Heredity and Endurance Performance

Summary

Performance in endurance sports is affected by a variety of factors, including exercise-training habits, nutrition and other lifestyle components. Endurance performance can also be seen as a multifactorial phenotype influenced by genetic and non-genetic factors. Current models in quantitative genetics and experimental data available in the sport sciences literature suggest that the effects of genetic variation on endurance performance can be observed as (a) the consequence of a character highly determined by the genotype which is correlated with endurance performance, (b) inherited differences in endurance performance exhibited by individuals of a sample or population, and (c) genotype-dependent individual differences in the response to endurance training.

This review considers the evidence for genetic effects in several determinants of endurance performance, namely: body measurements and physique, body fat, pulmonary functions, cardiac and circulatory functions, muscle characteristics, substrate utilisation, maximal aerobic power and others. Moreover, the response to aerobic training of indicators of aerobic work metabolism and endurance performance is reviewed, with emphasis on the specificity of the response and the individual differences observed in trainability.

It is concluded that there are considerable interindividual differences in the level of endowment for endurance performance. This genetic effect remains, however, quite modest when compared with other phenotypes, such as the skeletal dimensions of the body. Moreover, while trainability of the capacity for endurance performance is quite high on the average, there are important individual differences in the sensitivity to endurance training. Recent data suggest that this sensitivity to aerobic training is largely genotype-dependent.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Anderson, H.R.; Anderson, J.A.; King, H.O.M. and Cotes, J.E.: Variations in the lung size of children in Papua New Guinea: genetic and environmental factors. Annals of Human Biology 5: 209–218 (1978).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Angelini, C.: Lipid storage myopathies. A review of metabolic defect and of treatment. Journal of Neurology 214: 1–11 (1976).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Arkinstall, W.W.; Nirmel, K.; Klissouras, V. and Milic-Emili, J.: Genetic differences in the ventilatory response to inhaled CO2. Journal of Applied Physiology 36: 6–11 (1974).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Åstrand, P.O. and Rodahl, K.: A Textbook of Work Physiology (McGraw-Hill, New York 1970).

    Google Scholar 

  5. Billeter, R.; Heizmann, C.W.; Howald, H. and Jenny, E.: Analysis of myosin light and heavy chain types in single human skeletal muscle fibers. European Journal of Biochemistry 116: 389–395 (1981).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Billeter, R.; Weber, H.; Lutz, H.; Howald, H.; Eppenberger, H.M. and Jenny, E.: Myosin types in human skeletal muscle fibers. Histochemistry 65: 249–259 (1980).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Blomqvist, C.G. and Saltin, B.: Cardiovascular adaptations to physical training. Annual Review of Physiology 45: 169–189 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Booth, F.W. and Narahara, K.A.: Vastus lateralis cytochrome oxidase activity and its relationship to maximal oxygen consumption in man. Pflügers Archiv 349: 319–324 (1974).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Bouchard, C: Univariate and multivariate genetic analysis of anthropometric and physique characteristics of French Canadian families (Doctoral dissertation, University of Texas, Austin 1977).

    Google Scholar 

  10. Bouchard, C: Human adaptability may have a genetic basis; in Landry (Ed.) Health Risk Estimation, Risk Reduction and Health Promotion. Proceedings of the 18th Annual Meeting of the Society of Prospective Medicine, pp. 463–476 (Canadian Public Health Association, Ottawa 1983).

    Google Scholar 

  11. Bouchard, C.; Boulay, M.R.; Thibault, M.C.; Carrier, R. and Dulac, S.: Training of submaximal working capacity: frequency, intensity, duration and their interactions. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 20: 29–40 (1980a).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Bouchard, C.; Carrier, R.; Boulay, M.R.; Thibault-Poirier, M.C. and Dulac, S.: Le Développement du Système de Transport de l’Oxygène chez les Jeunes Adultes (Editions du Pélican, Québec 1975).

    Google Scholar 

  13. Bouchard, C.; Demirjian, A. and Malina, R.M.: Genetic pleiotropism in skeletal lengths and breadths; in Ostyn, Beunen and Simons (Eds) Kinanthropometry II, pp. 78–87 (University Park Press, Baltimore 1980b).

    Google Scholar 

  14. Bouchard, C.; Demirjian, A. and Malina, R.M.: Heritability estimates of somatotype components based upon familial data. Human Heredity 30: 112–118 (1980c).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Bouchard, C.; Demirjian, A. and Malina, R.M.: Path analysis of family resemblance in physique. Studies in Physical Anthropology 6: 61–70 (1980d).

    Google Scholar 

  16. Bouchard, C.; Despres, J.P.; Savard, R. and Leblanc, C.: Twin resemblance in fatness and fat cell metabolism. American Journal of Physical Anthropology (In press, 1984a).

    Google Scholar 

  17. Bouchard, C.; Godbout, P.; Mondor, J.C. and Leblanc, C.: Specificity in maximal aerobic power. European Journal of Applied Physiology 40: 85–93 (1979).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Bouchard, C.; Lortie, G.; Simoneau, J.A.; Leblanc, C.; Thériault, G. and Tremblay, A.: Submaximal power output in adopted and biological siblings (Submitted for publication, 1984b).

    Google Scholar 

  19. Bouchard, C. and Malina, R.M.: Genetics for the sport scientist: selected methodological considerations. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews 11: 275–305 (1983a).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. Bouchard, C. and Malina, R.M.: Genetics of physiological fitness and motor performance. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews 11: 306–339 (1983b).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Bouchard, C. and Malina, R.M.: Genetics and Olympic athletes: a discussion of methods and issues; in Carter (Ed.) Kinanthropometry of Olympic Athletes, part 2 (Karger, Basel, In press, 1984).

