Skip to main content

Dietary Supplements in Sport

Summary

Studies of the dietary practices of athletes report that nutritional supplements are commonly used. Supplementation practices vary between sports and individual athletes; however, there is evidence that at least some athletes use a large number of supplements concurrently, often in doses that are very high in comparison with normal dietary intakes.

In exploring supplementation practices we propose a classification system separating the supplements into dietary supplements and nutritional erogogenic aids. The dietary supplement is characterised as a product which can be used to address physiological or nutritional issues arising in sport. It may provide a convenient or practical means of consuming special nutrient requirements for exercise, or it may be used to prevent/reverse nutritional deficiencies that commonly occur among athletes. The basis of the dietary supplement is an understanding of nutritional requirements and physiological effects of exercise. When the supplement is used to successfully meet a physiological/nutritional goal arising in sport it may be demonstrated to improve sports performance. While there is some interest in refining the composition or formulation of some dietary supplements, the real interest belongs to the use or application of the supplement; i.e. educating athletes to understand and achieve their nutritional needs in a specific sports situation.

The sports drink (carbohydrate-electrolyte replacement drink) is a well known example of a dietary supplement. Scientific attitudes towards the sports drink have changed over the past 20 years. Initial caution that carbohydrate-electrolyte fluids compromise gastric emptying during exercise has now been shown to be unjustified. Numerous studies have shown that 5 to 10% solutions of glucose, glucose polymers (maltodextrins) and other simple sugars all have suitable gastric emptying characteristics for the delivery of fluid and moderate amounts of carbohydrate substrate. The optimal concentration of electrolytes, particularly sodium, remains unknown. Most currently available sports drinks provide a low level of sodium (10 to 25 mmol/L) in recognition that sodium intake may promote intestinal absorption of fluid as well as assist in rehydration. The sodium level of commercial oral rehydration fluids (used in the clinical treatment of diarrhoea and dehydration) is higher than that of the present range of sports drinks. However, even if research indicates that intestinal glucose transport is optimally stimulated at higher sodium concentrations, concern for the palatability of sports drinks may impose a lower ceiling for sodium levels. Commercial viability of a sports drink requires that it provide a refreshing and palatable fluid replacement across a wide variety of sports and exercise situations. However, in specific situations, the appropriate use of a drink may offer special advantages in meeting physiological requirements. For example, during endurance and ultraendurance exercise, suitable intake of a sports drink to preserve hydration and to supply additional carbohydrate substrate for glycogen-depleted muscles has been shown to enhance performance. Additionally, the sports drink may provide a special advantage in recovery and rehydration after prolonged exercise, particularly where more rapid restoration of body fluid and fuel levels will enhance performance in future exercise bouts.

High carbohydrate liquids at higher concentrations (20 to 25% carbohydrate solutions, typically from maltodextrin sources) represent another type of dietary supplement. These high carbohydrate supplements, often known as ‘carbo-loader’ supplements, have been manufactured to assist athletes in achieving a high carbohydrate intake by overcoming problems of dietary bulk or lack of nutritional knowledge. They may be useful in situations where a short term need for carbohydrate supersedes other nutritional goals, e.g. carbohydrate loading and prolonged competition over successive days. Where long term nutritional goals and requirements for a combination of nutrients need to be addressed, liquid meal supplements provide a low-bulk, nutritionally complete choice. Liquid meal supplements may be useful as a compact nutrient-dense high energy supplement for athletes with high energy requirements, particularly when it is not practical or comfortable to consume solid foods. They may be useful in preparation for exercise, both as a pre-event meal and as a low residue preparation.

Athletes who consume low energy intakes and/or restricted food variety may consume sub-optimal intakes of micronutrients, particularly minerals such as iron or calcium. Adequate vitamin and mineral status is a requirement for optimal sports performance, since many of the micronutrients play a key role in exercise metabolism, recovery and adaptation. A heavy exercise programme may increase requirements for some nutrients, including the B-group vitamins and iron. Athletes at high risk of inadequate micronutrient intake or nutritional deficiencies such as iron deficiency should benefit from nutritional counselling. Supplementation may be required in cases of ongoing suboptimal dietary intake, or to rapidly restore a diagnosed nutrient deficiency state. While many athletes regard iron supplements as a low cost ‘safety net’ against iron deficiency, there are many disadvantages to unsupervised long term intake of high doses of iron. The debate surrounding biochemical and haematological markers of optimal iron status remains unresolved. In general, screening and individual treatment of athletes in high-risk groups is preferred to a mass treatment programme.

