Sports Medicine

, Volume 11, Issue 6, pp 382–401 | Cite as

Potassium Regulation during Exercise and Recovery

  • Michael I. Lindinger
  • Gisela Sjøgaard
Review Article


The concentrations of extracellular and intracellular potassium (K+) in skeletal muscle influence muscle cell function and are also important determinants of cardiovascular and respiratory function.

Several studies over the years have shown that exercise results in a release of K+ ions from contracting muscles which produces a decrease in intracellular K+ concentrations and an increase in plasma K+ concentrations. Following exercise there is a recovery of intracellular K+ concentrations in previously contracting muscle and plasma K+ concentrations rapidly return to resting values.

The cardiovascular and respiratory responses to K+ released by contracting muscle produce some changes which aid exercise performance. Increases in the interstitial K+ concentrations of contracting muscles stimulate CIII and CIV afferents to directly stimulate heart rate and the rate of ventilation. Localised K+ release causes a vasodilatation of the vascular bed within contracting muscle. This, together with the increase in cardiac output (through increased heart rate), results in an increase in blood flow to isometrically contracted muscle upon cessation of contraction and to dynamically contracting muscle. This exercise hyperaemia aids in the delivery of metabolic substrates to, and in the removal of metabolic endproducts from, contracting and recovering muscle tissues.

In contrast to the beneficial respiratory and cardiovascular effects of elevations in interstitial and plasma K+ concentrations, the responses of contracting muscle to decreases in intracellular K+ concentrations and increases in intracellular Na+ concentrations and extracellular K+ concentrations contribute to a reduction in the strength of muscular contraction. Muscle K+ loss has thus been cited as a major factor associated with or contributing to muscle fatigue.

The sarcolemma, because of changes in intracellular and extracellular K+ concentrations and Na+ concentrations on the membrane potential and cell excitability, contributes to a fatigue ‘safety mechanism’. The purpose of this safety mechanism would be to prevent the muscle cell from the self-destruction which is evident upon overload (metabolic insufficiency) of the tissues. The net loss of K+ and associated net gain of Na+ by contracting muscles may contribute to the pain and degenerative changes seen with prolonged exercise.

During exercise, mechanisms are brought into play which serve to regulate cellular and whole body K+ homeostasis. Increased rates of uptake of K+ by contracting muscles and inactive tissues through activation of the Na+-K+ pump serve to restore active muscle intracellular K+ concentrations towards precontraction levels and to prevent plasma K+ concentrations from rising to toxic levels. These effects are at least partially mediated by exercise-induced increases in plasma catecholamines, particularly adrenaline. Upon cessation of exercise intracellular K+ concentrations rapidly recover towards resting values, and this is associated with improvements in muscle contraction.

Training may result in an increase in intracellular K+ concentrations of resting muscle and relatively lower plasma K+ concentrations compared to values reported in untrained individuals. Also, a blunting of the exercise-induced hyperkalaemia in trained individuals is associated with a decrease in the net loss of K+ from contracting muscle; these observations have been attributed to an upregulation of Na+-K+ pump activity in both inactive tissues and active muscle.


