Skip to main content

Advertisement

Log in

Common Skeletal Injuries in Young Athletes

  • Injury Clinic
  • Published:
Sports Medicine Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Summary

The increasing frequency of injury in young athletes over the last 2 decades reflects the increases in sports participation of children of a young age. Physical injury is an inherent risk in sports participation at any age. In general, the factors causing sports injuries can be grouped in 2 separate broad categories: extrinsic and intrinsic factors. However, the great majority of injuries which are sustained are minor and self-limiting, suggesting that children and youth sports are safe. However, a increasing number of children undergo treatment because of the effects that injuries may have on their developing bodies. A child’s skeletal system shows pronounced adaptive changes to intensive sports training. Sports injuries affect both growing bone and soft tissues, and could result in damage of the growth mechanisms with subsequent life-lasting damage.

Adolescents are particularly vulnerable to injuries, at least partially due to an imbalance in strength and flexibility. During growth there are significant changes in the biomechanical properties of bone. In young athletes, as bone stiffness increases and resistance to impact diminishes, sudden overload may cause bones to bow or buckle. Epiphyseal injuries occur at the epiphyseal growth plates. They are usually due to shearing and avulsion forces, although compression also plays a significant role. Given the remarkable healing potential of bone in youngsters, fractures that initially united with some deformity can completely remodel and appear totally normal in later life. As the risk of injuries sustained by young athletes can be significant, it is essential that training programmes take into account their physical and psychological immaturity, so that the growing athlete can adjust to their own body changes.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. Rowley S. The effect of intensive training in young athletes: a review of the research literature. London: Sports Council, 1986

    Google Scholar 

  2. Davidson RG, Taunton JE. Achilles tendinitis. Med Sport Sci 1987; 23: 71–9

    Google Scholar 

  3. Rowley S. Psychological effects of intensive training in young athletes. J Child Psychol Psychiat 1987; 28: 371–7

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Stanitski CL. Common injuries in preadolescent and adolescent athletes: Recommendations for prevention. Sports Med 1989; 7: 32–41

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Malina RM, Meleski BW, Shoup RF. Anthropometric, body composition, and maturity characteristics of selected school-age athletes. Pediatr Clin North Am 1982; 29: 1305–23

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Kozar B, Lord RM. Overuse injuries in the young athlete: reasons for concern. Phys Fitness Sports Med 1983; 11: 116–22

    Google Scholar 

  7. Maffulli N, Helms P. Controversies about intensive training in young athletes. Arch Dis Child 1988; 63: 1405–7

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Dalton SE. Overuse injuries in adolescent athletes. Sports Med 1992; 13: 58–70

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Shinton R, Sagar G. Lifelong exercise and stroke. BMJ 1993; 307: 231–4

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Sarna S, Sahi T, Koskenvuo M, et al. Increased life expectancy of world class male athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1993; 25: 237–44

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Maffulli N. The growing child in sport. Br Med Bull 1992; 48: 561–8

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Dalen N, Olson KE. Bone mineral content and physical activity. Acta Orthop Scand 1974; 45: 170–4

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Williams JGP. Sports injuries in children. Medisport 1981; April: 122–6

    Google Scholar 

  14. Larson RL, McMahon RO. The epiphysis and the childhood athlete. JAMA 1966; 196: 607–12

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Micheli LJ. Overuse injuries in children’s sport: the growth factor. Orthop Clin North Am 1983; 14: 337–60

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Buckwalter JA, Cooper RR. Bone structure and function. American Academy of Orthopedic Surgery Instructional Course Lectures 1987; 36: 27–48

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Maffulli N, Pintore E. Intensive training in young athletes. Br J Sports Med 1990; 24: 237–9

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Booth FW, Gould EW. Effects of training and disuse on connective tissue. Exerc Sports Sci Rev 1975; 3: 83–112

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Tipton CM, Matthes RD, Maynard JA. Influence of chronic exercise on rat bones. Med Sci Sports 1972; 4: 55

    Google Scholar 

  20. Sedhom BB, Wright V. Is repetitive loading a cause of osteoarthritis? J Orthop Rheumatol 1988; 1: 79–87

    Google Scholar 

  21. Sowinski J, Golebiewski J, Jozwiak A. Minimum age limits for young marathon runners. New Studies Athletics 1986; 4: 91–100

