Skip to main content

Nutrition and Sports Performance

Summary

During the past 20 years there have been great developments in the scientific understanding of the role of nutrition in health and physical performance. Epidemiological and physiological studies have provided evidence that certain forms of dietary behaviour may be linked with an increased risk of developing disorders such as high blood pressure, coronary artery disease and some cancers. This has resulted in dietary recommendations that are intended to reduce the incidence of these disorders in the community. The science of nutrition in relation to sports performance has progressed from empirical studies investigating the effects of dietary manipulations, such as restriction and supplementation, to the direct investigation of the physiological basis of the specific nutritional demands of hard physical exercise.

This review is based on the premise that it is ‘what comes out’ rather than ‘what goes in’, which provides the clues to ideal nutrition for athletic performance. Various aspects of the physical demands of athletic exercise are viewed as stresses that induce specific biochemical, and hence nutritional, strains in the athlete.

Training is the predominant demand in the athletic lifestyle. This is characterised by acute bouts of high power output. During one hour of hard training an athlete may expend 30% of his or her total 24-hour energy output. These high power outputs have important implications for energy substrate and water requirements.

Carbohydrate, specifically muscle glycogen, is an obligatory fuel for the high power outputs demanded by athletic sports. Muscle glycogen is a limiting factor in hard exercise because it is held in limited amounts, utilised rapidly by intense exercise, and fatigue occurs when it is depleted to low levels in the active muscles. Liver glycogen may also be exhausted by hard exercise and low blood glucose contributes to fatigue.

High sweat rates are demanded during severe exercise and large water deficits commensurate with energy expenditure are incurred during extended periods of hard training and competition. Salt, potassium, and magnesium are lost in nutritionally significant amounts in the sweat, but vitamins and trace elements are not. Adaptive mechanisms protect athletes against electrolyte depletion. Iron loss in sweat may contribute to the iron deficiency seen in some endurance runners.

Protein is degraded and amino acids are oxidised during physical exercise. Protein is also retained during muscle building training. Recent investigations indicate that the minimal protein requirements of athletes may be substantially higher than those for sedentary persons. Nonetheless, all the protein that athletes need will be supplied by a conventional diet and protein supplements are not required.

There is no evidence that athletes have extraordinary vitamin requirements. Some endurance runners, adolescent and female athletes are at risk of iron depletion with or without obvious anaemia. These people require nutritional counselling and may benefit from supervised iron supplementation.

The major nutritional demands arising from hard athletic exercise are for carbohydrate and water. Liberal carbohydrate and water consumption is essential for full recovery between training sessions and in preparation for competition. The pre-competition meal provides limited benefits other than promoting full hydration. Large intakes of simple carbohydrates close to competition may precipitate hypoglycaemia and impair performance. During exercise, water consumption to replace sweat losses is the major concern.

The formulation of nutritional guidelines for athletes, based on the physiological demands of athletic exercise, indicates that the ideal dietary pattern for athletes coincides in most repects with internationally recognised recommendations for a healthy diet. A review of the limited published information on dietary habits of athletes indicates that, in general, they do not select diets that promote either good health or optimal performance.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Adolf, E.F.: Physiology of Man in the Desert (Interscience, New York 1947). Reprinted (Hafner Publishing, New York 1969).

    Google Scholar 

  2. Ahlborg, B.; Bergström, J.; Brohult, J.; Ekelund, L.-G.; Hultman, E. and Maschio, G.: Human muscle glycogen content and capacity for prolonged exercise after different diets. Särtryck ur Försvarsmedicin 3: 85–100 (1967).

    Google Scholar 

  3. Alexandrov, I.I. and Shishina, N.N.: Study of energy metabolism and nutritional status of young athletes; in Parizkováand Rogozkin (Eds) Nutrition, Physical Fitness and Health, pp. 124–130 (University Park Press, Baltimore 1978).

    Google Scholar 

  4. American College of Sports Medicine: Prevention of heat injuries during distance running. Journal of Sports Medicine 16: 345–346 (1976).

    Google Scholar 

  5. American Dietetic Association: Nutrition and physical fitness. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 76: 437–443 (1980).

    Google Scholar 

  6. Asmussen, E.; Klausen, K.; Nielsen, L.E.; Techow, O.S.A. and Tonder, P.J.: Lactate production and anaerobic work capacity after prolonged exercise. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 90: 731–742 (1974).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Åstrand, P.O.: Something old and something new — very new. Nutrition Today 3: 9–11 (1968).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Åstrand, P.O.: Nutrition and physical performance; in Rechcigl (Ed) Nutrition and the World Food Problem, pp.63–84 (Karger, Basel 1979).

    Google Scholar 

  9. Åstrand, P.O. and Rodahl, K.: Textbook of Work Physiology (McGraw-Hill, New York 1977).

    Google Scholar 

  10. Baker, E.R.: Menstrual function and hormonal status in athletic women: A review. Fertility and Sterility 36: 691–696 (1981).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Bank, W.J.: Myoglobinuria in marathon runners: Possible relationship to carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 301: 942–948 (1977).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Beller, G.A.; Maher, J.T.; Hartley, L.H.; Bass, D.E. and Wacker, W.E.C.: Serum magnesium and potassium concentrations during exercise under thermoneutral and hot conditions. Physiologist 15: 84(1972).

    Google Scholar 

  13. Bergström, J.: Muscle electrolytes in man. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigations 14(Suppl. 68): 110 (1962).

    Google Scholar 

  14. Bergström, J.; Guarnieri, G. and Hultman, E.: Carbohydrate metabolism and electrolyte changes in human muscle tissue during heavy work. Journal of Applied Physiology 30: 122–125 (1971).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Bergström, J.; Hermansen, L.; Hultman, E. and Saltin, B.: Diet, muscle glycogen and physical performance. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 71: 140–150 (1967).

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Bergström, J. and Hultman, E.: Muscle glycogen synthesis after exercise: A.n enhancing factor localized to the muscle cells in man. Nature 210: 309–310 (1966).

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Bergström, J. and Hultman, E.: Nutrition for maximal sports performance: Journal of the American Medical Association 221: 999–1006 (1972).

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Bier, D.M. and Young, V.R.: Exercise and blood pressure: Nutritional considerations. Annals of Internal Medicine 98: 864–869 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Blair, S.N.; Ellsworth, N.M.; Haskeil, W.L.; Stern, M.P.; Farquhar, J.W. and Wood, P.D.: Comparison of nutrient intake in middle aged men and women runners and controls. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 13: 310–315 (1981).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Boileau, R.A.; Mayhew, J.L.; Riner, W.F. and Lussier, L.: Physiological characteristics of elite middle and long distance runners. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences 7: 167–172 (1982).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Brotherhood, J.R.: The nutritional stresses consequent to thermoregulation in athletes. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society of Australia 6: 123–125 (1981).

