Akil, H.; Watson, S.J.; Berger, P.A. and Barchas, J.D.: Endorphins, β-LPH, and ACTH: Biochemical, pharmacological and anatomical studies. Advances in Biochemistry and Psycho-pharmacology 18: 125–139(1978).
Ayres, J.; Rees, J.; Lee, T. and Cochrane, CM.: Intravenous naloxone in acute respiratory failure. British Medical Journal 284: 927–928 (1982).
Bahrke, M.S. and Morgan, W.P.: Anxiety reduction following exercise and meditation. Cognitive Therapy Research 2: 323–333(1978).
Baker, E.R.: Menstrual dysfunction and hormonal status in athletic women: A review. Fertility and Sterility 36: 691–696 (1981).
Baker, E.R.; Mathur, R.S.; Kirk, R.F. and Williamson, H.O.: Female runners and secondary amenorrhea: Correlation with age, parity, mileage, and plasma hormonal and sex-hormonal binding globulin concentrations. Fertility and Sterility 36: 183–187(1981).
Barta, A. and Yashpal, K.: Regional redistribution of β-EP in rat brain: The effect of stress. Progress in Neuro-Psychophar-macology 5: 595–598 (1981).
Berk, L.S.; Tan, S.A.; Anderson, C.L. and Reiss, G.: β-EP response to exercise in athletes and non-athletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 13: 134 (1981).
Blankstein, J.; Reyes, F.I.; Winter, J.S.D. and Faiman, C: Effects of naloxone upon prolactin and Cortisol in normal women. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 164: 363–365(1980).
Blankstein, J.; Reyes, F.I.; Winter, J.S.D. and Faiman, C: Endorphins and the regulation of the human menstrual cycle. Clinical Endocrinology (Oxford) 14: 287–294 (1981).
Bonen, A.; Belcastro, A.N.; Ling, W.Y. and Simpson, A.A.: Profiles of selected hormones during the menstrual cycle of teenage athletes. Journal of Applied Physiology: Respiratory, Environmental and Exercise Physiology 50: 545–551 (1981).
Bonen, A.; Ling, W.Y.; Maclntyre, K.P.; Neil, R.; McGrail, J.C. and Belcastro, A.N.; Effects of exercise on the serum concentrations of FSH, LH, P and E2. European Journal of Applied Physiology 42: 15–23 (1979).
Bortz. W.M. II; Angevin, P.; Mefford, I.N.; Boarder, M.B.; Noyce, N. and Barchas, J.D.: Catecholamines, dopamine and endorphin levels during extreme exercise. New England Journal of Medicine 305: 466–467 (1981).
Brands, B.; Thornhill, J.B.; Hirst, M. and Gowdey, C.W.: Suppression of food intake and body weight gain by naloxone in rats. Life Sciences 24: 1773–1778 (1979).
Bullen. B.A.; Skrinar, G.S.; Carr, D.B.; Gervino, E.V.; Reppert, S.U.; Dotson, C.O.; Beitins, I.Z. and McArthur, J.W.: Moderate endurance training effects on hormonal responses to serial exercise testing. Journal of Applied Physiology: Respiratory, Exercise and Environmental Physiology. In press (1984).
Carr, D.B.; Bullen, B.A.; Skrinar, G.S.; Arnold, M.A.; Rosenblatt, M.; Beitins, I.Z.; Martin, J.B. and McArthur, J.W.: Physical conditioning facilitates the exercise-induced secretion of β-endorphin and β-lipotropin in women. New England Journal of Medicine 305: 560–563(1981).
Cohen, J.L.; Kim, C.S.; May Jr, P.B. and Ertel, N.H.: Exercise, body weight and amenorrhea in professional ballet dancers. Physician and Sportsmedicine 10: 92–101 (1982).
Colt, E.W.D.; Wardlaw, S.L. and Frantz, A.G.: The effect of running on plasma β-endorphin. Life Sciences 28: 1637–1640 (1981).
Dale, E.; Gerlach, D.H. and Wilhite, A.L.: Menstrual dysfunction in distance runners. Obstetrics and Gynecology 54: 47–53 (1979).
Delitala, G.; Grossman, A. and Besser, G.M.: The modulation of opiate-induced changes in anterior pituitary function by a dopamine agonist and antagonist. Neuroendocrinology Letters 3: 147–152 (1981a).