There is a need for nutrition education of athletes to explain the appropriate use of these dietary supplements. In many cases, the information is specific to the individual athlete or sports situation and may require one-to-one counselling. In most situations, the use of the supplement will simply be a part of a larger plan of optimal sports nutrition or the clinical management of a nutritional disorder. Effective education will not only ensure that dietary supplements are used correctly, but will highlight the importance of optimal sports nutrition.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. American College of Sports Medicine. Position statement on the prevention of heat injuries during distance running. Medicine and Science in Sports 7: viii–ix, 1975

    Google Scholar 

  2. American College of Sports Medicine. Position stand on weight loss in wrestlers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 8: xi–xiii, 1976

    Google Scholar 

  3. American Dietetic Association. Position stand on nutrition for physical fitness and athletic performance for adults. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 87: 933–939, 1987

    Google Scholar 

  4. Apted J. Lifestyle of nine jockeys. In Truswell & Wahlqvist (Eds) Food habits in Australia, pp. 291–297, Rene Gordon, Melbourne, 1988

    Google Scholar 

  5. Australian Sports Medicine Federation. Survey of drug use in Australian sport, ASMF, Parkville, 1983

    Google Scholar 

  6. Balaban EP, Cox JV, Snell P, Vaughan RH, Frenkel EP. The frequency of anemia and iron deficiency in the runner. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 21: 643–648, 1989

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Barr SI. Nutrition knowledge of female varsity athletes and university students. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 87: 1660–1664, 1987

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Barry A, Cantwell T, Doherty F, Tolcin JC, Ingoldsby M, et al. A nutritional study of athletes. British Journal of Sports Medicine 15: 99–109, 1981

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Belko AZ. Vitamins and exercise — an update. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 19 (Suppl.): 191–196, 1987

    Google Scholar 

  10. Belko AZ, Obarzanek E, Kalkwarf HJ, Rotter MA, Bogusz S, et al. Effects of exercise on riboflavin requirements on young women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 37: 509–517, 1983

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Bentivenga A, Kelly E, Kalenak A. Diet, fitness and athletic performance. Physician and Sportsmedicine 7(10): 100–105, 1979

    Google Scholar 

  12. Berning J, Sanborn CF, Brooks SM, Wagner WW. Caloric deficit in distance runners. Abstract. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 17: 242, 1985

    Google Scholar 

  13. Brotherhood JR. Nutrition and sports performance. Sports Medicine 1: 350–389, 1984

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Brouns F, Saris WHM, Rehrer NJ. Abdominal complaints and gastrointestinal function during long-lasting exercise. International Journal of Sports Medicine 8: 175–189, 1987

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Brownell KD, Nelson Steen S, Wilmore JH. Weight regulation practices in athletes: analysis of metabolic and health effects. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 19: 546–556, 1987

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Burke LM. Dietary intake and food use of groups of elite Australian male athletes, PhD thesis, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia, 1990

    Google Scholar 

  17. Burke L, Read RSD. Use of dietary supplements by football players. Abstract. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society of Australia 8: 214, 1983

    Google Scholar 

  18. Burke LM, Read RSD. A study of carbohydrate loading techniques used by marathon runners. Canadian Journal of Sports Science 12: 6–10, 1987a

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Burke LM, Read RSD. Diet patterns of elite Australian male triathletes. Physician and Sportsmedicine 15 (2): 140–155, 1987b

    Google Scholar 

  20. Burke LM, Read RSD. Food use and nutritional practices of elite Olympic weightlifters. In Truswell & Wahlqvist (Eds) Food habits in Australia, pp. 112–121, William Heinemann, Melbourne, 1988

    Google Scholar 

  21. Burke LM, Read RSD. Sports nutrition: approaching the nineties. Sports Medicine 8: 80–100, 1989

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. Buskirk ER, Puhl S. Nutritional beverages: exercise and sport. In Hickson & Wolinsky (Eds) Nutrition in exercise and sport, pp. 201–231, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1989