Skeletal Muscle Muscle Fatigue Rest Membrane Potential Human Skeletal Muscle Apply Physiology 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adam WR, Koretsky AP, Weiner MW. Measurement of tissue potassium in vivo using 39K nuclear magnetic resonance. Biophysics Journal 51: 265–271, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahlborg B, Bergstrom J, Ekelund L-G, Hultman E. Muscle glycogen and muscle electrolytes during prolonged physical exercise. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 70: 129–142, 1967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andersen P, Saltin B. Maximal perfusion of skeletal muscle in man. Journal of Physiology (London) 366: 233–249, 1985.Google Scholar
  4. Anderson RL, Wilmore JH, Joyner MJ, Freund BJ, Hartzell AA, et al. Effects of cardioselective and nonselective beta-adrenergic blockade on the performance of highly trained runners. American Journal of Cardiology 55: 149D–154D, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ashcroft FM. Adenosine 5′-triphosphatase-sensitive potassium channels. Annual Review of Neuroscience 11: 97–118, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Åstrand P-O, Saltin B. Oxygen uptake during the first minutes of heavy muscular exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 16: 971–976, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Ballanyi K, Grafe P. Changes in intracellular ion activities induced by adrenaline in human and rat skeletal muscle. Pflugers Archives 411: 283–288, 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beam KG, Caldwell JH, Campbell DT. Sodium channels in skeletal muscle concentrated near the neuromuscular junction. Nature 313: 588–590, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bergstrom J. Muscle electrolytes in man: determined by neutron activation analysis on needle biopsy specimens: a study on normal subjects, kidney patients, and patients with chronic diarrhoea. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation 14(Suppl. 68): 1–110, 1962.Google Scholar
  10. Bergstrom J, Guarnieri G, Hultman E. Carbohydrate metabolism and electrolyte changes in human muscle tissue during heavy work. Journal of Applied Physiology 30: 122–125, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bia MJ, DeFronzo RA. Extrarenal potassium homeostasis. American Journal of Physiology 240: F257–F268, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bigland-Ritchie B, Cafarelli E, Vollestad NK. Fatigue of sub-maximal static contractions. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 128(Suppl. 556): 137–148, 1986.Google Scholar
  13. Bigland-Ritchie B, Jones DA, Woods JA. Excitation frequency and muscle fatigue: electrical responses during human voluntary and stimulated contractions. Experimental Neurology 64: 414–427, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bigland-Ritchie B, Woods JJ. Changes in muscle contractile properties and neural control during human muscular fatigue. Muscle & Nerve 7: 691–699, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Boning D, Tibes U, Schweigart U. Red cell hemoglobin, hydrogen ion and electrolyte concentrations during exercise in trained and untrained subjects. European Journal of Applied Physiology 35: 243–249, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brown MJ, Brown DC, Murphy MB. Hypokalemia from beta2-receptor stimulation by circulating epinephrine. New England Journal of Medicine 309: 1414–1419, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Busse MW, Maassen N. Effect of consecutive exercise bouts on plasma potassium concentration during exercise and recovery. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 21: 489–493, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Busse MW, Maassen N, Konrad H, Boning D. Interrelationship between pH, plasma potassium concentration and ventilation during intense continuous exercise in man. European Journal of Applied Physiology 59: 256–261, 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Campion DS. Resting membrane potential and ionic distribution in fast- and slow-twitch mammalian muscle. Journal of Clinical Investigation 54: 514–518, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Carlsson E, Fellenius E, Lundborg P, Svensson L. Beta-adrenoceptor blockers, plasma potassium, and exercise. Lancet 2: 424–425, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Castellino P, Simonson DC, DeFronzo RA. Adrenergic modulation of potassium metabolism during exercise in normal and diabetic humans. American Journal of Physiology 252: E68–E76, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Castle NA, Haylett DG. Effect of channel blockers on potassium efflux from metabolically exhausted frog skeletal muscle. Journal of Physiology (London) 383: 31–43, 1987.Google Scholar