Delitala, G.; Grossman, A. and Besser, G.M.: Changes in pituitary hormone levels induced by met-enkephalin in man — the role of dopamine. Life Sciences 29: 1537–1544 (1981b).
del Pozo, E.; von Graffenried, B.; Brownell, J.; Derrer, F. and Marbach, P.: Endocrine effect of a methionine-enkephalin derivative (FK-33-824) in man. Hormonal Research 13: 90–97 (1980).
de Weid, D.; Bohus, B.; van Ree, J.M. and Urban, I.: Behavioral and electrophysiological effects of peptides related to lipotropin. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapy 204: 570–580(1978).
Faiman, C.; Blankstein, J.; Reyes, F.I. and Winter, J.S.D.: Endorphins and the regulation of the human menstrual cycle. Fertility and Sterility 36: 267–268 (1981).
Farrell, P.A.; Gates, W.K.; Morgan, W.P. and Maksud, M.G.: Increases in plasma β-EP and β-LPH immunoreactivity after treadmill running in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology: Respiratory, Environmental and Exercise Physiology 52: 1245–1249(1982).
Farrell, P.A.; Gates, W.K.; Morgan, W.P. and Pent, C.B.: Plasma leucine enkephalin-like radioreceptor activity and tension-anxiety before and after competitive running; in Knuttgen, H.G.; Vogel, J. A. and Poortmans, J. (Eds) Biochemistry of Exercise (Human Kinetics Publishers, Champaign, Illinois 1983).
Fears, W.B.; Yu, J.; Ferguson, E.; Glass, A.R. and Vigersky, R.: Mechanism of exercise-induced secondary amenorrhea. Proc. 65th mtg Endocrine Society, p.86 (1982).
Feldman, M.; Kiser, R.S.; Unger, R.H. and Li, C.H.: β-EP and the endocrine pancreas: Studies in healthy and diabetic human beings. New England Journal of Medicine 308: 349–353 (1983).
Foley, K.M.; Kourides, I.A.; Inturrisi, C.E.; Kaiko, R.F.; Zaroulis, C.G.; Posner. J.B.: Houde, R.W. and Li, C.H.: β-Endorphin: Analgesic and hormonal effects in humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the U.S.A. 76: 5377–5381 (1979).
Fraioli, F; Moretti, C; Paolucci, D.; Alicicco, E.; Crescenzi, F. and Fortunio, G.: Physical exercise stimulates marked concomitant release of β-endorphin and ACTH in peripheral blood in man. Experientia 36: 987–989 (1980).
Frenk, H.; McCarty, B.L. and Lieberkind, J.C.: Different brain areas mediate the analgesic and epileptic properties of enkephalin. Science 200: 335–337 (1978).
Frisch, R.E.; Wyshak, G. and Vincent, L.: Delayed menarche and amenorrhea in ballet dancers. New England Journal of Medicine 303: 17–19(1980).
Gambert, S.R.; Garthwaite, T.L.; Pontzer, C.H.; Cook, E.E.; Tris-tani, F.E.; Duthie, E.H.; Martinson, D.R.; Hagen, T.C. and McCarty, D.J.: Running elevates plasma β-endorphin immunoreactivity and ACTH in untrained human subjects. Proceedings of the Society of Experimental Biology and Medicine 168: 1–4 (1981a).
Gambert, S.R.; Hagen, T.C; Garthwaite, T.L.; Duthie Jr, E.H. and McCarty, D.J.: Exercise and the endogenous opioids. New England Journal of Medicine 305: 1590–1592 (1981b).
Goldstein, A.; Tachibana, S.; Lowney, L.I.; Hunkapiller, M. and Hood, L.: Dynorphin-(l–13), an extraordinarily potent opioid peptide. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the U.S.A. 76: 6666–6670 (1979).
Grevert. P. and Goldstein, A.: Effects of NAL on experimentally induced ischemic pain and on mood in human subjects. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the U.S.A. 74: 1291–1294(1977).
Grossman, A. and Besser, G.M.: Opiates control ACTH through a noradrenergic mechanism. Clinical Endocrinology (Oxford) 17: 287–290(1982).
Grossman, A.; Bouloux, P.; Price, P.; Drury, P.; Lam, K.; Alberti, K.; Turner, T.; Besser, G.M. and Sutton, J.R.: The role of opioid peptides in the hormonal responses to acute exercise in man. Clinical Science. (In press, 1984).