    Google Scholar 

  23. Clark N, Nelson M, Evans W. Nutrition education for elite female runners. Physician and Sportsmedicine 16 (2): 124–136, 1988

    Google Scholar 

  24. Clement DB, Asmundson RC. Nutritional intake and haemato-logical parameters in endurance runners. Physician and Sportsmedicine 10 (3): 37–43, 1982

    Google Scholar 

  25. Clement DB, Sawchuk LL. Iron status and sports performance. Sports Medicine 1: 65–74, 1984

    Google Scholar 

  26. Clement DB, Taunton JE, McKenzie DC, Sawchuk LL, Wiley JP. High- and low-dosage iron supplementation in iron-deficient, endurance trained females. In Katch (Ed.) Sport, health and nutrition, pp. 75–81, Human Kinetics Publishers, Champaign, 1986

    Google Scholar 

  27. Cohen JL, Potosnak L, Frank O, Baker H. A nutritional and hae-matological assessment of elite ballet dancers. Physician and Sportsmedicine 13 (5): 43–54, 1985

    Google Scholar 

  28. Coleman E. Sports drink update. Gatorade Sports Science Exchange 1 (5), 1988

    Google Scholar 

  29. Cooter GR, Mowbray KW. Effects of iron supplementation and activity on serum iron depletion and haemoglobin levels in female athletes. Research Quarterly 49: 114–118, 1978

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. Costill DL. Carbohydrates for exercise: dietary demands for optimal performance. International Journal of Sports Medicine 9: 1–18, 1988

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. Costill DL, Bowers R, Branam G, Sparks K. Muscle glycogen utilisation during prolonged exercise on successive days. Journal of Applied Physiology 31: 834–939, 1971

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. Costill FL, Flynn MG, Kirwan JP, Houmard JA, Mitchell JB, et al. Effects of repeated days of intensified training on muscle glycogen and swimming performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 20: 249–254, 1988

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. Costill DL, Higdon H. The drink’s on us. Fun Runner (July): 18–22, 1980

    Google Scholar 

  34. Coyle EF. Carbohydrates and athletic performance. Gatorade Sports Science Exchange 1 (7), 1988

    Google Scholar 

  35. Coyle EF. Carbohydrate feedings: effects on metabolism, performance and recovery. In Brouns (Ed.) Advances in nutrition and top sport. Medicine and Sports Science 32: 1–14, Basel, Karger, 1991

    Google Scholar 

  36. Coyle EF, Coggan AR. Effectiveness of carbohydrate feeding in delaying fatigue during prolonged exercise. Sports Medicine 1: 446–458, 1984

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. Coyle EF, Coggan AR, Hemmert MK, Ivy JL. Muscle glycogen utilisation during prolonged strenuous exercise when fed carbohydrate. Journal of Applied Physiology 61: 165–172, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. Dawson-Hughes B. Calcium supplementation and bone loss: a review of controlled clinical trials. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 54: 2745–2805, 1991

    Google Scholar 

  39. Dietitians Association of Australia. Position paper on megavi-tamin supplementation. DAA, Canberra, 1988

    Google Scholar 

  40. Deuster PA, Kyle SB, Moser PB, Vigersky RA, Singh A, et al. Nutritional survey of highly trained women runners. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 45: 945–962, 1986

    Google Scholar 

  41. Editorial. A round table discussion (1981): weight reduction in wrestling. Physician and Sportsmedicine 9 (9): 79–96, 1981

    Google Scholar 

  42. Edwards TL, Santeusanio DM. Field test of the effects of carbohydrate solutions on endurance performance, selected blood serum chemistries, perceived exertion, and fatigue in world class cyclists. Abstract. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 16: 190, 1984

    Google Scholar 

  43. Eichner ER. ‘Sports anemia’: poor terminology for a real phenomenon. Gatorade Sports Science Exchange 1 (6), 1988

    Google Scholar 

  44. Fink WJ, Costill DL, Stevens CF. Gastric-emptying characteristics of complete nutritional liquids. In Fox (Ed.) Nutrient utilisation during exercise, Ross Symposium, pp. 112–115, Ross Laboratories, Columbus, 1983

    Google Scholar 

  45. Fogelholm M, Jaakkola L, Lampisjarvi T. Effects of iron supplementation in female athletes with low serum ferritin concentration. International Journal of Sports Medicine 13: 158–162, 1992