    Google Scholar 

  22. American Academy of Pediatrics. Risks in long-distance running for children. Physician Sports Med 1982; 10: 82–6

    Google Scholar 

  23. American Academy of Pediatrics. Competitive athletics for children of elementary school age. Pediatrics 1981; 67: 927–8

    Google Scholar 

  24. Stanitski CL. Pediatric sports injuries. Adv Orthop Surg 1985; 9: 53–7

    Google Scholar 

  25. Meeusen R, Borms J. Gymnastic Injuries. Sports Med 1992; 13: 337–56

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. Gallagher SS, Finison K, Guyer B, et al. The incidence of injuries among 87,000 Massachusetts children and adolescents: results of the 1980–81 Statewide Childhood Injury Prevention Program Surveillance System. Am J Public Health 1984; 8: 318–24

    Google Scholar 

  27. Zaricznyj B, Shattuck LJM, Mast TA, et al. Sports-related injuries in school aged children. Am J Sports Med 1980; 8: 318–24

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. Tursz A, Crost M. Sports-related injuries in children: a study of their characteristics, frequency, and severity, with comparison to other types of accidental injuries. Am J Sports Med 1986; 14: 295–9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Backx FJG, Beijer HJM, Bol E, et al. Injuries in high risk persons and high-risk sports: a longitudinal study of 1818 school children. Am J Sports Med 19991; 19: 124–30

  30. Jacobsson B. Sports accidents among children and teenagers: a one year study of incidence and severity in a Swedish rural municipality. Scand J Sports Sci 1986; 8: 75–9

    Google Scholar 

  31. Crompton B, Tubbs N. A survey of sports injuries in Birmingham. Br J Sports Med 1977; 11: 12–5

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. Sahlin Y. Sports accidents in childhood. Br J Sports Med 1990; 24: 40–4

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. Kristiansen B. Association football injuries in school boys. Scand J Sports Sci 1983; 5: 1–2

    Google Scholar 

  34. Kvist M, Kujala UM, Heinonen OJ, et al. Sports-related injuries in children. Int J Sports Med 1989; 10: 81–6

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  35. Backous DD, Friedl KE, Smith NJ, et al. Soccer injuries and their relation to physical maturity. Am J Dis Child 1988; 142: 839–42

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. Yde J, Nielsen, AB. Sports injuries in adolescents’ ball games: soccer, handball and basketball. Br J Sports Med 1990; 24: 51–4

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. Schmidt-Olsen S, Jorgensen U, Kaalund S, et al. Injuries among young soccer players. Am J Sports Med 1991; 19: 273–5

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. Baxter-Jones A, Maffulli N, Helms P. Low injury rates in elite athletes. Arch Dis Child 1993; 68: 130–2

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  39. Andreasen I, Fauno P, Lund B, et al. Soccer injuries among youth. Scand J Med Sci Sports 1992; 3: 62–6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Brust JD, Leonard BJ, Pheley A, et al. Children’s ice hockey injuries. Am J Dis Child 1992; 146: 741–7

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  41. Lindner KJ, Caine DJ. Injury patterns of female competitive gymnasts. Can J Sports Sci 1990; 15: 254–61

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  42. Lysens RJ, Ostyn MS, Auweele YV, et al. The accident-prone and overuse-prone profiles of young athletes. Am J Sports Med 1989; 17: 612–9

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  43. Orava S, Saarela J. Exertion injuries to young athletes: a follow-up research of orthopaedic problems of young track and field athletes. Am J Sports Med 1978; 6: 68–74

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  44. Harvey J, Tanner S. Low back pain in young athletes: a practical approach. Sports Med 1991; 12: 394–406

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  45. Sward L. The thoracolumbar spine in young athletes: current concepts on the effects of physical training. Sports Med 1992; 13: 357–62

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  46. Maffulli N. Intensive training in young athletes: the orthopaedic surgeon’s view point. Sports Med 1990; 9: 229–43

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  47. McCue FC, Meister K. Common sports hand injuries: an overview of aetiology, management and prevention. Sports Med 1993; 15: 281–9

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  48. Risser WL. Weight-training injuries in children and adolescents. Am Fam Physician 1991; 44: 2104–8

