Sports Medicine

, Volume 20, Issue 2, pp 77–89 | Cite as

Exercise Loading of Tendons and the Development of Overuse Injuries

A Review of Current Literature
  • Joanne M. Archambault
  • J. Preston Wiley
  • Robert C. Bray
Review Article


This review examines recent studies on the effects of exercise on tendons in animal models. Although tendon adaptation to exercise has been described using histology, morphometry, ultrasonography and molecular biology, precise measurements of excess tendon loading during exercise protocols have not been reported. Only a few studies have attempted to evaluate the mechanical strength of exercised tendons. The long term effect of exercise on tendons appears to be positive, but researchers have suggested that periods of mechanical weakness occur in tendons during adaptation to loading conditions. Studies documenting changes associated with the terminal state of pathological tendons are also summarised. Unfortunately, there are no descriptions of tendon tissue in the early stages of overuse injury. Since blood flow is commonly implicated in the emergence of tendinitis, the final section covers recent work on blood flow and tendon physiology. Related research identifying cellular mediators (hyperthermia, hypoxia, and oxidative stress) involved in the development of tendinitis is also presented. Suggestions for further research into exercise loading and the development of tendon overuse injuries are made.


Adis International Limited Achilles Tendon Flexor Tendon Tendinitis Overuse Injury 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Adis International Limited 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joanne M. Archambault
    • 1
  • J. Preston Wiley
    • 2
  • Robert C. Bray
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Human Performance Laboratory, Faculty of KinesiologyUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada
  2. 2.Sport Medicine Centre, Faculty of KinesiologyUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada
  3. 3.McCaig Center for Joint Injury and Arthritis Research, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada

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