    Google Scholar 

  22. Brotherhood, J.R.: Aspects of nutrition in endurance sports. Australian Journal of Sports Medicine 14: 8–11 (1982).

    Google Scholar 

  23. Brotherhood, J.R.; Brozovic, B. and Pugh, L.G.C.: Haematological status of middle- and long-distance runners. Clinical Science and Molecular Medicine 48: 139–145 (1975).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. Brotherhood, J.R. and Swanson, M.A.: Nutrient intake and body weight changes of distance runners using the glycogen loading procedure. Australian Journal of Sports Medicine 11: 45–47 (1979).

    Google Scholar 

  25. Buskirk, E.R.: Diet and athletic performance. Postgraduate Medicine 61: 229–236 (1977).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. Cathcart, E.P.: The influence of muscle work on protein metabolism. Physiological Reviews 5: 225–243 (1925).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. Cerny, F.: Protein metabolism during two hour ergometer exercise; in Howald and Poortmans (Eds) Metabolic Adaptation to Prolonged Physical Exercise, pp.232–237 (Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel 1975).

    Google Scholar 

  28. Chan, S.T.F.; Johnson, A.W.; Moore, M.H.; Kapadia, C.R. and Dudley, H.A.F.: Early weight gain and glycogen-obligated water during nutritional rehabilitation. Human Nutrition: Clinical Nutrition 36C: 223–232 (1982).

    Google Scholar 

  29. Chittenden, R.H.: Physiological Economy in Nutrition (Stokes, New York 1904).

    Google Scholar 

  30. Cho, M. and Fryer, B.A.: Nutritional knowledge of collegiate physical education majors. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 65: 30–34 (1974a).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. Cho, M. and Fryer, B.A.: What foods do physical education majors and basic nutrition students recommend for athletes? Journal of the American Dietetic Association 65: 541–544 (1974b).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. Christensen, E.H. and Hansen, O.: Arbeitsfähigkeit und Ernährung. Skandinavisches Archiv fuer Physiologie 81: 160–171 (1939).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Christensen, E.H. and Högberg, P.: Physiology of skiing. Arbeitsphyxiologie 14: 292–303 (1950).

    Google Scholar 

  34. Clement, D.B. and Asmundson, R.C.: Nutritional intake and hematological parameters in endurance runners. Physician and Sportsmedicine 10: 37–43 (1982).

    Google Scholar 

  35. Clement, D.B. and Sawchuk, L.L.: Iron status and sports performance. Sports Medicine 1: 65–74 (1984).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Cohen, I. and Zimmerman, A.L.: Changes in serum electrolyte levels during marathon running. South African Medical Journal 53: 449–453 (1978).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. Consolazio, C.F.: Nutrition and performance; in Johnson (Ed.) Progress in Food and Nutrition Science vol. 7, pp.1–188 (1983).

    Google Scholar 

  38. Consolazio, C.F.; Johnson, H.L.; Nelson, R.A.; Dramise, J.G. and Skala, J.H.: Protein metabolism during intensive physical training in the young adult. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 28: 29–35 (1975).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  39. Consolazio, C.F.; Matoush, L.O.; Nelson, R.A.; Harding, R.S. and Canham, J.E.: Excretion of sodium, potassium, magnesium and iron in human sweat and the relation of each to balance and requirements. Journal of Nutrition 79: 407–415 (1963).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  40. Consolazio, C.F.; Nelson, R.A.; Matoush, L.O.; Harding, R.S. and Canham, J.E.: The nitrogen excretion in human sweat and its relation to nitrogen balance requirements. Journal of Nutrition 79: 399–406 (1963).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  41. Cooper, K.H.: The Aerobics Way (M. Evans, New York 1977).

    Google Scholar 

  42. Costill, D.L.: Sweating: Its composition and effects on body fluids. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 301: 160–174 and 183–188 (1977).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Costill, D.L.: Adaptations in skeletal muscle during training for sprint and endurance swimming; in Eriksson and Furberg (Eds) Swimming Medicine IV, pp.233–248 (1978a).

    Google Scholar 

  44. Costill, D.L.: Muscle water and electrolytes during acute and repeated bouts of dehydration; in Parizková and Rogozkin (Eds) Nutrition, Physical Fitness and Health, pp.98–116 (University Park Press, Baltimore 1978b).

    Google Scholar 

  45. Costill, D.L.; Bennett, A.; Branam, G. and Eddy, D.: Glucose ingestion at rest and during prolonged exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 34: 764–769 (1973).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  46. Costill, D.L.; Branam, G.; Fink, W. and Nelson, R.: Exercise induced sodium conservation: Changes in plasma renin and aldosterone. Medicine and Science in Sports 8: 209–213 (1976).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  47. Costill, D.L.; Bowers, R.; Branam, G. and Sparks, K.: Muscle glycogen utilization during prolonged exercise on successive days. Journal of Applied Physiology 31: 834–838 (1971a).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  48. Costill, D.L.; Coté, R. and Fink, W.J.: Dietary potassium and heavy exercise: Effects on muscle water and electrolytes. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 36: 266–275 (1982).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  49. Costill, D.L.; Coté, R. and Fink, W.: Muscle water and electrolytes following varied levels of dehydration in man. Journal of Applied Physiology 40: 6–11 (1976).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  50. Costill, D.L.; Coyle, E.; Dalsky, G.; Evans, W.; Fink, W. and Hoopes, D.: Effects of elevated plasma FFA and insulin on muscle glycogen usage during exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 43: 695–699(1977).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  51. Costill, D.L.; Dalsky, G.P. and Fink, W.J.: Effects of caffeine ingestion on metabolism and exercise performance. Medicine and Science in Sports 10: 155–158 (1978).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  52. Costill, D.L. and Fox, E.L.: Energetics of marathon running. Medicine and Science in Sports 1: 81–86 (1969).

    Google Scholar 

  53. Costill, D.L.; Kammer, W.F. and Fisher, A.: Fluid ingestion during distance running. Archives of Environmental Health 21: 520–525 (1970).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  54. Costill, D.L. and Miller, J.M.: Nutrition for endurance sport: Carbohydrate and fluid balance. International Journal of Sports Medicine 1: 2–14 (1980).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Costill, D.L. and Saltin, B.: Factors limiting gastric emptying during rest and exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 37: 679–683 (1974).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  56. Costill, D.L.; Sherman, W.M. and Essig, D.A.: Metabolic responses and adaptations to endurance running; in Poortmans and Niset (Eds) Biochemistry of Exercise IV-A. International Series of Sport Science, Volume IIA, pp.33–45 (University Park Press, Baltimore 1981a).

