Value of Resistance Training for the Reduction of Sports Injuries

Summary

Many competitive and recreational athletes perform resistance training as a part of their conditioning programmes. Resistance training in addition to increasing muscular strength and hypertrophy may also aid in the prevention of injuries. Research indicates that resistance training promotes growth and/or increases in the strength of ligaments, tendons, tendon to bone and ligament to bone junction strength, joint cartilage and the connective tissue sheaths within muscle. Studies involving humans and animal models also demonstrate resistance training can cause increased bone mineral content and therefore may aid in prevention of skeletal injuries.

Investigations to date suggest resistance training can aid in injury prevention. The incidence of various types of overuse injuries, such as swimmers shoulder and tennis elbow, may be reduced by the performance of sport and/or motion specific resistance training activities. Screening of athletes for agonist and antagonist muscle strength imbalances can be utilised to identify athletes possessing a predisposition for injury. Resistance training may then be performed to correct the imbalance and therefore reduce the incidence of injury.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Aloia SF, Cohn SH, Ostuni JA, Cane R, Ellis K. Prevention of involuntary bone loss by exercise. Annals of Internal Medicine 89: 356–358, 1978

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Benum P. Patofysiologi ved artroser. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 96: 1687–1690, 1976

    Google Scholar 

  3. Costain R, Williams AK. Isokinetic quadriceps and hamstring torque levels of adolescent, female soccer players. Journal of Orthopaedic Sports Physical Therapy 5: 196–200, 1984

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Dominguez RH. Shoulder pain in age group swimmers. In Eriksson & Furlong (Eds) Swimming medicine IV, pp. 105–109, University Park Press, Baltimore, 1978

    Google Scholar 

  5. Falch JA. The effect of physical activity on the skeleton. Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine 29 (Suppl.): 55–58, 1982

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Falkel JE, Murray JA, Murray TF, Cox JB. Effect of resistive exercise on shoulder external rotation strength and endurance in swimmers. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, submitted for publication, 1985a

  7. Falkel JE, Murray PA, Murray TF, Cox JB. Shoulder external rotation strength and endurance deficits in swimmers. American Journal of Sports Medicine, submitted for publication, 1985b

  8. Fleck SJ, Schutt RC. Types of strength training. Clinics in Sports Medicine 4: 159–168, 1985

    Google Scholar 

  9. Grace TG. Muscle imbalance and extremity injury: a perplexing relationship. Sports Medicine 2: 77–82, 1985

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Gruchow W, Pelleiter D. An epidemiologic study of tennis elbow. American Journal of Sports Medicine 7: 234–238, 1979

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Hansson TH, Roos BO, Nachemson A. Development of osteo-penia in the fourth lumbar vertebrae during prolonged bed rest after operation for scoliosis. Acta Orthopaedia Scandinavica 46: 621–630, 1975

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Hawkins RJ, Kennedy JC. Impingement syndrome in athletes. American Journal of Sports Medicine 8: 151–158, 1980

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Hutton WC, Adams RA. Can the lumbar spine be crushed in heavy lifting?. Spine 7: 586–590, 1982

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Jones HH, Priest JD, Hayes WC, Tichenor CC, Nagel DA. Humeral hypertrophy in response to exercise. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 59A: 204–208, 1977

    Google Scholar 

  15. Karpovich PV, Singh M, Tipton C. Effect of deep knee bends on knee stability. Teorie a Praxe Telesne Vchovy 18: 112–115, 1970

    Google Scholar 

  16. Klein KK. The deep squat exercise as utilised in weight training for athletes and its effect on the ligaments of the knee. Journal of Association of Physical Mental Rehabilitation 15: 6–11, 1971

    Google Scholar 

  17. Kovanen V, Suominen H, Heikkinen E. Collagen of slow twitch and fast twitch muscle fibers in different types of rat skeletal muscle. European Journal of Applied Physiology 52: 235–242, 1984