  23. Clausen T. Regulation of active Na+-K+ transport in skeletal muscle. Physiological Reviews 66: 542–580, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Clausen T, Everts ME. Is the Na, K-pump capacity in skeletal muscle inadequate during sustained work? In Skou JC et al. (Eds) The Na+, K+-pump, Part B: cellular aspects, pp. 239–244, Alan R. Liss, New York, 1988.Google Scholar
  25. Clausen T, Everts ME. Regulation of the Na, K-pump in skeletal muscle. Kidney International 35: 1–13, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Clausen T, Everts ME, Kjeldsen K. Quantification of the maximum capacity for active sodium-potassium transport in rat skeletal muscle. Journal of Physiology (London) 338: 163–181, 1987.Google Scholar
  27. Clausen T, Flatman JA. The effect of catecholamines on Na-K transport and membrane potential in rat soleus. Journal of Physiology (London) 270: 383–414, 1977.Google Scholar
  28. Costill DL, Saltin B. Muscle glycogen and electrolytes following exercise and thermal dehydration. In Howald and Poortmans (Eds) Metabolic adaptation to prolonged physical exercise, pp. 352–360, Birkhauser, Basel, 1975.Google Scholar
  29. Creese R, Hashish S, Scholes NW. Potassium movements in contracting diaphragm muscle. Journal of Physiology (London) 143: 307–324, 1958.Google Scholar
  30. Davies NW. Modulation of ATP-sensitive K+ channels in skeletal muscle by intracellular protons. Nature 343: 375–377, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Davies NW, Spruce AE, Standen NB, Stanfield PR. Multiple blocking mechanisms of ATP-sensitive potassium channels of frog skeletal muscle by tetraethylammonium ions. Journal of Physiology (London) 413: 31–48, 1989.Google Scholar
  32. De Lanne R, Barnes JR, Brouha L. Changes in osmotic pressure and ionic concentrations of plasma during muscular work and recovery. Journal of Applied Physiology 14: 804–808, 1959.Google Scholar
  33. Donaldson SKB. Effect of acidosis on maximum force generation of peeled mammalian skeletal muscle fibers. In Knuttgen et al. (Eds) Biochemistry of exercise, International Series on Sport Sciences, Vol. 13, pp. 126–133, Human Kinetics, Champaign IL, 1983.Google Scholar
  34. Dorup I, Skajaa K, Clausen T, Kjeldsen K. Reduced concentrations of potassium, magnesium, and sodium-potassium pumps in skeletal muscle during treatment with diuretics. British Medical Journal 296: 455–458, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Drahota Z. The ionic composition of various types of striated muscles. Physiologica Bohemoslovica 10: 160–165, 1961.Google Scholar
  36. Edwards RHT. Biochemical bases of fatigue in exercise performance: catastrophe theory of muscular fatigue. In Vogel et al. (Eds) Biochemistry of exercise, International Series on Sports Sciences, Vol. 13, pp. 3–28, Human Kinetics, Champaign IL, 1983.Google Scholar
  37. Everts ME, Retterstol K, Clausen T. Effects of adrenaline on excitation-induced stimulation of the sodium-potassium pump in rat skeletal muscle. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 134: 189–198, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fenn WO. Electrolytes in muscle. Physiological Reviews 16: 450–487, 1936.Google Scholar
  39. Fenn WO. Factors affecting the loss of potassium from stimulated muscles. American Journal of Physiology 124: 213–229, 1938.Google Scholar
  40. Fink R, Luttgau HC. An evaluation of the membrane constants and the potassium conductance in metabolically exhausted muscle fibres. Journal of Physiology (London) 263: 215–238, 1976.Google Scholar
  41. Fink R, Hase S, Luttgau HC, Wettwer E. The effect of cellular energy reserves and internal calcium ions on the potassium conductance in skeletal muscle of the frog. Journal of Physiology (London) 336: 211–228, 1983.Google Scholar
  42. Gullestad L, Dolva LO, Nordby G, Skaaraas K, Larsen S, et al. The importance of potassium and lactate for maximal exercise performance during beta blockade. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation 49: 521–528, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Henriksson J, Reitman JS. Time course of changes in human skeletal muscle succinate dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase activities and maximal oxygen uptake with physical activity and inactivity. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 99: 91–97, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hermansen L, Orheim A, Sejersted OM. Metabolic acidosis and changes in water and electrolyte balance in relation to fatigue during maximal exercise of short duration. International Journal of Sports Medicine 5(Suppl.): 110–115, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hespel P, Lijnen P, Fiocchi R, Van Oppens S, Vanden Eynde E, et al. Erythrocyte cations and Na+, K+-ATPase pump activity in athletes and sedentary subjects. European Journal of Applied Physiology 55: 24–29, 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hicks A, McComas AJ. Increased sodium pump activity following repetitive stimulation of rat soleus muscles. Journal of Physiology (London) 414: 337–349, 1989.Google Scholar