    Google Scholar 

  57. Costill, D.L.; Sherman, W.M.; Fink, W.J.; Maresh, C.; Witten, M. and Miller, J.M.: The role of dietary carbohydrates in muscle glycogen resynthesis after strenuous running. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 34: 1831–1836 (1981b).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  58. Costill, D.L. and Sparks, K.E.: Rapid fluid replacement following thermal dehydration. Journal of Applied Physiology 34: 299–303 (1973).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  59. Costill, D.L.; Sparks, K.; Gregor, R. and Turner, C.: Muscle glycogen utilization during exhaustive running. Journal of Applied Physiology 31: 353–356 (1971b).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  60. Coyle, E.F.; Hagberg, J.M.; Hurley, B.F.; Martin, W.H.; Ehsani, A.A. and Holloszy, J.O.: Carbohydrate feeding during prolonged strenuous exercise can delay fatigue. Journal of Applied Physiology 55: 230–235 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  61. Dale, E. and Goldberg, D.L.: Implications of nutrition in athletes’ menstrual cycle irregularities. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences 7: 74–78 (1982).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  62. Dancaster, C.P. and Whereat, S.J.: Fluid and electrolyte balance during the Comrades Marathon. South African Medical Journal 45: 147–150 (1971).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  63. Davies, C.T.M.: Effect of air resistance on the metabolic cost and performance of cycling. European Journal of Applied Physiology 45: 245–254 (1980).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Davies, C.T.M. and Thompson, M.W.: Aerobic performance of female marathon and male ultramarathon athletes. European Journal of Applied Physiology 41: 233–245 (1979).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Décombaz, J.; Reinhardt, R.; Anantharaman, K.; von Glutz, G. and Poortmans, J.R.: Biochemical changes in a 100km run: Free amino acids, urea and creatinine. European Journal of Applied Physiology 41: 61–72 (1979).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. De Haven, J.; Sherwin, R.; Hendler, R. and Felig, P.: Nitrogen and sodium balance and sympathetic-nervous-system activity in obese subjects treated with a low-calorie protein or mixed diet. New England Journal of Medicine 302: 477–482 (1980).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. de Wijn. J.F.; Leusink, J. and Post, G.B.: Diet, body composition and physical condition of champion rowers during periods of training and out of training. Bibliotheca Nutritio et Dieta 27: 143–148 (Karger, Basel 1979).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  68. Di Prampero, P.E.: Energetics of muscular exercise. Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology 89: 143–222 (1981).

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Di Prampero, P.E.; Pendergast, D.R.; Wilson, D.W. and Rennie, D.W.: Energetics of swimming in man. Journal of Applied Physiology 37: 1–5 (1974).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  70. Di Prampero, P.E.; Cortili, G.; Mognoni, P. and Saibene, F.: Energy cost of speed skating and efficiency of work against air resistance. Journal of Applied Physiology 40: 584–591 (1976).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  71. Dohm, G.L.; Hecker, A.L.; Brown, W.E.; Klain, G.J.; Ruente, F.R.; Askew, W.E. and Beacher, G.R.: Adaptation of protein metabolism to endurance training. Biochemical Journal 164: 705–708 (1977).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  72. Dohm, G.L.; Williams, R.T.; Kasperek, G.J. and van Rij, A.M.: Increased excretion of urea and Nr-methylhistidine by rats and humans after a bout of exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 52: 27–33 (1982).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  73. Dufaux, B.; Hoederath, A.; Streitberger, I.; Hollmann, W. and Assmann, G.: Serum ferritin, transferrin, haptoglobin, and iron in middle- and long-distance runners, elite rowers, and professional racing cyclists. International Journal of Sports Medicine 2: 43–46 (1981).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Durnin, J.V.G.A.: Activity patterns in the community. Canadian Medical Association Journal 96: 882–886 (1967).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  75. Durnin, J.V.G.A.: Protein requirements and physical activity; in Parizková and Rogozkin (Eds) Nutrition, Physical Fitness and Health, pp.53–60 (University Park Press, Baltimore 1978).

    Google Scholar 

  76. Durnin, J.V.G.A. and Ferro-Luzzi, A.: Conducting and reporting studies on human energy intake and output: Suggested standards. Human Nutrition: Applied Nutrition 37A: 141–144 (1983).

    Google Scholar 

  77. Durnin, J.V.G.A. and Passmore, R.E.: Energy, Work and Leisure (Heinemann Educational Books, London 1967).

    Google Scholar 

  78. Dwyer, T. and Brotherhood, J.R.: Long-term dietary considerations in physical training. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society of Australia 6: 31–40 (1981).

    Google Scholar 

  79. Edwards, R.H.T.; Hill, D.K.; Jones, D.A. and Merton, P.A.: Heat production and chemical changes during isometric contractions of the human quadriceps muscle. Journal of Physiology 251: 303–315 (1975).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  80. Ehn, L.; Carlmark, B. and Hoglund, S.: Iron status in athletes involved in intense physical activity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 12: 61–64 (1980).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  81. Ekblom, B.C.J.; Greenleaf, C.J.; Greenleaf, J.E. and Hermansen, L.: Temperature regulation during exercise dehydration in man. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 79: 475–483 (1970).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  82. Ellsworth, N.M.; Hewitt, B.F. and Haskeil, W.L.: Nutrient intake of elite male and female Nordic skiers. Submitted for publication (1984).

  83. Ericksson, A.; Tesch, P. and Karlsson, J.: Fatigue during downhill skiing; in Figuéras (Ed.) Skiing Safety II, pp.279–286 (1978).

    Google Scholar 

  84. Essén, B.: Intramuscular substrate utilization during prolonged exercise. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 301: 30–44 (1977).

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  85. Essén, B.; Hagenfeldt, L. and Kaijser, L.: Utilization of blood-borne and intramuscular substrates during continuous and intermittent exercise in man. Journal of Physiology 265: 489–506 (1977).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  86. Falls, H.B. and Humphrey, L.D.: Energy cost of running and walking in young women. Medicine and Science in Sports 8: 9–13 (1976).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  87. FAO/WHO: Energy and protein requirements. World Health Organization (WHO) Technical Report Series, No. 522 (World Health Organization, Geneva 1973).

    Google Scholar 

  88. Felig, P.: The glucose-alanine cycle. Metabolism 22: 179–207 (1973).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  89. Felig, P.; Cherif, A.; Minagawa, A. and Wahren, J.: Hypoglycaemia during prolonged exercise in normal men. New England Journal of Medicine 306: 895–900 (1982).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  90. Felig, P. and Wahren, J.: Amino acid metabolism in exercising man. Journal of Clinical Investigations 50: 2703–2714 (1971).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  91. Felig, P. and Wahren, J.: Fuel homeostasis in exercise. New England Journal of Medicine 293: 1078–1084 (1975).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  92. Ferro-Luzzi, A.: Meaning and constraints of energy intake studies in free-living populations; in Harrison (Ed.) Energy and Effort. Symposia for the Society for the Study of Human Biology, vol. 22, pp. 115–173 (Taylor and Francis, London 1982).

    Google Scholar 

  93. Ferro-Luzzi, A. and Venerando, A.: Aims and results of dietary surveys on athletes; in Parizková and Rogozkin (Eds) Nutrition, Physical Fitness and Health, pp. 145–154 (University Park Press, Baltimore 1978).