Grossman, A.; Gaillard, R.C.; McCartney, P.; Rees, L.H. and Besser, G.M.: Opiate modulation of the pituitary-adrenal axis: Effects of stress and circadian rhythm. Clinical Endocrinology (Oxford) 17: 279–286 (1982a).
Grossman, A.; Moult, P.J.A.; McIntyre, H.; Evans, J.; Silverstone, T.; Rees, L.H. and Besser, G.M.: Opiate mediation of amenorrhea in hyperprolactinaemia and in weight-loss related amenorrhea. Clinical Endocrinology (Oxford) 17: 379–388 (1982b).
Grossman, A. and Rees, L.H.: The neuroendocrinology of opioid peptides. British Medical Bulletin 39: 83–88 (1983).
Guillcmin, R.: Biochemical and physiological correlates of hypothalamic peptides. The new endocrinology of the neuron; in Reichlin, Baldessarini and Martin (Eds) The Hypothalamus, pp. 155–194 (Raven Press, New York 1978).
Guillemin, R.T.; Varga, J.; Rossier, S.; Minick, N.; Ling, C; Rivier, W.; Vale, W. and Bloom, F.: β-Endorphin and adreno-corticotropin are secreted concomitantly by the pituitary gland. Science 197: 1367–1369(1977).
Haier, R.J.; Quaid, K. and Mills, J.S.C.: Naloxone alters pain perception after jogging. Psychiatric Research 5: 231–232 (1981).
Hartley, L.H.; Mason, J.W.; Hogan, R.P.; Jones, L.G.; Kotchen, T.A.; Mougey, E.H.; Wherry, F.E.; Pennington, L.L. and Ricketts, P.T.: Multiple hormonal responses to prolonged exercise in relation to physical training. Journal of Applied Physiology 33: 607–610(1972).
Holaday, J.W.; Loh, H. and Li, C.H.: Unique behavioral effects of β-endorphin and their relationship to thermoregulation and hypothalamic function. Life Sciences 22: 1525–1536(1978).
Hughes, J.: Isolation of an endogenous compound from the brain with pharmacological properties similar to morphine. Brain Research 88: 295–308(1975).
Hughes, J.; Smith, T.W; Kosterlitz, H.W.; Fothergill, L.A.; Morgan, B.A. and Morris, H.R.: Identification of two related pentapeptides from the brain with potent opiate agonist activity. Nature 258: 577–579(1975).
Kosterlitz, H.W. and Hughes, J.: The opiate receptor; in Goldstein (Ed.) The Opiate Narcotics: Neurochemical Mechanisms in Analgesia and Dependence, pp.245–250 (Pergamon Press, New York 1975).
Lemaire, I.; Tseng, R. and Lemaire, S.: Systemic administration of β-EP: Potent hypotensive effect involving a serotonergic pathway. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the U.S.A. 75: 6240–6242 (1978).
Li, C.H.: Lipotropin, a new active peptide from pituitary glands. Nature 201: 924(1964).
Li, C.H.: β-Endorphin: A pituitary peptide with potent morphinelike reactivity. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 183: 592–604(1977).
Lundberg, J.M.; Hokfelt, T.; Fahrenkrug, J.; Nilsson, G. and Terenius, L.: Peptides in the cat carotid body (glomus caroticum): VIP-. enkephalin-, and substance P-like immunoreactivity. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 107: 279–281 (1979).
Markoff, R.A.; Ryan, P. and Young, T.: Endorphins and mood changes in long-distance running. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 14: 11–15 (1982).
Mayer, G.; Wessel, J. and Kobberling, J.: Failure of NAL to alter exercise-induced GH and PRL release in normal men. Clinical Endocrinology (Oxford) 13: 413–416 (1980).
McArthur, J.W.: Endorphins and exercise in females: Possible connection with reproductive dysfunction. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. (In press, 1984).
McArthur, J.W.; Bullen, B.A.; Beitins, I.Z.; Pagano, M.; Badger, T.M. and Klibanski, A.: Hypothalamic amenorrhea in runners of normal body composition. Endocrinology Research Communications 7: 13–25(1980).
McDonald, R.K.; Evans, F.T.; Weise, V.K. and Patrick, R.W.: Effect of morphine and naloxone on plasma hydrocortisone levels in man. Journal of Pharmacological Experimental Therapeutics 125: 241–247 (1959).
McNair, D.M.; Lorr, M. and Droppleman, L.F.: Profile of Mood States Manual (Educational and Industrial Testing Service, San Diego 1971).