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Kovanen V, Suominen H, Heikkinen E. Connective tissue of fast and slow skeletal muscle in rats — effects of endurance training. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 108: 173–180, 1980

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Krolner B, Tondevoid E, Toft B, Berthelsen B, Pors Nielsen S. Bone mass of the axial and the appendicular skeleton in women with Colles’ fracture: its relation to physical activity. Clinical Physiology 2: 147–157, 1982

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. Kulund DN, McCue FC, Rockwell DA, Gieck JA. Tennis injuries: prevention and treatment. American Journal of Sports Medicine 7: 249–253, 1979

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Laurent GJ, Sparrow MP, Bates PC, Millward DJ. Collagen content and turnover in cardiac and skeletal muscles of the adult fowl and the changes during stretch-induced growth. Biochemistry Journal 176: 419–427, 1978

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. Martin RK, Albright JP, Clarke WR, Niffeneggar JA. Load-carrying effects on the adult beagle tibia. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 13: 343–349, 1981

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Montoye HJ, Smith EL, Fardon DF, Howley ET. Bone mineral in senior tennis players. Scandinavian Journal of Sports Science 2: 26–32, 1980

    Google Scholar 

  24. Parker MG, Ruhling RO, Holt D, Bauman E, Drayna M. Descriptive analysis of quadriceps and hamstring muscle torque in high school football players. Journal of Orthopedic and Sports Physical Therapy 5: 2–6, 1983

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. Priest JD, Nagle DA. Tennis shoulder. American Journal of Sports Medicine 4: 28–42, 1976

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. Rankin JM, Thompson LB. Isokinetic evaluation of quadriceps and hamstrings function: normative data concerning body-weight and sport. Athletic Training 18: 110–114, 1983

    Google Scholar 

  27. Richardson AB, Jobe FW, Collins HR. The shoulder in competitive swimming. American Journal of Sports Medicine 8: 159–163, 1980

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. Shellock FG, Prentice WE. Warming-up and stretching for improved physical performance and prevention of sports related injuries. Sports Medicine 2: 267–268, 1985

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. Staff PH. The effect of physical activity oHjoints, cartilage, tendons and ligaments. Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine 29 (Suppl.): 59–63, 1982

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. Strizak AM, Gleim GW, Sapega A, Nicholas JA. Hand and forearm strength and its relation to tennis. American Journal of Sports Medicine 11: 234–239, 1983

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. Tipton CM. Lesions and connective tissue. In Staff (Ed.) Nordisk idrettsmediginsk Kongress, pp. 67-80, Nordish idrettsmedi-sinsk Kongress, Syntex Terapisevie, 1977

  32. Tipton CM, Matthes RD, Maynard JA, Carey RA. The influence of physical activity on ligaments and tendons. Medicine and Science in Sports 7: 165–175, 1975

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. Tipton CM, Schild RJ, Flau AE. The measurement of ligamen-tous strength in rats. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 49A: 63–72, 1967

    Google Scholar 

  34. Turto H, Lindy S, Halme J. Protocollagen proline hydroxylase activity in work-induced hypertrophy of rat muscle. American Journal of Physiology 226: 63–65, 1974

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  35. Vogel JM, Whittle MW. Bone mineral content changes in the Skylab astronauts. American Journal of Roentgenology 126: 1296, 1976

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. Watson RC. Bone growth and physical activity in young males. International Conference on Bone Mineral Measurements. US Department of Health, Education and Welfare, publication number NIH 75-683: 380-385, 1974

  37. Williams JA, Wagner J, Wasnich R, Heilbrun L. The effect of long-distance running upon appendicular bone mineral content. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 16: 223–227, 1984

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Steven J. Fleck Ph.D.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Fleck, S.J., Falkel, J.E. Value of Resistance Training for the Reduction of Sports Injuries. Sports Medicine 3, 61–68 (1986). https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-198603010-00006

Download citation

Keywords

  • Resistance Training
  • Bone Mineral Content
  • Shoulder Pain
  • Muscular Strength
  • Tennis Player