  47. Hirche H, Schumacher E, Hagemann H. Extracellular K+ concentration and K+ balance of the gastrocnemius muscle of the dog during exercise. Pfluegers Archivs 387: 231–237, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hnik P, Holas M, Krekule I, Kriz N, Mejsnar J, et al. Work-induced potassium changes in skeletal muscle and effluent venous blood assessed by liquid ion-exchanger microelectrodes. Pfluegers Archivs 362: 85–94, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hnik P, Vyskocil F, Ujec E, Vejsada R, Rehfeldt H. Work-induced potassium loss from skeletal muscles and its physiological implications. In Saltin (Ed.) Biochemistry of exercise VI, International Series on Sport Sciences, Vol. 16, pp. 345–364, Human Kinetics, Champaign IL, 1986.Google Scholar
  50. Hultman E. Studies on muscle metabolism of glycogen and active phosphate in man with special reference to exercise and diet. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation 14(Suppl. 94): 1–63, 1967.Google Scholar
  51. Hultman E, Bergstrom M, Spriet LL, Soderlund K. Energy metabolism and fatigue. In Taylor et al. (Eds) Biochemistry of exercise VII, International Series on Sport Sciences 21, pp. 73–92, Human Kinetics, Champaign IL, 1990Google Scholar
  52. Jones DP. Intracellular diffusion gradients of O2 and ATP. American Journal of Physiology 250: C663–C675, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Juel C. Potassium and sodium shifts during in vitro isometric muscle contraction, and the time course of ion-gradient recovery. Pfluegers Archivs 406: 458–463, 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Juel C. Muscle action potential propagation velocity changes during activity. Muscle & Nerve 11: 714–719, 1988.aCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Juel C. The effect of beta2-adrenoceptor activation on ion-shifts and fatigue in mouse soleus muscles stimulated in vitro. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 134: 209–216, 1988.bPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Juel C, Bangsbo J, Graham T, Saltin B. Lactate and potassium fluxes from human skeletal muscle after intense, dynamic knee-extensor exercise. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 140: 147–159, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Katz A, Sahlin K, Juhlin-Danfelt A. Effect of β-adrenoceptor blockade on H+ and K+ flux in exercising humans. Journal of Applied Physiology 59: 336–341, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Kiens B, Saltin B. Endurance training of man decreases muscle potassium loss during exercise. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 126: 20A, 1986.Google Scholar
  59. Kiens B, Saltin B, Walloe L, Wesche J. Temporal relationship between blood flow changes and release of ions and metabolites from muscle upon single weak contractions. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 136: 551–559, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kilburn KH. Muscular origin of elevated plasma potassium during exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 21: 675–678, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Kjaer M, Christensen NJ, Sonne B, Richter EA, Galbo H. Effect of exercise on epinephrine turnover in trained and untrained subjects. Journal of Applied Physiology 59: 1061–1067, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Kjaer M, Farrel PA, Christensen NJ, Galbo H. Increased epinephrine response and inaccurate glucoregulation in exercising athletes. Journal of Applied Physiology 61: 1693–1700, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Kjeldsen K. Regulation of the concentration of 3H-ouabain binding sites in mammalian skeletal muscle — effects of age, Kdepletion, thyroid status and hypertension. Danish Medical Bulletin 34: 15–46, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Kjeldsen K, Bjerregaard P, Richter EA, Thomsen PEB, Norgaard A. Na+, K+-ATPase concentration in rodent and human heart and skeletal muscle: apparent relation to muscle performance. Cardiovascular Research 22: 95–100, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kjeldsen K, Gron P. Skeletal muscle Na,K-pump concentration in children and its relationship to cardiac glycoside distribution. Journal of Pharmacological and Experimental Therapeutics 250: 721–725, 1989.Google Scholar
  66. Kjeldsen K, Norgaard A, Ostrup C, Hau C, Clausen C. Effects of training on exercise-induced hyperkalemia and the concentration of Na,K-pumps in human skeletal muscle. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 129: 23A, 1987.Google Scholar
