep cycle: an electroencephalographic study of trampoliners. Percept Mot Skills 1988; 67: 635–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Driver HS, Taylor SR. Sleep disturbances and exercise. Sports Med 1996; 21: 1–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    O’Connor PJ, Youngstedt MA. Influence of exercise on human sleep. In: Holloszy JO, editor. Exercise and sport sciences reviews. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1995: 105–34Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis International Limited 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karla A. Kubitz
    • 1
  • Daniel M. Landers
    • 2
  • Steven J. Petruzzello
    • 3
  • Myungwoo Han
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of KinesiologyKansas State UniversityManhattanUSA
  2. 2.Exercise and Sport Research Institute, Department of Exercise Science and Physical EducationArizona State UniversityTempeUSA
  3. 3.Department of KinesiologyUniversity of IllinoisUrbanaUSA
  4. 4.Korea Sport Science InstituteSeoulKorea

Personalised recommendations