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  49. Sickles RT, Lombardo JA. The adolescent basketball player. Clin Sports Med 1993; 12: 207–19

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  50. Hulkko A, Orava S. Stress fractures in athletes. Int J Sports Med 1987; 8: 221–6

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  51. Anderson SJ. Health problems in adolescent athletes. Current Opinion Pediatr 1991; 3: 592–601

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Beaty JH. Sports related injuries in children and adolescents. Ann Sports Med 1987; 3: 97–9

    Google Scholar 

  53. Lysens R, Steverlynck A, van den Auweele Y, et al. The predictability of sports injuries. Sports Med 1984; 1: 6–10

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Marshall JL, Tischler HM. Screening for sports. NY J Med 1981; 9: 68–75

    Google Scholar 

  55. Siffert RS. Injuries to the growth plate and to the epiphysis. In: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Instructional Course Lectures. St. Louis: C.V. Mosby, 1980; 29: 62–78

    Google Scholar 

  56. Salter RB, Harris WR. Injuries involving the epiphyseal plate. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1963; 45: 587–622

    Google Scholar 

  57. Ogden JA. Skeletal injury in the child. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1982

    Google Scholar 

  58. Rang M. Children’s fracture. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 1983

    Google Scholar 

  59. Stanitski CL. Management of sports injuries in children and adolescents. Orthop Clin North Am 1988; 19: 689–98

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  60. Stanley D, Norris SH. Recovery following fractures of the clavicle treated conservatively. Injury 1988; 19: 162–4

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  61. Dameron TB, Rockwood Jr CA. Fractures and dislocations of the shoulder. In: Rockwood Jr CA, Wilkinns KE, King RE, editors. Fractures in children. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 1984: 624–53

    Google Scholar 

  62. Hovelius L. Anterior dislocation of the shoulder in teenagers and young adults. Five years prognosis. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1987; 69: 393–9

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  63. Floyd WE, Gebhardt MC, Emans JB. Intra-articular entrapment of the median nerve after elbow dislocation in children. J Hand Surg Am 1987; 12A: 704–7

    Google Scholar 

  64. Fowles JV, Kassab MT, Douik M. Untreated posterior dislocation of the elbow in children. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1984; 66: 921–6

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  65. Ippolito E, Moneta MR, d’Arrigo C. Post-traumatic cubitus varus: long-term follow up of corrective supracondylar humeral osteotomy in children. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1986; 72: 757–65

    Google Scholar 

  66. Ippolito E, Caterini R, Scola E. Supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children: analysis at maturity of fifty-three patients treated conservatively. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1984; 68: 333–44

    Google Scholar 

  67. Shaw BA, Kasser JR, Emans JB, et al. Management of vascular injuries in displaced supracondylar humerus fractures without artheriography. J Orthop Trauma 1990; 4: 25–9

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  68. Gerardi JA, Houkon JA, Mack GR. Treatment of displaced supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children by closed reduction and percutaneous pinning. Orthop Rev 1989; 18: 1089–95

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  69. Creasman C, Zaleske DJ, Ehrlich MG. Analyzing forearm fractures in children: the more subtle signs of impending problems. Clin Orthop Rel Res 1984; 188: 40–53

    Google Scholar 

  70. Vince KG, Miller JE. Cross-union complicationg fracture of the forearm, part II: children. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1987; 69: 654–61

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  71. Cooney WP. Elbow and forearm: trauma. In: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Orthopaedic Rnowledge Update 3. Home Study Syllabus. Illinois: Park Ridge, 1990: 327–40

    Google Scholar 

  72. Lascombes P, Prevot J, Ligier JN, et al. Elastic stable intramedullary nailing in forearm shaft fractures in children: 85 cases. J Pediatr Orthop 1990; 10: 167–71

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  73. Katz JF. Nonarticular osteochondroses. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1981; 158: 70–6

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  74. Maffulli N, Chan D, Aldridge MJ. Overuse injuries of the olecranon in young gymnasts. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1992; 74: 305–8

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  75. Hunter LY, O’Connor GA. Traction apophysitis of the olecranon: a case report. Am J Sports Med 1980; 8: 51–2