  67. Kjeldsen K, Richter EA, Galbo H, Lortie G, Clausen T. Training increases the concentration of [3H]ouabain-binding sites in rat skeletal muscle. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 860: 708–712, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kjellmer I. The potassium ion as a vasodilator during muscular exercise. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 63: 460–468, 1965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Klitgaard H, Clausen T. Increased total concentration of Na-K pumps in vastus lateralis muscle of old trained human subjects. Journal of Applied Physiology 67: 2491–2494, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Knochel JP, Blachley JD, Johnson JH, Carter NW. Muscle cell electrical hyperpolarization and reduced exercise hyperkalemia in physically conditioned dogs. Journal of Clinical Investigation 75: 740–745, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Knochel JP, Dotin LN, Hamburger RJ. Pathophysiology of intense physical conditioning in a hot climate. Journal of Clinical Investigation 51: 242–255, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kolb H-A. Potassium channels in excitable and non-excitable cells. Reviews in Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology 115: 51–91, 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kossler F, Lange F, Caffier G, Kochler G. Changes of the conduction velocity of isolated muscles induced by altered external potassium concentrations. Biomedica et Biochimica Acta 48: S465–S470, 1989.Google Scholar
  74. Kowalchuk JM, Heigenhauser GJF, Lindinger MI, Obminski G, Sutton JR, et al. Role of lungs and inactive muscle in acid-base control after maximal exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 65: 2090–2096, 1988.bPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Kowalchuk JM, Heigenhauser GJF, Lindinger MI, Sutton JR, Jones NL. Factors influencing hydrogen ion concentration in muscle after intense exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 65: 2080–2089, 1988.aPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Leader JP, Bray JJ, MacKnight ADC, Mason DR, McCaig D, et al. Cellular ions in intact and denervated muscles of the rat. Journal of Membrane Biology 81: 19–27, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. LeBlanc J, Jobin M, Cote J, Samson P, LaBrie A. Enhanced metabolic response to caffeine in exercise-trained human subjects. Journal of Applied Physiology 59: 832–837, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Lindinger MI, Heigenhauser GJF. Intracellular ion content of skeletal muscle measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Journal of Applied Physiology 63: 426–433, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Lindinger MI, Heigenhauser GJF. Ion fluxes during tetanic stimulation in isolated perfused rat hindlimb. American Journal of Physiology 254: R117–R126, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Lindinger MI, Heigenhauser GJF, McKelvie RS. Lactate and K+ shuttling in man during intense exercise. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 68(5): Axix, 1990a.Google Scholar
  81. Lindinger MI, Heigenhauser GJF, McKelvie RS, Jones NL. Role of nonworking muscle on blood metabolites and ions with intense intermittent exercise. American Journal of Physiology 258: R1486–R1494, 1990.bPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Lindinger MI, Heigenhauser GJF, McKelvie RS, Jones NL. Blood ion regulation during repeated maximal exercise and recovery in humans. American Journal of Physiology, in press, 1991.Google Scholar
  83. Lindinger MI, Heigenhauser GJF, Spriet LL. Effects of intense swimming and tetanic electrical stimulation on skeletal muscle ions and metabolites. Journal of Applied Physiology 63: 2331–2339, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. McCloskey DI, Mitchell JH. Reflex cardiovascular and respiratory responses originating in exercising muscle. Journal of Physiology (London) 224: 173–186, 1972.Google Scholar
  85. McKelvie RS, Lindinger MI, Heigenhauser GJF. Ion changes in arterial red blood cells in maximal exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 19(Suppl. 2): S86, 1987.Google Scholar
  86. Medbo JJ, Sejersted OM. Plasma potassium changes with high intensity exercise. Journal of Physiology (London) 421: 105–122, 1990.Google Scholar
  87. Miller RG, Giannini D, Milner-Brown HS, Layzer RB, Koretsky AP, et al. Effects of fatiguing exercise on high-energy phosphates, force, and EMG: evidence for three phases of recovery. Muscle & Nerve 10: 810–821, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Milner-Brown HS, Miller RG. Muscle membrane excitation and impulse propagation velocity are reduced during muscle fatigue. Muscle & Nerve 9: 367–374, 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Mitchell JH, Reardon WC, McCloskey DI. Reflex effects on circulation and respiration from contracting skeletal muscle. American Journal of Physiology 233: H374–H378, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Mohrman DE, Sparks HV. Role of potassium ions in the vascular response to a brief tetanus. Circulation Research 35: 384–390, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Moss RF, Raven PB, Knochel JP, Peckham JR, Blachley JD. The effect of training on resting membrane potentials. In Knuttgen et al. (Eds) Biochemistry of exercise, International Series on Sports Sciences 13, pp. 806–811, Human Kinetics Publishers, Champaign IL, 1983.Google Scholar