    Google Scholar 

  94. ordtran, J.S. and Saltin, B.: Gastric emptying and intestinal absorption during prolonged severe exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 23: 331–335 (1967).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  95. Forgac, M.T.: Carbohydrate loading — a review. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 75: 42–45 (1979).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  96. Fred, H.L. and Natelson, E.A.: Grossly bloody urine of runners. Southern Medical Journal 70: 1394–1396 (1977).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  97. Garrow, J.S.: Energy stores in man, their composition and measurement. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 41: 175–181 (1982).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  98. Gleser, M.A. and Vogel, J.A.: Endurance capacity for prolonged exercise on the bicycle ergometer. Journal of Applied Physiology 34: 438–442 (1973).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  99. Goldsmith, G.A.: Human requirements for vitamin C and its use in clinical medicine. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 92: 230–245 (1961).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  100. Gollnick, P.D.: Free fatty acid turnover and the availability of substrates as a limiting factor in prolonged exercise. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 301: 64–71 (1977).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  101. Gollnick, P.D.; Armstrong, R.B.; Saltin, B.; Saubert IV, C.W.; Sembrowich, W.L. and Shepherd, R.E.: Effect of training on enzyme activity and fiber composition of human skeletal muscle. Journal of Applied Physiology 34: 107–111 (1973).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  102. Gollnick, P.D.; Piehl, K. and Saltin, B.: Selective glycogen depletion pattern in human muscle fibres after exercise of varying intensity and at varying pedalling rates. Journal of Physiology 241: 45–57 (1974).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  103. Gollnick, P.D.; Piehl, K.; Saubert IV, C.W.; Armstrong, R.B. and Saltin, B.: Diet, exercise and glycogen changes in human muscle fibers. Journal of Applied Physiology 33: 421–425 (1972).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  104. Gontzea, I.; Sutzescu, R. and Dumitrache, S.: The influence of adaptation to physical effort on nitrogen balance in man. Nutrition Reports International 11: 231–236 (1975).

    Google Scholar 

  105. Goodman, L.S. and Gilman, A.: The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 5th ed. (MacMillan, New York 1975).

    Google Scholar 

  106. Goodman, M.N. and Ruderman, N.B.: Influence of muscle use on amino acid metabolism. Exercise and Sports Sciences Reviews 10: 1–26 (1982).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  107. Gräfe, H.K.: Growth, development, and aging: Influence of body intake; in Larson and Hermann (Eds) Encyclopaedia of Sports Sciences and Medicine, V (B) 5 pp.1126–1130 (M cmillan Company. New York 1971).

    Google Scholar 

  108. Green, H.J.; Daub, B.D.; Painter, D.C. and Thomson, J.A.: Glycogen depletion patterns during ice hockey performance. Medicine and Science in Sports 10: 289–293 (1978).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  109. Greenleaf, J.E. and Castle, B.L.: Exercise temperature regulation in man during hypohydration and hyperhydration. Journal of Applied Physiology 30: 847–853 (1971).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  110. Grundy, S.M.; Bilheimer, D.; Blackburn, H.; Brown, W.V.; Kwiterovich, P.O.; Mattson, F.; Schonfeld, G. and Weidman, W.H.: Rationale of the diet-heart statement of the American Heart Association. Circulation 65: 839A-854A (1982).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  111. Haralambie, G.: Changes in electrolytes and trace elements during long-lasting exercise; in Howald and Poortmans (Eds) Metabolic Adaptation to Prolonged Physical Exercise, pp.340–351 (Birkhäusen Verlag, Basel 1975).

    Google Scholar 

  112. Haralambie, G. and Berg, A.: Serum urea and amino nitrogen changes with exercise duration. European Journal of Applied Physiology 36: 39–48(1976).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  113. Haralambie, G. and Senser, L.: Metabolic changes in man during long distance swimming. European Journal of Applied Physiology 43: 115–125 (1980).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  114. Hartung, G.H.; Farge, E.J. and Mitchell, R.E.: Effects of marathon running, jogging and diet on coronary risk factors in middle-aged men. Preventive Medicine 10: 316–323 (1981).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  115. Havel, R.J.: Influence of intensity and duration of exercise on supply and use of fuels; in Pernow and Saltin (Eds) Muscle Metabolism during Exercise, pp.315–325 (Plenum Press, New York 1971).

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  116. Havel, R.J.; Carlson, L.A.; Ekelund, L.-G. and Holmgren, A.: Turnover rate and oxidation of different free fatty acids in man during exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 19: 613–618 (1964).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  117. Havel, R.J.; Pernow, B. and Jones, N.L.: Uptake and release of free fatty acids and other metabolites in the legs of exercising men. Journal of Applied Physiology 23: 90–99 (1967).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  118. Hellmann, K.; Collins, K.J.; Gray, C.H.; Jones, R.M.; Lunnon, J.B. and Weiner, J.S.: The excretion of urinary adrenocortical steroids during heat stress. Journal of Endocrinology 14: 209–216 (1956).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  119. Henschel, A.; Taylor, H.L.; Brozek, J.; Michelson, O. and Keys, A.: Vitamin C and the ability to work in hot environments. American Journal of Tropical Medicine 24: 259–265 (1944).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  120. Hermansen, L.: Effect of metabolic changes on force generation in skeletal muscle during maximal exercise; in Porter and Whelan (Eds) Human Muscle Fatigue: Physiological Mechanisms. Ciba Foundation Symposium 82, pp.75–88 (Pitman Medical, London 1981).

    Google Scholar 

  121. Hermansen, L; Grandmontagne, M.; Moehlum, S. and Ingnes, I.: Post exercise elevation of resting oxygen uptake: Possible mechanisms and physiological significance; in Marconnet and Poortmans (Eds) Physiological Chemistry of Training and Detraining, pp.119–129 (Karger, Basel 1984).

    Google Scholar 

  122. Hermansen, L.; Hultman, E. and Saltin, B.: Muscle glycogen during prolonged severe exercise. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 71: 129–139 (1967).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  123. Hickson, R.C.; Rennie, M.J.; Conlee, R.K.; Winder, W.W. and Holloszy, J.O.: Effects of increasing plasma fatty acids on glycogen utilization and endurance. Journal of Applied Physiology 43: 829–833 (1977).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  124. Hikida, R.S.; Staron, R.S.; Hagerman, F.C.; Sherman, W.M. and Costill, D.L.: Muscle fibre necrosis associated with human marathon runners. Journal of the Neurological Sciences 59: 185–203 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  125. Hills, A.P.: Carbohydrate loading — a review. Australian Journal of Sports Medicine and Exercise Sciences 14: 136–139 (1982).

    Google Scholar 

  126. Holloszy, J.O. and Booth, F.W.: Biochemical adaptations to endurance exercise in muscle. Annual Review of Physiology 38: 273–291 (1976).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  127. Holloszy, J.O.; Rennie, M.J.; Hickson, R.C.; Coulee, R.K. and Hagberg, J.M.: Physiological consequences of the biochemical adaptations to endurance exercise. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 301: 440–450 (1977).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  128. Holmér, I.: Oxygen uptake during swimming in man. Journal of Applied Physiology 33: 502–509 (1972).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  129. Holmér, I.: Physiology of swimming man; in Hutton and Miller (Eds) Exercise and Sports Sciences Reviews, vol. 17, pp.87–123 (Franklin Institute Press, Philadelphia 1980).