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  46. Fogelholm M, Tikkanen H, Naveri H, Harkonen M. High-carbohydrate diet for long distance runners — a practical viewpoint. British Journal of Sports Medicine 23: 94–96, 1989

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  47. Ganzit GP, Giribaudo CG, Biancotti PP. Effetti della sommin-istrazione di supplemento di ferro ferritinico sull’ adaltamento funzionale aerobico e anaerobico all’ alienamento, in nuotatori maschi e femmine. Medicina dello Sport 42: 7–15, 1989

    Google Scholar 

  48. Girandola RN, Wiswell RA, Frisch F, Khodiguian NR, Bulbulian R. Effects of liquid and solid meals and time of feeding on (inline1) In Fox (Ed.) Nutrient utilisation during exercise, Ross Symposium, pp. 115–119, Ross Laboratories, Columbus, 1983

    Google Scholar 

  49. Gisolfi CV. Water and electrolyte metabolism during exercise. In Fox (Ed.) Nutrient utilisation during exercise, Ross Symposium, pp. 21–25, Ross Laboratories, Columbus, 1983

    Google Scholar 

  50. Grandjean AC. Vitamins, diet, and the athlete. Clinics in Sports Medicine 2: 105–114, 1983

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  51. Haymes EM, Lamanca JJ. Iron loss in runners during exercise: implications and recommendations. Sports Medicine 7: 277–285, 1989

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  52. Heaney RP, ReckeV RR, Saville PD. Menopausal changes in calcium balance performance. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 92: 953–962, 1978

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  53. Hecker AL, Wheeler KB. Protein: a misunderstood nutrient for the athlete. National Strength and Conditioning Association Journal 7: 28–29, 1985

    Google Scholar 

  54. Hickson JF, Schrader J, Trischler LC. Dietary intakes of female basketball and gymnastics athletes. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 86: 251–253, 1986

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  55. Highet R. Athletic amenorrhea: an update on aetiology, complications and management. Sports Medicine 7: 82–108, 1989

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  56. Hiller WDB. Dehydration and hyponatremia during triathlons. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 21 (Suppl.): S219–221, 1989

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  57. Houston ME. Diet, training and sleep: a survey study of elite Canadian swimmers. Canadian Journal of Applied Sports Science 5: 161–163, 1980

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  58. Hubbard RW, Sandick BL, Matthew WT, Francesconi RP, Sampson JB. Voluntary dehydration and allesthesia for water. Journal of Applied Physiology 57: 868–875, 1984

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  59. Hunding A, Jordal R, Paulev PE. Runner’s anemia and iron deficiency. Acta Medica Scandinavica 209: 315–318, 1981

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  60. Ivy JL. Katz AL, Cutter CL, Sherman WM, Coyle EF. Muscle glycogen synthesis after exercise: effect of time of carbohydrate ingestion. Journal of Applied Physiology 64: 1480–1485, 1988

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  61. Johnson HL, Nelson RA, Consolazio CF. Effects of electrolyte and nutrient solutions on performance and metabolic balance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 20: 26–33, 1988

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  62. Khoo CS, Rawson NE, Robinson ML, Stevenson RJ. Nutrient intake and eating habits of triathletes. Annals of Sports Medicine 3: 144–150, 1987

    Google Scholar 

  63. Kirsch KA, von Ameln H. Feeding patterns of endurance athletes. European Journal of Applied Physiology 47: 197–208, 1981

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  64. Kleiner SM, Calabrese LH, Fielder KM, Naito HK, Skibinski CI. Dietary influences on cardiovascular disease risk in anabolic steroid-using and nonusing bodybuilders. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 8: 109–119, 1989

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  65. Krowchuk DP, Anglin TM, Goodfellow DB, Stancin T, Williams P, et al. High school athletes and the use of ergogenic aids. American Journal of Diseases of Childhood 143: 486–489, 1989

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  66. Kujala UM, Heinonen OJ, Kvist M, Karkkainen OP, Marniemi J, et al. Orienteering performance and ingestion of glucose and glucose polymers. British Journal of Sports Medicine 23: 105–108, 1989

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  67. Lamanca JJ, Haymes EM, Daly JA, Moffat RJ, Waller MF. Sweat iron loss of male and female runners during exercise. International Journal of Sports Medicine 9: 52–55, 1988