  92. Nielsen B, Sjøgaard G, Bonde-Petersen F. Cardiovascular, hormonal and body fluid changes during prolonged exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology 53: 63–70, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Nielsen B, Sjøgaard G, Ugelvig J, Knudsen B, Dohlmann B. Fluid balance in exercise dehydration and rehydration with different glucose-electrolyte drinks. European Journal of Applied Physiology 55: 318–325, 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Norgaard A, Kjeldsen K, Clausen T. A method for the determination of the total number of 3H-ouabain binding sites in biopsies of human skeletal muscle. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation 44: 509–518, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Olszewski W, Engeset A, Haeger PM, Sokolowski J, Theodorsen L. Flow and composition of leg lymph in normal men during venous sepsis, muscular activity and local hyperthermia. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 99: 149–155, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Reinhart WH, Staubli M, Straub PW. Impaired red cell filtrability with elimination of old red blood cells during a 100-km race. Journal of Applied Physiology 54: 827–830, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Rogus EM, Cheng LC, Zierler K. β-Adrenergic effect on Na+-K+ transport in rat skeletal muscle. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 464: 347–355, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Rolett EL, Strange S, Sjogaard G, Kiens B, Saltin B. β2-Adrenergic stimulation does not prevent potassium loss from exercising quadriceps muscle. American Journal of Physiology 258: R1192–R1200, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Sahlin K, Broberg S. Release of K+ from muscle during prolonged dynamic exercise. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 136: 293–294, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Sahlin K, Henriksson J, Juhlin-Dahnfelt A. Intracellular pH and electrolytes in human skeletal muscle during adrenaline and insulin infusions. Clinical Science 67: 461–464, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Saltin B, Sjøgaard G, Gaffney FA, Rowell LB. Potassium, lactate, and water fluxes in human quadriceps muscle during static contractions. Circulation Research 48(Suppl. I): I18–I24, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Sandercock TG, Faulkner JA, Albers JW, Abbrecht PH. Single motor unit and fiber action potentials during fatigue. Journal of Applied Physiology 58: 1073–1079, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Shetty RPM, Krishna DJ, Macchia DD. Effects of albumin on resting membrane potential of toad semitendinosus muscles. Pfluegers Archivs 404: 83–85, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Shiota M, Sugano T. Characteristics of rat hindlimbs perfused with erythrocyte- and albumin-free medium. American Journal of Physiology 251: C78–C84, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Sjøgaard G. Electrolytes in slow and fast muscle fibers of humans at rest and with dynamic exercise. American Journal of Physiology 245: R25–R31, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Sjøgaard G. Water and electrolyte fluxes during exercise and their relation to muscle fatigue. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 128(Suppl. 556): 129–136, 1986.Google Scholar
  107. Sjøgaard G. Muscle energy metabolism and electrolyte shifts during low-level prolonged static contraction in man. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 134: 181–187, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Sjøgaard G. Exercise-induced muscle fatigue: the significance of potassium. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 140(Suppl. 593): 1–63, 1990.Google Scholar