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  76. Danielsson LG, Hedlund ST, Henricson AS. Apophysitis of the olecranon: a report of four cases. Acta Orthop Scand 1983; 54: 777–8

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  77. Silberstein MJ, Brodeur AE, Graviss ER, et al. Some vagaries of the olecranon. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1981; 63: 722–5

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  78. Retrum KR, Wepfer JF, Olen DW, et al. Delayed closure of the right olecranon epiphysis in a right-handed, tournament-class tennis player. Skeletal Radiol 1986; 15: 185–7

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  79. DeHaven RE, Evarts CM. Throwing injuries of the elbow in athletes. Orthop Clin North Am 1973; 4: 801–8

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  80. Aronen JG. Problems of the upper extremity in gymnasts. Clin Sports Med 1985; 4: 61–71

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  81. Weisl H. Lesions of the capitellum. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1971; 53: 557

    Google Scholar 

  82. Wilson FD, Andrews JR, Blackburn TA, et al. Valgus extension overload in the pitching elbow. Am J Sports Med 1983; 21: 83–8

    Article  Google Scholar 

  83. Hay BM. Two cases of osteochondritis dissecans affecting several joints. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1950; 32: 361–5

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  84. Kimball RJ, Carter RL, Schneider RC. Competitive diving injuries. In: Schneider RC, Kennedy IC, Plant ML, et al., editors. Sports injuries. Mechanism, prevention, and treatment. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1985: 206

    Google Scholar 

  85. Maffulli N, Chan D, Aldridge MJ. Derangement of the articular surfaces of the elbow in young gymnasts. J Pediatr Orthop 1992; 12: 344–50

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  86. Torg, JS, Moyer RA. Non-union of a stress fracture through the olecranon epiphyseal plate observed in an adolescent baseball pitcher. A case report. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1977; 59: 264–5

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  87. Weiss CB, Sauers RJ. Avulsion fracture of the olecranon process. Physician Sports Med 1990; 18: 110–6

    Google Scholar 

  88. Wilkerson RD, Johns JC. Nonunion of an olecranon stress fracture in an adolescent gymnast: a case report. Am J Sports Med 1990; 18: 432–4

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  89. Carter SR, Aldridge NJ, Fitzgerald R, et al. Stress changes of the wrist in adolescent gymnasts. Br J Radiol 1988; 61: 109–12

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  90. Roy S, Caine D, Singer KM. Stress changes of the distal radial epiphysis in young gymnasts: a report of twenty-one cases and a review of the literature. Am J Sports Med 1985; 13: 301–8

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  91. Li DRB, Lloyd-Smith DR. Wrist pain in an adolescent gymnast. Clin J Sports Med 1991; 1: 259–61

    Article  Google Scholar 

  92. Tolat AR, Sanderson PL, DeSmet L, et al. The gymnast’s wrist: acquired positive ulnar variance following chronic epiphyseal injury. J Hand Surg Br 1992; 74B: 678–81

    Google Scholar 

  93. Maffulli N, Pintore E, Petricciuolo F. Tumours mimicking sports injuries in two young athletes. Br J Sports Med 1990; 24: 207–8

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  94. Galasko CSB. Disorders of childhood. In: CSB Galasko, Isher-wood I, editors. Imaging techniques in orthopaedics. London: Springer-Verlag, 1984: 345–62

    Google Scholar 

  95. Henderson RC, Renner JB, Sturdivant MC, et al. Evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging in Legg-Perthes disease disease. A prospective blinded study. J Pediatr Orthop 1990; 10: 289–97

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  96. Vingard E, Aljredsson l, Goldie I, et al. Sports and osteoarthrosis of the hip: an epidemiologic study. Am J Sports Med 1993; 21: 195–200

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  97. Capasso G, Maffulli N, Testa V, et al. Irritable hip: frequency and diagnostic implications for screening. Minerva Ortopedica 1992; 43: 713–6

    Google Scholar 

  98. Quain S, Catterall A. Hinge abduction of the hip: diagnosis and treatment. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1986; 68: 61–4

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  99. Christensen F, Soballe K, Ejsted R. The Catterall classification of Perthes’ disease: an assessment of reliability. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1986; 68: 614–5