    Google Scholar 

  130. Houston, M.E.: Metabolic responses to exercise with special reference to training and competition in swimming; in Eriksson and Furberg (Eds) Swimming Medicine IV, pp.207–232 (University Park Press, Baltimore 1978).

    Google Scholar 

  131. Houston, M.E.: Diet training and sleep: A survey study of elite Canadian swimmers. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences 5: 161–163 (1980).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  132. Hultman, E.: Liver as a glucose supplying source during rest and exercise, with special reference to diet; in Parizkova and Rogozkin (Eds) Nutrition, Physical Fitness and Health pp.9–30 (University Park Press, Baltimore 1978).

    Google Scholar 

  133. Hultman, E. and Bergström, J.: Muscle glycogen synthesis in relation to diet studied in normal subjects. Acta Medica Scandinavica 182: 109–117 (1967).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  134. Hunding, A.; Jordal, R. and Paulev, P.-E.: Runner’s anaemia and iron deficiency. Acta Medica Scandinavica 209: 315–318 (1981).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  135. Jacobs, I.: Lactate, muscle glycogen and exercise performance in man. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 495(Suppl.): whole issue (1981).

  136. Jacobs, I.; Kaiser, P. and Tesch, P.: Muscle strength and fatigue after selective glycogen depletion in human skeletal muscle fibres. European Journal of Applied Physiology 46: 47–53 (1981).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  137. Jacobs, I.; Westlin, N.; Karlsson, J.; Rasmusson, M. and Houghton, B.: Muscle glycogen and diet in elite soccer players. European Journal of Applied Physiology 48: 297–302 (1982).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  138. Jenkins, D.J.A.: Slow release carbohydrate and the treatment of diabetes. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 40: 227–235 (1981).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  139. Jenkins, D.J.A.; Wolever, T.M.S.; Taylor, R.H.; Barker, H.; Fielden, H.; Baldwin, J.M.; Bowling, A.C.; Newman, H.C.; Jenkins, A.L. and Goff, D.V.: Glycemic index of foods: A physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 34: 362–366 (1981).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  140. Jetté, M.; Pelletier, O.; Parker, L. and Thoden, J.: The nutritional and metabolic effects of a carbohydrate-rich diet in a glycogen supercompensation training regimen. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 31: 2140–2148 (1978).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  141. Jones, N.L.: Sutton, J.R. and Towns, C.J.: Fat metabolism in heavy exercise; in Poortmans and Niset (Eds) Biochemistry of Exercise IV-A p. 123 (University Park Press, Baltimore 1981).

    Google Scholar 

  142. Karlsson, J.; Nordesjö, L.-O. and Saltin, B.: Muscle glycogen utilization during exercise after physical training. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 90: 210–217 (1974).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  143. Karlsson, J. and Saltin, B.: Diet, muscle glycogen, and endurance performance. Journal of Applied Physiology 31: 203–206 (1971).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  144. Kelman, G.R.; Maughan, R.J. and Williams, C.: The effect of dietary modifications on blood lactate during exercise. Journal of Physiology 251: 34P (1975).

    Google Scholar 

  145. Kerslake, D.McK.: The Stress of Hot Environments (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1972).

    Google Scholar 

  146. Keul. J.: Muscle metabolism during long lasting exercise; in Howaid and Poortmans (Eds) Metabolic Adaptation to Prolonged Physical Exercise, pp.31–42 (Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel 1975).

    Google Scholar 

  147. Kirsch, K.A. and von Ameln, H.: Feeding patterns of endurance athletes. European Journal of Applied Physiology 47: 197–208 (1981).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  148. Klausen, K.; Piehl, K. and Saltin, B.: Muscle glycogen stores and capacity for anaerobic work; in Howald and Poortmans (Eds) Metabolic Adaptation to Prolonged Physical Exercise, pp. 127–129 (Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel 1975).

    Google Scholar 

  149. Knochel, J.P.: Potassium deficiency during training in the heat. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 301: 175–182 (1977).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  150. Knochel, J.P. and Vertel, R.M.: Salt loading as a possible factor in the production of potassium depletion, rhabdomyolysis, and heat injury. Lancet 1: 659–661 (1967).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  151. Kotze, H.F.; van der Walt, W.H.; Rogers, G.G. and Strydom, N.B.: Effects of plasma ascorbic acid levels on heat acclimatization in man. Journal of Applied Physiology 42: 711–716 (1977).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  152. Ladell, W.S.S.: Thermal sweating. British Medical Bulletin 3: 175–179 (1945).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  153. Lange Andersen, K.; Masironi, R.; Rutenfranz, J. and Seliger, V.: Grading the intensity of physical activity; in Habitual Physical Activity and Health, WHO Regional Publications European Series No 6, pp. 18–26 (World Health Organization, Copenhagen 1978).

    Google Scholar 

  154. Laritcheva, K.A.; Yalovaya, N.I.; Shubin, V.l. and Smirnov, P.: Study of energy expenditure and protein needs of top weight lifters; in Parizková and Rogozkin (Eds) Nutrition, Physical Fitness and Health, pp. 155–163 (University Park Press, Baltimore 1978).

    Google Scholar 

  155. Lee, D.H.K.: Terrestrial animals in dry heat: Man in the desert; in Dill, Adolf and Wilber (Eds) Handbook of Physiology 4: Adaptation to the Environment, pp.551–582 (American Physiological Society, Washington 1964).

    Google Scholar 

  156. Leithead, C.S. and Lind, A.R.: Heat stress and heat disorders (Cassell, London 1964).

  157. Lemon, P.W.R. and Mullin, J.P.: Effect of initial muscle glycogen levels on protein catabolism during exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 48: 624–629 (1980).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  158. Lemon, P.W.R. and Nagle, F.J.: Effects of exercise on protein and amino acid metabolism. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 13: 141–149 (1981).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  159. Locksley, R.: Fuel utilization in marathons: Implications for performance. Western Journal of Medicine 133: 493–502 (1980).

    Google Scholar 

  160. Lusk, G.: The Elements of the Science of Nutrition (W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia 1928).

    Google Scholar 

  161. McArdle, W.D.; Katch, F.I. and Katch, V.L.: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition and Human Performance (Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia 1981).

    Google Scholar 

  162. McCance, R.A.: Experimental sodium chloride deficiency in man. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 119B: 245–268 (1936).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  163. McCance, R.A.: The effect of salt deficiency in man on the volume of the extracellular fluids, and on the composition of sweat, saliva, gastric juice and cerebrospinal fluid. Journal of Physiology 92: 208–218 (1938).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  164. MacDougall, J.D.; Hughson, R.; Sutton, J.R. and Moroz, J.R.: The energy cost of cross-country skiing among elite competitors. Medicine and Science in Sports 11: 270–273 (1979).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  165. MacDougall, J.D.; Ward, J.R.; Sale, D.G. and Sutton, J.R.: Muscle glycogen repletion after high-intensity intermittent exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 42: 129–132 (1977).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  166. McGilvery, R.W.: The use of fuels for muscular work; in Howald and Poortmans (Eds) Metabolic Adaptation to Prolonged Physical Exercise, pp. 12–30 (Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel 1975).