  109. Sjøgaard G, Adams RP, Saltin B. Water and ion shifts in skeletal muscle of humans with intense dynamic knee extension. American Journal of Physiology 248: R190–R196, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Sjøgaard G, Saltin B. Extra- and intracellular water spaces in muscles of man at rest and with dynamic exercise. American Journal of Physiology 243: R271–R280, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Skou JC. Enzymatic basis for active transport of Na+ and K+ across cell membrane. Physiological Reviews 45: 596–617, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Spriet LL, Lindinger MI, McKelvie RS, Heigenhauser GJF, Jones NL. Muscle glycogenolysis and hydrogen ion concentration during maximal intermittent cycling. Journal of Applied Physiology 66: 8–13, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Spruce AE, Standen NB, Stanfield PR. Voltage-dependent, ATP-sensitive potassium channels of skeletal muscle membrane. Nature 316: 736–738, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Spruce AE, Standen NB, Stanfield PR. Studies of the unitary properties of adenosine-5′-triphosphate-regulated potassium channels of frog skeletal muscle. Journal of Physiology (London) 382: 213–236, 1987.Google Scholar
  115. Sreter FA. Cell water, sodium, and potassium in stimulated red and white mammalian muscles. American Journal of Physiology 205: 1295–1298, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Tibes U, Haberkorn-Butendeich E, Hammersen F. Effect of contraction on lymphatic, venous, and tissue electrolytes and metabolites in rabbit skeletal muscle. Pfluegers Archivs 368: 195–202, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Tibes U, Hemmer B, Boning D, Schweigart U. Relationships of femoral venous [K+], [H+], PO2, osmolality, and [orthophosphate] with heart rate, ventilation, and leg blood flow during bicycle exercise in athletes and nonathletes. European Journal of Applied Physiology 35: 201–214, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Tibes U, Hemmer B, Schweigart U, Boning D, Fotescu D. Exercise acidosis as a cause of electrolyte changes in femoral venous blood of trained and untrained man. Pfluegers Archivs 347: 145–158, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Van Beaumont W, Strand JC, Petrosfsky JS, Hipskind SG, Greenleaf JE. Changes in total plasma content of electrolytes and proteins with maximal exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 34: 102–106, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Van Beaumont W, Underkofler S, Van Beaumont S. Erythrocyte volume, plasma volume, and acid-base changes in exercise and heat dehydration. Journal of Applied Physiology 50: 1255–1262, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Vick RL, Todd EP, Luedke DW. Epinephrine-induced hypokalemia: relation to liver and skeletal muscle. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 181: 139–146, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Vollestad NK, Sejersted OM. Plasma K+ during exercise of various intensity in normal humans. Clinical Physiology 5: 151, 1985.Google Scholar
  123. Vollestad NK, Sejersted OM. Changes in plasma K+ during different types and intensities of exercise in man. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 134(Suppl. 575): S24, 1988.Google Scholar
  124. Vyskocil F, Hnik P, Rehfeldt H, Vejsada R, Ujec E. The measurement of K+ concentration changes in human skeletal muscles during volitional contractions. Pfluegers Archivs 399: 235–237, 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Weik R, Neumcke B. ATP-sensitive potassium channels in adult mouse skeletal muscle: characterization of the ATP-binding site. Journal of Membrane Biology 110: 217–226, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Weiss JN, Lamp ST. Cardiac ATP-sensitive K+ channels: evidence for preferential regulation by glycolysis. Journal of General Physiology 94: 911–935, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Westerblad H, Lannergren J. Force and membrane potential during and after fatiguing, intermittent tetanic stimulation of single Xenopus muscle fibres. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 128: 369–378, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Wilkerson JE, Horvath SM, Gutin B, Molnar S, Diaz FJ. Plasma electrolyte content and concentration during treadmill exercise in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology 53: 1529–1539, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Williams ME, Gervino EV, Rosa RM, Landsberg L, Young JB, et al. Catecholamine modulation of rapid potassium shifts during exercise. New England Journal of Medicine 312: 823–827, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Williams ME, Rosa RM, Silva P, Brown RS, Epstein FH. Impairment of extrarenal potassium disposal by α-adrenergic stimulation. New England Journal of Medicine 311: 145–149, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Yonemura K. Resting and action potentials in red and white muscle of the rat. Japanese Journal of Physiology 17: 708–719, 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis International Limited 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael I. Lindinger
    • 1
  • Gisela Sjøgaard
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Human BiologyUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada
  2. 2.Department of PhysiologyNational Institute of Occupational HealthCopenhagenDenmark

Personalised recommendations