Sports Medicine

, Volume 4, Issue 5, pp 352–363 | Cite as

Cardiorespiratory Responses to Endurance Training in Children

  • Paul Vaccaro
  • Anthony Mahon
Research Review

Summary

With increasing involvement of young children in competitive sports there have been many studies on the cardiorespiratory response of children to endurance training. There were many methodological and design restrictions which limited the depth of studies in this area and made comparisons across studies difficult. Sufficient experimental progress has been made to draw the following conclusions. Trained children exhibit higher V̇2max values than do untrained children. These differences are present irrespective of the ages of the children but are more pronounced in many cases in older children. Exercise programmes which are of sufficient intensity, frequency and duration lead to improvements in cardiorespiratory capacity. The minimum and optimum levels for intensity, frequency and duration have not yet been identified. The majority of the current literature assumes that children respond to endurance training in a manner similar to that of adults. This point needs further verification. The age or maturity level during which exercise training exerts its greatest effect on the cardiorespiratory system has not been clearly identified.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ad Hoc Committee on Exercise Testing. Standards for exercise in the pediatric age group: American Heart Association Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young. Circulation 66: 1377A–1397A, 1982Google Scholar
  2. American Academy of Pediatrics. Sports medicine: health care for young athletes, American Academy of Pediatrics, Illinois, 1983Google Scholar
  3. American College of Sports Medicine. Position statement on the recommended quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining fitness in healthy adults. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 10: vii–x, 1978Google Scholar
  4. Andrew GM, Becklake MR, Guleria JS, Bates DV. Heart and lung functions in swimmers and nonathletes during growth. Journal of Applied Physiology 32: 245–251, 1972PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Åstrand PO. Experimental studies of physical working capacity in relation to sex and age, Ejnar Munksgaard, Copenhagen, 1952Google Scholar
  6. Åstrand PO, Engstrom L, Eriksson B, Karlberg P, Nylander I, et al. Girl swimmers. Açta Paediatrica Scandinavica 147 (Suppl.): 5–75, 1963Google Scholar
  7. Åstrand PO, Rodahl K. Textbook of work physiology, McGraw- Hill, New York, 1986Google Scholar
  8. Bar-Or O. Pediatric sports medicine for the practitioner, Springer- Verlag, New York, 1983CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bar-Or O. Physical conditioning in children with cardiorespiratory disease. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews 13: 305–334, 1985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bar-Or O, Zwiren LD. Physiological effects of increased frequency of physical education classes and of endurance conditioning on 9 to 10 year old girls and boys. In Pediatric work physiology: Proceedings 4th International Symposium, pp. 183–198, Wingate Institute, Israel, 1973Google Scholar
  11. Benedict G, Vaccaro P, Hatfield BD. Physiological effects of an eight week precision jump rope program in children. American Corrective Therapy Journal 5: 108–111, 1985Google Scholar
  12. Berenson GS. Cardiovascular risk factors in children: The early natural history of atherosclerosis and essential hypertension, Oxford University Press, New York, 1980Google Scholar
  13. Berg K, Sady SP, Beal D, Savage M, Smith J. Developing an elementary school CHD prevention program. Physician and Sportsmedicine 10: 99–105, 1983Google Scholar
  14. Boileu RA, Heyward VH, Massey BH. Maximal aerobic capacity on the treadmill and bicycle ergometer of boys 11–14 years of age. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 17: 153–162, 1977Google Scholar
  15. Bradley LM, Galioto FM, Vaccaro P, Hansen DA, Vaccaro J. Effect of intense aerobic training on exercise performance in children after surgical repair of tetralogy of fallot or complete transposition of the great arteries. American Journal of Cardiology 56: 816–818, 1985aPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bradley LM, Galioto FM, Vaccaro P, Hansen DA, Vaccaro J. Cardiac rehabilitation of children after surgical repair of cyanotic congenital heart disease. Journal of American College of Cardiology 5:479, 1985bGoogle Scholar
  17. Brown CH, Harrower JR, Deeter MS. The effects of cross-country running on pre-adolescent girls. Medicine and Science in Sports 4: 1–5, 1972PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Chausow SA, Riner WF, Boileau RA. Metabolic and cardiovas- cular responses of children during prolonged physical activity. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 55: 1–7, 1984Google Scholar
  19. Clarke DH. Exercise physiology, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 1975Google Scholar
  20. Cumming GR, Friesen W. Bicycle ergometer measurement of maximal oxygen uptake in children. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 45: 937–946, 1967PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cunningham DA. Reliability and reproducibility of maximal oxygen uptake measurement in children. Medicine and Science in Sports 9: 104–108, 1977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Cunningham DA, Eynon RB. The working capacity of young competitive swimmers, 10–16 years of age. Medicine and Science in Sports 5: 227–231, 1973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Cunningham DA, Telford P, Swart GT. The cardiopulmonary capacities of young hockey players: age 10. Medicine and Science in Sports 8: 23–25, 1976PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Cunningham DA, Paterson DH, Blimkie CJR, Donner AP. Development of cardiorespiratory function in circumpubertal boys: a longitudinal study. Journal of Applied Physiology: Respiratory, Environmental and Exercise Physiology 56: 302–307, 1984Google Scholar