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  100. Evans IK, DeLuca PA, Gage JR. A comparative study of ambulation-abduction bracing and varus derotation osteotomy in the treatment of severe Legg-Calve’-Perthes disease in children over 6 years of age. J Pediatr Orthop 1986; 6: 600–4

    Article  Google Scholar 

  101. Pritchett JW, Perdue RD. Mechanical factors in slipped capital femoral epiphysis. J Pediatr Orthop 1988; 8: 385–8

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  102. Szypryt EP, Clement DA, Colton CL. Open reduction or epiphysiodesis for slipped upper femoral epiphysis: a comparison of Dunn’s operation and the Heyman-Herndon procedure. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1987; 69: 737–42

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  103. Nguen D, Morrissy RT. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis. Rational for the technique of percutaneous in situ fixation. J Pediatr Orthop 1990; 10: 341–6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  104. Maffulli N, Capasso G, Testa V. Post-traumatic osteomyelitis of the clavicle in a volley-ball player. Ann Sports Med 1988; 4: 137–9

    Google Scholar 

  105. Maffulli N, Binfield PM, King JB, et al. Acute hemarthrosis of the knee in athletes: a prospective study in 106 cases. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1993; 75: 945–9

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  106. Baxter MP, Wiley JJ. Fractures of the tibial spine in children: an evaluation of knee stability. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1988; 70: 228–30

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  107. Lipscomb AB, Anderson AF. Tears of the anterior cruciate ligament in adolescents. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1981; 68: 19–28

    Google Scholar 

  108. Bradley GW, Shives TC, Samuelson RM. Ligament injuries in the knees of children. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1979; 61: 588–91

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  109. Beaconsfield T, Pintore E, Maffulli N, et al. Radiological measurements in patella-femoral disorders. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1994; 308: 18–28

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  110. Stanitski CL, Harvell JC, Fu F. Observations on acute knee hemarthrosis in children and adolescents. J Pediatr Orthop 1993; 13: 506–10

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  111. Aichroth P. Osteochondritis dissecans of the knee: a clinical study. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1971; 53: 440–7

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  112. Exner GU, Meyer C, Elsig JP. Osteochondrosis dissecans an konkaven Gelenkflachen: Schultherpfanne, Tibialplateau, distale Tibia. Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb 1991; 129: 302–4

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  113. Twyman RS, Desai K, Aicroth PM. Osteochondritis dissecans of the knee: a long term study. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1991; 73: 461–4

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  114. Javish R, Rigault P, Padovani JP, et al. Osteochondritis dissecans of the humeral capitellum in children. Eur J Pediatr Surg 1993; 3: 97–100

    Article  Google Scholar 

  115. Clanton TO, DeLee JC. Osteochondritis dissecans: history, pathology and current treatment concepts. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1982; 167: 50–64

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  116. Bradley J, Dandy DJ. Osteochondritis dissecans and other lesions of the femoral condyles. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1989; 71: 518–22

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  117. Bauer M, Jonsson K, Josefsson PO, Linden B. Osteochondritis dissecans of the elbow: a long term follow-up study. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1992; 284; 156–60

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  118. Orava S, Puranen J. Exertion injuries in adolescent athletes. Br J Sports Med 1978; 12: 4–10

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  119. Ertl JP, Barrack RL, Alexander AH. Triplane fracture of the distal tibial epiphysis. Long term follow up. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1988; 70: 967–76

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  120. Devas M. Stress fractures. Edinburgh: Churcill Livingstone, 1975

    Google Scholar 

  121. Maffulli N, Lepore, L, Francobandiera C. Traumatic lesions of some accessory bones of the foot in sports activities. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 1990; 80: 86–90

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  122. Wojtys EM. Sports injuries in the immature athlete. Orthop Clin North Am 1987; 18: 689–708

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  123. Rowland TW. Exercise and Children’s Health. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 1990

    Google Scholar 

  124. Mueller F, Blyth C. Epidemiology of sports injuries in children. Clin Sports Med 1982; 1: 343–52

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  125. Jones A. Training of Young Athletes Study: TOYA and sports injuries. London: The Sports Council, 1992

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Maffulli, N., Baxter-Jones, A.D.G. Common Skeletal Injuries in Young Athletes. Sports Med 19, 137–149 (1995). https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-199519020-00005

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-199519020-00005

Keywords

Navigation