    Google Scholar 

  167. McKechnie, J.K.; Reid, J.V.O. and Joubert, S.M.: The effect of dietary sucrose on the performance of marathon runners. South African Medical Journal 44: 728–731 (1970).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  168. McKenzie, D.C. and Rhodes, E.C.: Cardio-respiratory and metabolic responses to exercise on a rowing ergometer. Australian Journal of Sports Medicine 14: 21–23 (1982).

    Google Scholar 

  169. McMiken, D.F. and Daniels, J.T.: Aerobic requirements and maximum aerobic power in treadmill and track running. Medicine and Science in Sports 8: 14–17 (1976).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  170. Malhotra, M.S.; Sridharan, K.; Venkataswamy, Y.; Rai, R.M.; Pichan, G.; Radhakrishnan, U. and Grover, S.K.: Effect of restricted potassium intake on its excretion and on physiological responses during heat stress. European Journal of Applied Physiology 47: 169–179 (1981).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  171. Margaria, R.: The sources of muscular energy. Scientific American 226: 84–91 (1972).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  172. Maron, M.B. and Horvath, S.M.: The marathon: A history and review of the literature. Medicine and Science in Sports 10: 137–150 (1978).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  173. Mayer, J. and Bullen, B.: Nutrition and athletic performance. Physiological Reviews 40: 369–397 (1960).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  174. Menier, D.R. and Pugh, L.G.C.E.: The relation of oxygen intake and velocity of walking and running, in competition walkers. Journal of Physiology 197: 717–721 (1968).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  175. Millward, D.J.; Davies, C.T.M.; Halliday, D.; Wolman, S.L.; Matthews, D. and Rennie, M.: Effect of exercise on protein metabolism in humans as explored with stable isotopes. Federation Proceedings 41: 2686–2691 (1982).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  176. Mirkin, G.: Carbohydrate loading: A dangerous practice. Journal of the American Medical Association 223: 1511–1512 (1973).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  177. Moore, C.E.; Hartung, G.H.; Mitchell, R.E.; Kappus, C.M. and Hinderlitter, J.: The relationship of exercise and diet on highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol levels in women. Metabolism 32: 182–195 (1983).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  178. National Advisory Committee on Nutrition Education: Nutrition: The changing scene. Lancet 2: 719–721 (1983).

    Google Scholar 

  179. Newsholme, E.A.: The glucose/fatty acid cycle and physical exhaustion; in Porter and Whelan (Eds) Human Muscle Fatigue: Physiological Mechanisms, Ciba Foundation Symposium 82, pp.89–96 (Pitman Medical, London 1981).

    Google Scholar 

  180. Nickerson, H.J. and Tripp, A.D.: Iron deficiency in adolescent cross-country runners. Physician and Sportsmedicine 11: 60–66 (1983).

    Google Scholar 

  181. Nielsen, B. and Nielsen, M.: On the regulation of sweat secretion in exercise. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 64: 314–322 (1965).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  182. NIOSH: Occupational Exposure to Hot Environments — Criteria for a Recommended Standard, figure 8 (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, US Department of Health, Education and Welfare 1972).

  183. Nishida, Y.; Akaoka, I.; Hayashi, E. and Miyamoto, T.: Elevated erythrocyte phosphoribosylpyrophosphate and ATP concentrations in Japanese sumo wrestlers. British Journal of Nutrition 49: 3–7 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  184. Noakes, T.D.: Sugar for energy in marathon running (letter). South African Medical Journal 60(2): 46 (1981).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  185. Nygaard, E.; Andersen, P.; Nilsson, P.; Eriksson, E.; Kjessel, T. and Saltin, B.: Glycogen depletion pattern and lactate accumulation in leg muscles during recreational downhill skiing. European Journal of Applied Physiology 38: 261–269 (1978a).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  186. Nygaard, E.; Eriksson, E. and Nilsson, P.: Glycogen depletion pattern in leg muscle during recreational downhill skiing; in Figueras (Ed.) Skiing Safety II. International Conference on Ski Trauma and Skiing Safety, 2d Granada, Spain 1977, pp.273–286 (University Park Press, Baltimore 1978b).

    Google Scholar 

  187. Olsson, K.-E. and Saltin, B.: Variation in total body water with muscle glycogen changes in man. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 80: 11–18 (1970).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  188. Passmore, R.; Hollingsworth, D.F. and Robertson, J.: Prescription for a better British diet. British Medical Journal 1: 527–531 (1979).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  189. Pate, R.R.: Sports anaemia: A review of the current research literature. Physician and Sportsmedicine 11: 115–131 (1983).

    Google Scholar 

  190. Paulev, P.-E.; Jordal, R. and Pedersen, N.S.: Dermal excretion of iron in intensely training athletes. Clinica Chimica Acta 127: 19–27 (1983).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  191. Pernow, B. and Saltin, B.: Availability of substrates and capacity for prolonged heavy exercise in man. Journal of Applied Physiology 31: 416–422 (1971).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  192. Piehl, K.: Time course for refilling of glycogen stores in human muscle fibres following exercise-induced glycogen depletion. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 90: 297–302 (1974).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  193. Piehl, K.; Adolfsson, S. and Nazar, K.: Glycogen storage and glycogen synthetase activity in trained and untrained muscle of man. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 90: 779–788 (1974).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  194. Pirnay, F.; Lacroix, M.; Mosora, F.; Luyckx, A. and Lefebvre, R.: Effect of glucose ingestion on energy substrate utilization during prolonged muscular exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology 36: 247–254 (1977).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  195. Pitts, G.C.; Johnson, R.E. and Consolazio, F.C.: Work in the heat as affected by intake of water, salt and glucose. American Journal of Physiology 142: 253–259 (1944).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  196. Pugh, L.G.C.E.: Oxygen intake in track and treadmill running with observations on the effect of air resistance. Journal of Physiology 207: 823–835 (1970).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  197. Pugh, L.G.C.E.: The relation of oxygen intake and speed in competition cycling and comparative observations on the bicycle ergometer. Journal of Physiology 241: 795–808 (1974).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  198. Pugh, L.G.C.E.; Corbett, J.I. and Johnson, R.H.: Rectal temperatures, weight losses, and sweating rates in marathon running. Journal of Applied Physiology 23: 347–352 (1967).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  199. Randle, P.J.: Molecular mechanisms regulating fuel selection in muscle; in Poortmans and Niset (Eds) Biochemistry of Exercise IV-A, pp. 13–28 (University Park Press, Baltimore 1981).