  25. Cunningham DA, Paterson DH, Blimkie CJR. The development of the cardiorespiratory system with growth and physical activity. In Boileau (Ed.) Advances in pediatric sport sciences, pp. 85–116, Human Kinetics Publishers, Illinois, 1984bGoogle Scholar
  26. Daniels J, Oldridge N. Changes in oxygen consumption of young boys during growth and running training. Medicine and Science in Sports 3: 161–165, 1971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Eriksson BO. Physical training, oxygen supply and muscle metabolism in 11–13 year old boys. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 384 (Suppl.): 1–48, 1972Google Scholar
  28. Eriksson BO, Gollnick PD, Saltin B. Muscle metabolism and enzyme activities after training in boys 11–13 years old. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 87: 485–497, 1973PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Eriksson BO, Koch B. Cardiac output and intraarterial blood pressure at rest and during submaximal and maximal exercise in 11 to 13 year old boys before and after physical training. In Pediatric work physiology: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium, pp. 139–150, Wingate Institute, Israel, 1973Google Scholar
  30. Ekblom B. Effect of physical training in adolescent boys. Journal of Applied Physiology 27: 350–355, 1969PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Gaisl G, Buchberger J. The significance of stress acidosis in judging the physical working capacity of boys aged 11 to 15. In Lavalee & Shephard (Eds) Frontiers of activity and child health, pp. 161–168, Pelican, Quebec, 1977Google Scholar
  32. Gaisl G, Buchberger J. Determination of the aerobic and anaerobic thresholds of 10–11 years old boys using blood-gas analysis. In Berg & Eriksson (Eds) Children and exercise IX, pp. 93–98, University Park Press, Baltimore, 1980Google Scholar
  33. Gatch W, Byrd R. Endurance training and cardiovascular function in 9 and 10 year old boys. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 60: 574–577, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Gilliam T, Freedson P, Geenen D, Shahaaray B. Physical activity patterns determined by heart rate monitoring in 6 to 7 year old children. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 13: 65–67, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Hamilton P, Andrew GM. Influence of growth and athletic training on heart and lung functions. European Journal of Applied Physiology 36: 27–28, 1976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ikai M, Kitagawa K. Maximal oxygen uptake in Japanese related to sex and age. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 4: 127–131, 1972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kellet DW, Willan PLT, Bagnall KJ. A study of potential Olympic swimmers. Part 2. Changes due to three months of intensive training. British Journal of Sports Medicine 12: 87–92, 1978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kobayashi K, Kitamura K, Miura M, Sodeyama H, Murase Y, et al. Aerobic power as related to body growth and training in Japanese boys: a longitudinal study. Journal of Applied Physiology 4: 666–672, 1978Google Scholar
  39. Krahenbuhl GS, Skinner JS, Kohrt WM. Developmental aspects of maximal aerobic power in children. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews 13: 503–538, 1985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Krogman WM. Child growth, pp. 54–56, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 1972Google Scholar
  41. Lussier L, Buskirk ER. Effect of an endurance training regimen on assessment of work capacity on prepubertal children. Annals of New York Academy of Science 301: 734–747, 1977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Macek M, Vavra J, Novosadova J. Prolonged exercise in prepubertal boys. European Journal of Applied Physiology 35: 291–298, 1976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Magel JR, Faulkner JA. Maximum oxygen uptake of college swimmers. Journal of Applied Physiology 22: 929–933, 1967PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Massicotte DR, MacNab RBJ. Cardiorespiratory adaptations to training at specified intensities in children. Medicine and Science in Sports 6: 242–246, 1974PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Matsui H, Miyashita M, Miura M, Kobayashi K, Hoshibawa T, et al. Maximum oxygen uptake and its relationship to body weight in Japanese adolescents. Medicine and Science in Sports 4: 29–32, 1972Google Scholar
  46. Mayer N, Gutin B. Physiological characteristics of elite prepubertal cross-country runners. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 11: 172–179, 1979Google Scholar
  47. McArdle WD, Katch FI, Katch VL. Exercise physiology: energy, nutrition, and human performance, pp. 266–273, Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 1981Google Scholar
  48. Mirwald RL, Bailey DA, Cameron N, Rasmussen RL. Longitudinal comparison of aerobic power in active and inactive boys aged 7.0 to 17.0 years. Annals of Human Biology 8: 405–414, 1981PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Mocellin R, Wasmund U. Investigation on the influence of a running-training program on the cardiovascular and motor performance capacity in 53 boys and girls of a second and third primary school class. In Pediatric Work Physiology: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium, pp. 279–285, Wingate Institute, Israel, 1973Google Scholar