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  68. Lamb DR, Brodowicz GR. Optimal use of fluids of varying formulations to minimise exercise-induced disturbances in homeostasis. Sports Medicine 3: 247–274, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  69. Lamb DR, Snyder AC, Baur TS. Muscle glycogen loading with a liquid carbohydrate supplement. International Journal of Sport Nutrition 1: 52–60, 1991

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  70. Lampe JW, Slavin JL, Apple FS. Effects of moderate iron supplementation on the iron status of runners with low serum ferritin concentrations. Abstract. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 18 (Suppl.): S90, 1986

    Google Scholar 

  71. Lawrence JD, Bower RC, Riehl WP, Smith JL. Effects of a-tocopherol acetate on the swimming endurance of trained swimmers. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 28: 205–208, 1975a

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  72. Lawrence JD, Smith JL, Bower RC, Riehl WP. The effect of a-tocopherol (vitamin E) and pyridoxine HC1 (vitamin B6) on the swimming endurance of trained swimmers. Journal of the American College Health Assocaition 23: 219–222, 1975b

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  73. Leatt PB, Jacobs I. Effect of glucose ingestion on glycogen depletion during a soccer match. Canadian Journal of Sport Science 14: 112–116, 1989

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  74. Ledoux M, Brisson G, Peronnet F. Nutritional status of adolescent female gymnasts. Abstract. Medicine ami Science in Sports and Exercise 14 (Suppl.): 145, 1982

    Google Scholar 

  75. Macaraeg PVJ. High carbohydrate, low fat liquid meal for athletes. Journal of Sports Medicine 14: 259–262, 1974

    Google Scholar 

  76. Magnusson B, Hallberg L, Rossander L, Swolin B. Iron metabolism and ‘sports anaemia’. A hematological comparison of elite runners and control subjects. Acta Medica Scandinavica 216: 157–164, 1984

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  77. Marcus R, Cann C, Madvig P, Minkoff J, Goddard M, et al. Menstrual function and bone mass in elite women distance runners. Annals of Internal Medicine 102: 158–163, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  78. Matter M, Stitofall T, Graves J, Myburgh K, et al. The effect of iron and folate therapy on maximal execise performance in female marathon runners with iron and folate deficiency. Clinical Sciences 72: 415–422, 1987

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  79. Maughan R. Carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions during prolonged exercise. In Lamb & Williams (Eds) Perspectives in exercise science and sports medicine, Vol. 4, Ergogenics: enhancement of performance in exercise and sport, pp. 35–85, Brown & Benchmark, USA, 1991

    Google Scholar 

  80. Maughan RJ, Fenn CE, Leiper JB. Effects of fluid, electrolyte and substrate ingestion on endurance capacity. European Journal of Applied Physiology 58: 481–486, 1989

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  81. Millard-Stafford ML, Cureton KJ, Ray CA. Effect of glucose polymer diet supplement on responses to prolonged successive swimming, cycling and running. European Journal of Applied Physiology 58: 327–333, 1988

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  82. Minessale RA, Schulz LO. Factors influencing the use of nutritional supplements by college athletes. Abstract. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 44: 529, 1986

    Google Scholar 

  83. Mitchell JB, Costill DL, Houmard JA, Flynn MG, Fink WJ, et al. Effects of carbohydrate ingestion on gastric emptying and exercise performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 20: 110–115, 1988

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  84. Moffatt RJ. Dietary status of elite female high school gymnasts: inadequacy of vitamin and mineral intake. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 84: 1361–1363, 1984

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  85. Murray R. The effects of consuming carbohydrate-electrolyte beverages on gastric emptying and fluid absorption during and following exercise. Sports Medicine 4: 322–351, 1987

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  86. Murray R, Eddy DE, Murray TW, Sieffert JG, Paul GL, et al. The effect of fluid and carbohydrate feedings during intermittent cycling exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 19: 597–604, 1987

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  87. Nadel ER. New ideas for rehydration during and after exercise in hot weather. Gatorade Sports Science Exchange 1 (3), 1988

    Google Scholar 

  88. National Academy of Sciences. Recommended dietary allowances, 10th ed., National Academy Press, Washington, 1989

    Google Scholar 

  89. National Health and Medical Research Council. Dietary intakes for use in Australia, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 1991