    Google Scholar 

  200. Rasch, P.J.; Hamby, J.W. and Burns, H.J.: Protein dietary supplementation and physical performance. Medicine and Science in Sports 1: 195–199 (1969).

    Google Scholar 

  201. Rasch, P.J. and Pierson, W.R.: Effect of a protein dietary supplement on muscular strength and hypertrophy. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 11: 530–532 (1962).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  202. Refsum, H.E.; Gjessing, L.R. and Strömme, S.B.: Changes in plasma amino acid distribution and urine amino acids excretion during prolonged heavy exercise. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigations 39: 407–413 (1979).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  203. Refsum, H.E.; Meen, H.D.; Strömme, S.B.: Whole blood, serum and erythrocyte magnesium concentrations after repeated heavy exercise of long duration. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation 32: 123–127 (1973).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  204. Refsum, H.E. and Strömme, S.B.: Urea and creatinine production and excretion in urine during and after prolonged heavy exercise. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation 33: 247–254 (1974)

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  205. Rennie, M.J.; Edwards, R.H.T.; Davies, C.T.M.; Krywawych, S.; Halliday, D.; Waterlow, J.C. and Millward, D.J.: Protein and amino acid turnover during and after exercise. Biochemical Society Transactions 8: 499–501 (1980).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  206. Robinson, S. and Robinson, A.H.: Chemical composition of sweat. Physiological Reviews 34: 202–220 (1954).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  207. Rose, L.I.; Carroll, D.R.; Lowe, S.L.; Peterson, E.W. and Cooper, K.H.: Serum electrolyte changes after marathon running. Journal of Applied Physiology 29: 449–451 (1970).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  208. Rowell, L.B.: The liver as an energy source in man during exercise; in Pernow and Saltin (Eds) Muscle Metabolism during Exercise; pp.127–141 (Plenum Press, New York 1971).

    Google Scholar 

  209. Rowell, L.B.; Masoro, E.J. and Spencer, M.J.: Splanchnic metabolism in exercising man. Journal of Applied Physiology 20: 1032–1037 (1965).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  210. Saltin, B.: Aerobic and anaerobic work capacity after dehydration. Journal of Applied Physiology 19: 1114–1118 (1964).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  211. Saltin, B.: Metabolic fundamentals in exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports 5: 137–146 (1973).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  212. Saltin, B.: Fluid, electrolyte, and energy losses and their replenishment in prolonged exercise; in Parizková and Rogozkin (Eds), Nutrition, Physical Fitness and Health, pp.76–97 (University Park Press, Baltimore 1978).

    Google Scholar 

  213. Saltin, B.: Muscle fibre recruitment and metabolism in exhaustive dynamic exercise; in Porter and Whelan (Eds) Human Muscle Fatigue: Physiological Mechanisms, Ciba Foundation Symposium 82, pp.41–52 (Pitman Medical, London 1981).

    Google Scholar 

  214. Saltin, B. and Åstrand, P.O.: Maximal oxygen uptake in athletes. Journal of Applied Physiology 23: 353–358 (1967).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  215. Saltin, B. and Hermansen, L.: Glycogen stores and prolonged severe exercise; in Blix (Ed.) Nutrition and Physical Activity. Symposia of the Swedish Nutrition Foundation V, pp. 32–46 (Almquist and Wiksell, Uppsala 1967).

    Google Scholar 

  216. Saltin, B. and Karlsson, J.: Muscle glycogen utilization during work of different intensities; in Pernow and Saltin (Eds) Muscle Metabolism during Exercise, pp.289–299 (Plenum Press, New York 1971).

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  217. Saltin, B.; Nazar, K.; Costill, D.L.; Stein, E.; Jansson, E.; Essén, B. and Gollnick, P.D.: The nature of the training response; peripheral and central adaptations to one-legged exercise. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 96: 289–305 (1976).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  218. Saudek, C.D. and Felig, P.: The metabolic events of starvation. American Journal of Medicine 60: 117–126 (1976).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  219. Schlüssel, H.: Animate environmental factors influencing activity: Diet; in Larson and Hermann (Eds) Encyclopaedia of Sports Sciences and Medicine, 1(C)4, pp. 139–141 (Macmillan Company, New York 1971).

    Google Scholar 

  220. Schoene, R.B.; Escourrou,P.; Robertson, H.T.; Nilson, K.L.; Parsons, J.R. and Smith, N.J.: Iron repletion decreases maximal exercise lactate concentrations in female athletes with minimal iron-deficiency anaemia. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 102: 306–312 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  221. Schwartz. B.; Cumming, D.C.; Riordan, E.; Selye, M.; Yen, S.S.C. and Rebar, W.R.: Exercise — associated amenorrhoea: A distinct entity? American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 141: 662–670 (1981).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  222. Schwartz, L.I.; Thaysen, J.H. and Dole, V.P.: Evidence that urea is excreted in human sweat by a passive process. Federation Proceedings 11: 142(1952).

    Google Scholar 

  223. Secher, N.H. and Nygaard Jensen, E.: Glycogen depletion pattern in types I, IIA and IIB muscle fibres during maximal voluntary static and dynamic exercise (abstract 287). Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 96 (Suppl. 440): 174 (1976).

    Google Scholar 

  224. Seiple, R.S.; Vivian, V.M.; Fox, E.L. and Bartels, R.L.: Gastric emptying characteristics of two glucose polymer-electrolyte solutions. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 15: 366–369 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  225. Shangold, M.M. and Levine, H.S.: The effect of marathon training upon menstrual function. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 143: 862–869 (1982).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  226. Sharman, I.M.: Glycogen loading: Advantages but possible disadvantages. British Journal of Sports Medicine 15: 64–67 (1981).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  227. Shephard, R.J.: Human Physiological Work Capacity, pp. 136–178 (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1978).

    Book  Google Scholar 

  228. Shephard, R.J.: Physiology and Biochemistry of Exercise (Praeger, New York 1982).

    Google Scholar 

  229. Shephard, R.J. and Kavanagh, T.J.: Biochemical changes with marathon running. Observations on post coronary patients; in Howald and Poortmans (Eds) Metabolic Adaptation to Prolonged Physical Exercise, pp.245–252 (Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel 1975).