  50. Murase Y, Kobayashi K, Kamei S, Matsui H. Longitudinal study of aerobic power in superior junior athletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 13: 180–184, 1981PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Nagle FJ, Hagberg J, Kamei S. Maximal O2 uptake of boys and girls — ages 14–17. European Journal of Applied Physiology 36: 75–80, 1977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Paterson DH, Cunningham DA, Pyley MJ, Blimkie CJR, Donner AP. The consistency of cardiac output measurement (CO2 rebreathe) in children during exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology 49: 37–44, 1982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Pollock M. The quantification of endurance training programs. Exercise and Sports Science Reviews 1: 155–188, 1973Google Scholar
  54. Rowland TW. Aerobic response to endurance training in prepubescent children: a critical analysis. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 17: 493–497, 1985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Sady SP, Thompson WH, Berg K, Savage M. Physiological characteristics of high-ability prepubescent wrestlers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 16: 72–76, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Sady SP. Cardiorespiratory exercise training in children. Clinics in Sports Medicine 5: 493–514, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Schmucker B, Hollmann W. The aerobic capacity of trained athletes from 6 to 7 years of age. Acta Paediatrica Belgica 28 (Suppl.): 92–104, 1974PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Seliger V, Trefny Z, Bartunkova S, Pauer M. The habitual activity and physical fitness of 12 year old boys. Acta Paediatrica Belgica 28 (Suppl.): 54–59, 1974PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Sjodin B. The relationship between running economy, aerobic power, muscle power, and onset of blood lactate accumulation in young boys (11–15 years). In Komi (Ed.) Exercise and sport biology, pp. 57–60, Human Kinetics, Illinois, 1982Google Scholar
  60. Skinner JS, Bar-Or O, Bergsteinova V, Bell CV, Royer D, et al. Comparison of continuous and intermittent tests for determining maximal oxygen intake in children. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica 217 (Suppl.): 24–28, 1971PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Soto KI, Zauner CW, Otis AB. Cardiac output in preadolescent competitive swimmers and in untrained normal children. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 23: 291–299, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Sprynarova S. Development of the relationship between aerobic capacity and the circulatory and respiratory reaction to moderate activity in boys 11–13 years old. Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 15: 253–264, 1966PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Stewart KJ, Gutin B. Effects of physical training on cardiores-piratory fitness in children. Research Quarterly 47: 110–120, 1976PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Sundberg S, Elovainio R. Cardiorespiratory function in competitive endurance runners aged 12–16 years compared with ordinary boys. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica 71: 987–992, 1982PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Vaccaro P, Clarke DH. Cardiorespiratory alterations in 9 to 11 year old children following a season of competitive swimming. Medicine and Science in Sports 10: 204–207, 1978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Vaccaro P, Clarke DH, Morris AF. Physiological characteristics of young well-trained swimmers. European Journal of Applied Physiology 44: 61–66, 1980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Vaccaro P, Galioto FM, Bradley LM, Vaccaro J. Effect of physical training on exercise tolerance of children after surgical repair of complex congenital heart disease. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 17: 284, 1985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Vaccaro P, Galioto FM, Bradley LM, Vaccaro J. Effect of physical training on exercise tolerance of children following surgical repair of d-transposition of the great arteries. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, in press, 1987Google Scholar
  69. Weber G, Kartodihardjo W, Klissouras V. Growth and physical training with reference to heredity. Journal of Applied Physiology 40: 211–215, 1976PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Wilmore JH, McNamara JJ. Prevalence of coronary heart disease risk factors in boys 8 to 12 years of age. Journal of Pediatrics 84: 527–533, 1974PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wilmore JH. Training for sport and activity: The physiological basis of the conditioning process, pp. 60–61, Allyn and Bacon Inc., Boston, 1982Google Scholar
  72. Yoshida T, Ishiko I, Muraoka I. Effects of endurance training on cardiorespiratory functions of 5 year old children. International Journal of Sports Medicine 1: 91–94, 1980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Zauner CW, Benson NY. Physiological alterations in young swimmers during three years of intensive training. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 21: 179–185, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ADIS Press Limited 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul Vaccaro
    • 1
  • Anthony Mahon
    • 1
  1. 1.Exercise Science LaboratoryUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA
  2. 2.Department of Physical EducationUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA

Personalised recommendations