    Google Scholar 

  90. Newhouse IJ, Clement DB. Iron status in athletes: an update. Sports Medicine 5: 337–352, 1988

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  91. Newhouse IJ, Clement DB, Taunton JE, McKenzie DC. The effects of prelatent/latent iron deficiency on physical work capacity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 21: 263–268, 1989

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  92. Nieman DC, Gates JR, Butler JV, Pollett LM, Dietrich SJ, et al. Supplementation patterns in marathon runners. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 89: 1615–1619, 1989

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  93. Noakes TD, Goodwin N, Rayner BL, Branken T, Taylor RKN. Water intoxication: a possible complication during endurance exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 17: 370–375, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  94. Noakes TD, Rehrer NJ, Maughan RJ. The importance of volume in regulating gastric emptying. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 23: 307–313, 1991

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  95. Nose H, Mack GW, Lhi H, Nadel ER. Role of osmolality and plasma volume during dehydration in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology 65: 325–331, 1988

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  96. Nowak RK, Knudsen KS, Schulz LO. Body composition and nutrient intakes of college men and women basketball players. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 88: 575–578, 1988

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  97. Owen MD, Kregel KC, Wall PT, Gisolfi CV. Effects of ingesting carbohydrate beverages during exercise in the heat. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 18: 568–575, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  98. Pate RR, Maguire M, Van Wyk JV. Dietary iron supplementation in women athletes. Physician and Sportsmedicine 7 (9): 81–86, 1979

    Google Scholar 

  99. Pattini A, Schena F. Effects of training and iron supplementation on iron status of cross-country skiers. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 30: 347–353, 1990

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  100. Percy E. Ergogenic aids in athletics. Medicine and Science in Sports 10: 298–303, 1978

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  101. Pivarnik JM. Water and electrolytes during exercise. In Hickson & Wolinsky (Eds) Nutrition in sport and exercise, pp. 185–200, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1989

    Google Scholar 

  102. Powell PD, Tucker A. Iron supplementation and running performance in female cross-country runners. International Journal of Sports Medicine 12: 462–467, 1991

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  103. Plowman SA, McSwegin PC. The effects of iron supplementation on female cross country runners. Journal of Sports Medicine 21: 407–416, 1981

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  104. Rehrer NJ, Beckers EJ, Brouns F, ten Hoor F, Saris WHM. Effects of dehydration on gastric emptying and gastrointestinal distress while running. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 22: 790–795, 1990

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  105. Riddoch C, Trinick T. Gastrointestinal disturbances in marathon runners. British Journal of Sports Medicine 22: 71–74, 1988

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  106. Risser WL, Lee EJ, Poindexter HBW, West MS, Pivarnik JM, et al. Iron deficiency in female athletes: its prevalence and impact on performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 20: 116–121, 1988

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  107. Rose KD, Schneider PJ, Sullivan GF. A liquid pregame meal for athletes. Journal of the American Medical Association 178: 30–33, 1961

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  108. Rowland TW, Deisroth MB, Green GM, Kelleher JF. The effect of iron therapy on the exercise capacity of nonanemic iron-deficient adolescent runners. American Journal of Diseases of Childhood 142: 165–169, 1988

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  109. Saris WHM, van Erp-Baart MA, Brouns F, Westerterp KR, ten Hoor F. Study on food intake and energy expenditure during extreme sustained exercise: the Tour de France. International Journal of Sports Medicine 10 (Suppl. 1): S26–S31, 1989

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  110. Schneider H, Brouns F, Saris WHM. A rationale for electrolyte replacement during endurance exercise. Abstract. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 23 (Suppl.): SI28, 1991

    Google Scholar 

  111. Schoene RB, Escourrou P, Robertson HT, Nilson KL, Parsons JR, et al. Iron repletion decreases maximal exercise lactate concentrations in female athletes with minimal iron deficiency anemia. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 102: 306–312, 1983

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  112. Schutz HG, Read M, Bendel R, Bhalla VS, Harrill I, et al. Food supplement usage in seven Western States. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 36: 897–901, 1982

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  113. Short SH, Short WR. Four year study of university athletes’ dietary intake. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 82: 632–645, 1983

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  114. Snyder AC, Dvorak LL, Roepke JB. Influence of dietary iron sources on measures of iron status among female runners. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 21: 7–10, 1989a