    Google Scholar 

  230. Sherman, W.M.; Costill, D.L.; Fink, W.J. and Miller, J.M.: Effect of exercise-diet manipulation on muscle glycogen and its subsequent utilization during performance. International Journal of Sports Medicine 2: 114–118 (1981).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  231. Short, S.H. and Short, W.R.: Four-year study of university athletes’ dietary intake. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 82: 632–645 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  232. Smiles, K.A. and Robinson, S.: Sodium ion conservation during acclimatization of men to work in the heat. Journal of Applied Physiology 31: 63–69 (1971).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  233. Smith, M.P.; Mendez, J.; Druckenmiller, M. and Kris-Etherton, P.M.: Exercise intensity, dietary intake, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in young female competitive swimmers. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 36: 251–255 (1982).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  234. Smith, N.J.: Gaining and losing weight in athletes. Journal of the American Medical Association 236: 149–151 (1976).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  235. Smith, N.J.: Nutrition and the young athlete. Pediatric Annals 7: 682–689 (1978).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  236. Steel, J.E.: A nutritional study of Australian Olympic athletes. Medical Journal of Australia 2: 119–123 (1970).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  237. Stein, T.P.; Schluter, M.D. and Diamond, C.E.: Nutrition, protein turnover, and physical activity in young women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 38: 223–228 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  238. Strauzenberg, S.E.; Schneider, F.; Donath, R.; Zeroes, H. and Köhler, E.: The problem of dieting in training and athletic performance. Bibliotheca Nutritio et Dieta 27: 133–142 (Karger, Basel 1979).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  239. Strömme, S.B.; Stensvold, I.C.; Meen, H.D. and Refsum, H.E.: Magnesium metabolism during prolonged heavy exercise; in Howald and Poortmans (Eds) Metabolic Adaptation to Prolonged Physical Exercise, pp.361–366 (Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel 1975).

    Google Scholar 

  240. Strydom, N.B.; Kotze, H.F.; van der Walt, W.H. and Rogers, G.G.: Effect of ascorbic acid on rate of heat acclimatization. Journal of Applied Physiology 41: 202–205 (1976).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  241. Strydom, N.B.; Rogers, G.G.; van der Walt, W.H. and van der Linde, A.: Changes in the level of serum vitamin C in mine-workers. Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy 77: 214–217 (1977).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  242. Thompson, P.D.; Lazarus, B.; Cullinane, E.; Henderson, L.O.; Musliner, T.; Eshleman, R. and Herbert, P.N.: Exercise, diet, or physical characteristics as determinants of HDL-levels in endurance athletes. Atherosclerosis 46: 333–339 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  243. US Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs: Dietary goals for the United States (US Government Printing Office, Washington 1977).

  244. Van der Walt, W.H. and Wyndham, C.H.: An equation for prediction of energy expenditure of walking and running. Journal of Applied Physiology 34: 559–563 (1973).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  245. Vellar, O.D.: Studies on sweat losses of nutrients. I. Iron content of whole body sweat and its association with other sweat constituents, serum iron levels, hematological indices, body surface area and sweat rate. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigations 21: 157–167 (1968).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  246. Vellar, O.D. and Askevold, R.: Studies on sweat losses of nutrients. III. Calcium, magnesium and chloride content of whole body cell-free sweat in healthy unacclimatized men under controlled environmental conditions. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation 22: 65–71 (1968).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  247. Vernon, W.B. and Wacker, W.E.C.: Magnesium metabolism; in Alberti (Ed.) Recent Advances in Clinical Biochemistry, pp.39–71 (Churchill Livingstone, New York 1978).

    Google Scholar 

  248. Wade, C.E.; Dressendorfer, R.H.; O’Brien, J.C. and Claybough, J.R.: Renal function, aldosterone, and vasopressin excretion following repeated long-distance running. Journal of Applied Physiology 50: 709–712 (1981).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  249. Wahren, J.: Glucose turnover during exercise in man. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 301: 45–55 (1977).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  250. Wahren, J.; Felig, P.; Ahlborg, G. and Jorfeldt, L.: Glucose metabolism during leg exercise in man. Journal of Clinical Investigation 50: 2715–2725 (1971).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  251. Ward, P.; Tellez, T. and Ward, R.: USA discus camp: Preliminary report. Track and Field Quarterly Review 76: 29–39 (1976).

    Google Scholar 

  252. Waterlow, J.C.: Critical analysis and shortcomings of current dietary protein and energy requirements; in Harper and Davis (Eds) Nutrition in Health and Disease and International Development: Symposia from the XII International Congress of Nutrition, pp.87–96 (Alan R. Liss, New York 1981).

    Google Scholar 

  253. Weisburger, J.H.; Hegsted, M.D.; Gori, G.B. and Lewis, B.: Extending the prudent diet to cancer prevention. Preventive Medicine 9: 297–304 (1980).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  254. Werblow, J.A.; Fox, H.M. and Henneman, A.: Nutritional knowledge, attitudes, and food patterns of women athletes. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 73: 242–245 (1978).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  255. Widerman, P.M. and Hagan, R.D.: Bodyweight loss in a wrestler preparing for competition: A case report. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 14: 413–418 (1982).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  256. Wilmore, J.H.: The application of science to sport: Physiological profiles of male and female athletes. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences 4: 103–115 (1979).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  257. Withers, R.T.; Maricic, Z.; Wasilewski, S. and Kelly, L.: Match analyses of Australian professional soccer players. Journal of Human Movement Studies 8: 159–176 (1982).

    Google Scholar 

  258. Wolfe, R.R.; Goodenough, R.D.; Wolfe, M.H.; Royle, G.T. and Nadel, E.R.: Isotopic analysis of leucine and urea metabolism in exercising humans. Journal of Applied Physiology 52: 458–466 (1982).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  259. Wood, P.D. and Haskell, W.L.: The effect of exercise on plasma high density lipoproteins. Lipids 14: 417–427 (1979).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  260. Wyndham, C.H. and Strydom, N.B.: The danger of an inadequate water intake during marathon running. South African Medical Journal 43: 893–896 (1969).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  261. Wyndham, C.H.; Strydom, N.B.; Benade, A.J.S. and Van der Walt, W.H.: The effect on acclimatization of various water and salt replacement regimens. South African Medical Journal 47: 1773–1779 (1973).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  262. Wyndham, C.H.; Strydom, N.B.; Morrison, J.F.; Peter, J.; Maritz, J.S. and Ward, J.S.: The influence of a stable diet and regular work on body weight and capacity for exercise in African mine recruits. Ergonomics 5: 435–444 (1962).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  263. Yoshimura, H.; Inoue, T.; Yamada, T. and Shiraki, K.: Anaemia during hard physical training (sports anaemia) and its causal mechanism with special reference to protein nutrition. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics 35: 1–86 (1980).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  264. Young, V.R.: Skeletal muscle and wholebody protein metabolism in relation to exercise; in Poortmans and Niset (Eds) Biochemistry of Exercise IV — A, pp. 59–74 (University Park Press, Baltimore 1981).

    Google Scholar 

  265. Young, V.R. and Torún, B.: Physical activity: Impact on protein and amino acid metabolism and implications for nutritional requirements; in Harper and Davis (Eds) Nutrition in Health and Disease and International Development. Symposia from the XII International Congress of Nutrition, pp.57–85 (Alan R. Liss, New York 1981).

    Google Scholar 

  266. Zapiec, C. and Taylor, A.W.: Muscle fibre composition and energy utilization in CFL football players. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Science 4: 140–142 (1979).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to J. R. Brotherhood.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Brotherhood, J.R. Nutrition and Sports Performance. Sports Medicine 1, 350–389 (1984). https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-198401050-00003

Download citation

Keywords

  • Sport Activity
  • Muscle Glycogen
  • Female Athlete
  • Apply Physiology
  • Endurance Athlete