McQueen, D.S.: Opioid interactions with respiratory and circulatory systems. British Medical Bulletin 39: 77–82 (1983).
Meites, J.: Relation of endogenous opioid peptides to secretion of hormones. Federation Proceedings 39: 2531–2532 (1980).
Meyerson, B.J. and Terenius, L.: β-EP and male sexual behaviour. European Journal of Pharmacology 42: 191–192 (1977).
Moretti, C.; Fabbri, A.; Gnessi, L; Cappa, M.; Calzolari, A.; Fraioli, F.; Grossman, A. and Besser, G.M.: NAL inhibits exercise-induced release of PRL and GH in athletes. Clinical Endocrinology (Oxford) 18: 135–138 (1983).
Morgan, W.P.: Exercise-induced euphoria: Fact or fancy? Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. (In press, 1984).
Morley, J.E.: The neuroendocrine control of appetite: The role of endogenous opiates, cholecystokinin, TRH, gamma-amino butyric acid and the diazepam receptor. Life Sciences 27: 335–368 (1980).
Morley, J.E.: The endocrinology of the opiates and opioid peptides. Metabolism 30: 195–209 (1981).
Morley, J.E. and Levine, A.S.: Stress-induced eating is mediated through endogenous opiates. Science 209: 1259–1261 (1980).
Moss, I.R. and Friedman, E.: β-EP: Effects on respiratory regulation. Life Sciences 23: 1271–1276 (1978).
Nakao, K.; Nakai, Y.; Oki, S.; Matsubara, S.; Konishi, T.; Nishitani, H. and Imura, H.: Immunoreactive β-endorphin in human cerebrospinal fluid. Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism 50: 230–233 (1980).
Oyama, T.; Jin, T.; Yamaya, R.; Ling, N. and Guillemin, R.: Profound analgesic effects of β-endorphin in man. Lancet 1: 122–124 (1980).
Paton, W.D.M.: The action of morphine and related substances on contraction and on acetylcholine output of coaxially stimulated guinea pig ileum. British Journal of Pharmacology and Chemotherapy 12: 119–127 (1957).
Prior, J.C.; Ho Yuen, B.; Jensen, L.; Brownlie, L. and Haggis, H.: Controlled study of pituitary and gonadal stimulation during control and exercise menstrual cycles in normal women. Clinical and Investigative Medicine 4: 16B (1981).
Quigley, M.E. and Yen, S.S.: The role of endogenous opiates on LH secretion during the menstrual cycle. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 51: 179–181 (1980).
Reid, R.L.; Hoff, J.D.; Yen, S.S.C. and Li, C.H.: Effects of exogenous β-endorphin on pituitary hormone secretion and its disappearance rate in normal human subjects. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 52: 1179–1184 (1981).
Reith, P.; Byrd, P.; Silver, B.; Kyner, J. and Thomas, T.R.: Pre-menarchial hormonal pattern in lean athletic women with secondary amenorrhea. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 14: 145 (1982).
Rennie, M.J.; Jennett, S. and Johnson, R.H.: The metabolic effects of strenuous exercise: A comparison between untrained subjects and racing cyclists. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Physiology 59: 201–212 (1974).
Ropert, J.F.; Quigley, M.E. and Yen, S.S.C.: Endogenous opiates modulate pulsatile LH release in humans. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 52: 583–585 (1981).
Santen, R.J.; Sofsky, J.; Bilic, N. and Lippert, R.: Mechanism of action of narcotics in the production of menstrual dysfunction in women. Fertility and Sterility 26: 538–548 (1975).
Schaumann, W.: Inhibition by morphine of the release of acetylcholine from the intestine of the guinea pig. British Journal of Pharmacology and Chemotherapy 12: 115–118 (1957).
Schwartz, B.; Cumming, D.C.; Riordan, E.; Selye, M.; Yen, S.S.C. and Rebar, R.W.: Exercise-associated amenorrhea: A distinct entity? American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 141: 662–670 (1981).
Shangold, M.; Freeman, R.; Thysen, B. and Gatz, M.: The relationship between long-distance running, plasma P and luteal phase length. Fertility and Sterility 31: 130–133 (1979).
Simantov, R.; Goodman, R.; Aposhian, D. and Snyder, S.H.: Phylogenetic distribution of a morphine-like peptide enkephalin. Brain Research 111: 204–211 (1976).