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  115. Snyder AC, Schulz LO, Foster C. Voluntary consumption of a carbohydrate supplement by elite speed skaters. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 89: 1125–1127, 1989b

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  116. Steel JE. A nutritional study of Australian Olympic athletes. Medical Journal of Australia 2: 119–123, 1970

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  117. Steinbaugh ML. Nutrient digestiblity of complete nutritional liquid diets. In Fox (Ed.) Nutrient utilisation during exercise, Ross Symposium, pp. 99–108, Ross Laboratories, Columbus, 1983

    Google Scholar 

  118. Stewart ML, McDonald JT, Levy AS, Schucker RE, Henderson DP. Vitamin/mineral supplement use: a telephone survey of adults in the United States. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 85: 1585–1590, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  119. Tipton CM, Tcheng T-K. Iowa wrestling study: weight loss in high school students. Journal of the American Medical Association 214: 1269–1274, 1970

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  120. van der Beek EJ. Vitamins and endurance training: food for running or faddish claims. Sports Medicine 2: 175–97, 1985

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  121. van Erp-Baart AMJ, Saris WHM, Binkhorst RA, Vos JA, Elvers JWH. Nationwide survey on nutritional habits in elite athletes (Part I): energy, carbohydrate, protein, and fat intake. International Journal of Sports Medicine 10(Suppl. 1): S3–S10, 1989a

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  122. van Erp-Baart AMJ, Saris WHM, Binkhorst RA, Vost JA, Elvers JWH. Nationwide survey on nutritional habits in elite athletes (Part II): mineral and vitamin intake. International Journal of Sports Medicine 10 (Suppl. 1): S11–S16, 1989b

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  123. Vivian VM, Snook JT, DeLany JP. Fecal residue characteristics of complete nutritional liquid diets fed to healthy college students. In Fox (Ed.) Nutrient utilisation during exercise, Ross Symposium, pp. 108–112, Ross Laboratories, Columbus, 1983

    Google Scholar 

  124. Walsh R, McNaughton L. Effects of iron supplementation on iron status of young female swimmers during the pre-season phase of competition. Journal of Swimming Research 5: 13–18, 1989

    Google Scholar 

  125. Weight LM, Noakes TD, Labadarios D, Graves J, Jacobs P, et al. Vitamin and mineral status of trained athletes including the effects of supplementation. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 47: 186–191, 1988

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  126. Werblow JA, Fox HM, Henneman A. Nutritional knowledge, attitudes, and food patterns of women athletes. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 73: 242–245, 1978

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  127. Weswig PH, Winkler W. Iron supplementation and haematolog-ical data of competitive swimmers. Journal of Sports Medicine 14: 112–119, 1974

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  128. Williams MH. Nutritional aspects of human physical and athletic performance, 2nd ed., Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, 1985

    Google Scholar 

  129. Williams MH. Vitamin supplementation and athletic performance. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research (Suppl. 30): 163–191, 1989

    Google Scholar 

  130. Wolf E, Wirth J, Lohman T. Nutritional practices of coaches in the Big Ten. Physician and Sportsmedicine 7 (2): 113–124, 1979

    Google Scholar 

  131. Worme JD, Doubt TJ, Singh A, Ryan CJ, Moses FM, et al. Dietary patterns, gastrointestinal complaints, and nutrition knowledge of recreational triathletes. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 51: 690–697, 1990

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  132. Worsley A, Crawford D. Australian Dietary Supplementation Practices. Research Report No. 1, CSIRO, Adelaide, 1983

    Google Scholar 

  133. Yarrows SA. Weight loss through dehydration in amateur wrestling. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 88: 491–493, 1987

    Google Scholar 

  134. Yoshida T, Udo M, Chida M, Ichioka M, Makiguchi K. Dietary iron supplement during severe physical training in competitive female distance runners. Sports Training, Medicine and Rehabilitation 1: 279–285, 1990

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Louise M. Burke.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Burke, L.M., Read, R.S.D. Dietary Supplements in Sport. Sports Medicine 15, 43–65 (1993). https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-199315010-00005

Download citation

Keywords

  • Iron Deficiency
  • Iron Supplementation
  • Iron Status
  • Female Athlete
  • Recommended Dietary Allowance