Spiler, I.J. and Molitch, M.E.: Lack of modulation of pituitary hormone stress response by neural pathways involving opiate receptors. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology 50: 516–520 (1980).
Stephen, G.W.; Cooper, L.V. and Harvey, D.: The effect of narcotic-antagonist drugs in the newborn rabbit. British Journal of Anaesthesia 48: 635–637 (1976).
Stubbs, W.A., Jones, A.; Edwards, C.R.W.; Delitala, G.; Jeffcoate, W.J.; Ratter, S.J.; Besser, G.M.; Bloom, S.R. and Alberti, K.G.M.M.: Hormonal and metabolic responses to an enkephalin analogue in normal man. Lancet 2: 1225–1227 (1978).
Sutton, J.R.: Endorphins and the physiological and metabolic responses to exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. (In press, 1984).
Sutton, J.R.; Brown, G.M.; Keane, P.; Walker, W.H.C.; Jones, N.L.; Rosenbloom, D. and Besser, G.M.: The role of endorphins in the hormonal and psychological responses to exercise. International Journal of Sports Medicine 2: 19 (1982).
Sutton, J.R. and Jones, N.L.: Control of pulmonary ventilation during exercise and mediators in the blood: CO: and hydrogen ion. Medicine and Science in Sports 11: 198–203 (1979).
Sutton, J.R.; Young, J.D.; Lazarus, L.; Hickie, J.B. and Maksvytis, J.: The hormonal response to physical exercise. Australasian Annals of Medicine 18: 84–90 (1969).
Terenius, L. and Wahlstrom, A.: Inhibitors of narcotic receptor binding in brain extracts and cerebrospinal fluid. Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica 35 (Suppl. 87): 55 (1974).
Terjung, R.: Endocrine response to exercise; in Hutton (Ed.) Exercise and Sports Sciences Reviews 7: 153–180 (Franklin Institute Press, Philadelphia 1979).
Tharp, G.D.: The role of glucocorticoids in exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports 7: 6–11 (1975).
Tolis, G.; Hickey, J. and Guyda, H.: Effects of morphine, Cortisol, PRL and TSH in man. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 41: 797–800 (1975).
Vale, W.; Spiess, J.; Rivier, C. and Rivier, J.: Characterization of a 42-residuc ovine hypothalamic peptide that stimulates secretion of corticotropin and β-endorphin. Science 213: 1394–1397 (1981).
Volavka, J.; Bauman, J.; Pevnick, J.; Reker, D.; James, B. and Cho, D.: Short-term hormonal effects of NAL in man. Psychneuroendocrinology 5: 225–234 (1980).
Volavka, J.; Cho, D.; Mallya, A. and Bauman, J.: Naloxone increases ACTH and Cortisol levels in man. New England Journal of Medicine 300: 1056–1057 (1979).
Von Graffenried, B.; del Pozo, E.; Roubicek, J.; Krebs, E.; Poldinger, W.; Burmeister, P. and Kerp, L.: Effects of the synthetic analogue FK 33-824 in man. Nature 272: 729–730 (1978).
Wahren, J.: Metabolic adaptation to physical exercise in man; in DeGroot et al. (Eds) Endocrinology, pp. 1911–1926 (Grune and Stratton, New York 1979).
Warren, M.P.: The effects of exercise on pubertal progression and reproductive function in girls. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 51: 1150–1156 (1980).
Wehrenberg, W.B.; Wardlaw, S.L.; Frantz, A.G. and Ferin, M.: β-Endorphin in hypophyseal portal blood: Variations throughout the menstrual cycle. Endocrinology 111: 879–881 (1982).
Wharton, J.; Polak, J.M.; Pearse, A.G.E.; McGregor, G.P.; Bryant, M.G.; Bloom, S.R.; Emson, P.C.; Bisgard, G.E. and Will, J.A.: Enkephalin-, VIP-, and substance P-like immunoreactivity in the carotid body. Nature 284: 269–271 (1980).
Wildt, L.; Niesert, S.; Wesner, G. and Layendecker, G.: Effects of naloxone on LH, FSH and prolactin secretion in hypothalamic amenorrhea. Acta Endocrinologica 97 (Suppl. 243): 52 (1981).
Yates, A.; Leehey, K. and Shisslak, C.M.: Running — an analogue of anorexia? New England Journal of Medicine 308: 251–255 (1983).