  22. Bouchard, C.; Savard, R.; Després, J.P.; Tremblay, A. and Leblanc, C.: Body composition in adopted and biological siblings (Submitted for publication, 1984c).

    Google Scholar 

  23. Bouchard, C.; Thibault, M.C. and Jobin, J.: Advances in selected areas of human work physiology. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 24: 1–36 (1981).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Boulay, M.R.; Hamel, P.; Simoneau, J.A.; Lortie, G.; Prud’homme, D. and Bouchard, G: A test of aerobic capacity: description and reliability. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences (In press, 1984b).

    Google Scholar 

  25. Boulay, M.R.; Lortie, G.; Simoneau, J.A. and Bouchard, C.: Sensitivity of maximal aerobic power and capacity to anaerobic training is partly genotype dependent. 1984 Olympic Scientific Congress, Eugene, Oregon (1984a).

    Google Scholar 

  26. Carter, J.E.L.: Prediction of outstanding athletic ability: the structural perspective; in Landry and Orban (Eds) Exercise Physiology, pp. 29–42 (Symposia Specialists, Miami 1978).

    Google Scholar 

  27. Carter, J.E.L.: Body composition of Montreal Olympic athletes; in Carter (Ed.) Physical Structure of Olympic Athletes, pp. 107–116 (Karger, Basel 1982).

    Google Scholar 

  28. Carter, J.E.L.; Aubry, S.P. and Sleet, D.A.: Somatotypes of Montreal Olympic athletes; in Carter (Ed.) Physical Structure of Olympic Athletes, pp. 53–80 (Karger, Basel 1982).

    Google Scholar 

  29. Chakraborty, R.; Schull, W.J.; Harburg, E.; Shork, M.A. and Roeper, P.: Heredity, stress and blood pressure, a family set method-V. Journal of Chronic Diseases 30: 683–699 (1977).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Clark, P.J.: The heritability of certain anthropometric characters as ascertained from measurements of twins. American Journal of Human Genetics 8: 49–54 (1956).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. Collins, D.D.; Scoggin, C.H.; Zuillick, C.W. and Veil, J.V.: Hereditary aspects of decreased hypoxic response. Journal of Clinical Investigation 62: 105–110 (1978).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Costill, D.L.; Fink, W.J.; Getchell, L.H.; Ivy, J.L. and Witzmann, F.A.: Lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle of endurance-trained males and females. Journal of Applied Physiology: Respiratory and Environmental Exercise Physiology 47: 787–791 (1979).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. Costill, D.L.; Fink, W.J. and Pollock, M.L.: Muscle fiber composition and enzyme activities of elite distance runners. Medicine and Science in Sports 8: 96–100 (1976).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. Cotes, J.E.; Heywood, C. and Lawrence, K.M.: Determinants of respiratory function in boy and girl twins; in Weiner (Ed.) Physiological Variation and its Genetic Basis, pp. 77–86 (Taylor and Francis Ltd, London 1977).

    Google Scholar 

  35. Dahlberg, G.: Twin Births and Twins from a Hereditary Point of View (Tidems Tsyckeri, Stockholm 1926).

    Google Scholar 

  36. Dalrymple, R.H.; Kastenschmidt, L.L. and Cassens, R.G.: Glycogen and phosphorylase in developing red and white muscle. Growth 37: 19–34 (1973).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. Davenport, C.B.: Body build and its inheritance. (Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publ. No. 329, 1923).

  38. De Garay, A.L.; Levine, L. and Carter, J.E.L.: Genetic and Anthropological Studies of Olympic Athletes (Academic Press New York 1974).

    Google Scholar 

  39. Dehn, M.M. and Bruce, R.A.: Longitudinal variation in maximal oxygen intake with age and activity. Journal of Applied Physiology 33: 805–807 (1972).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  40. Dempsey, J.; Hanson, P.; Pegelow, D.; Claremont, A. and Rankin, U. Limitations to exercise capacity and endurance: pulmonary system. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences 7: 4–13 (1982).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  41. Després, J.P. and Bouchard, C: Monozygotic twin resemblance in fatness and fat cell lipolysis. Acta Geneticae Medicae Gemllologiae: Twin Research (In press, 1984).

    Google Scholar 

  42. Després, J.P.; Bouchard, C.; Savard, R.; Prud’homme, D.; Bukowiecki, L. and Thériault, G.: Adaptive changes to training in adipose tissue lipolysis are genotype dependent. International Journal of Obesity (In press, 1984a).

    Google Scholar 

  43. Després, J.P.; Bouchard, G.; Savard, R.; Tremblay, A. and Marcotte, M.: Effect of prolonged exercise on lipolytic activity of isolated human fat cells (Submitted for publication, 1984b).

    Google Scholar 

  44. Després, J.P.; Savard, R.: Tremblay, A. and Bouchard, C: Adipocyte diameter and lipolytic activity in marathon runners: relationship with body fatness. European Journal of Applied Physiology 51: 223–230 (1983).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Diano, R.; Bouchard, C.; Dumesnil, J.; Leblanc, C.; Laurenceau, J.L. and Turcot, J.: Parent-child resemblance in left ventricular echocardiography measurements. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences 5: 4 (1980).

    Google Scholar 

  46. Engström, L.M. and Fischbein, S.: Physical capacity in twins. Acta Geneticae Medicae Gemellologiae 26: 159–165 (1977).

    Google Scholar 

  47. Eveleth, P.B. and Tanner, J.M.: Worldwide Variation in Human Growth (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1976).

    Google Scholar 

  48. Farrell, F.A.; Wilmore, J.H.; Coyle, E.F.; Billing, J.E. and Costill, D.L.: Plasma lactate accumulation and distance running performance. Medicine and Science in Sports 11: 338–344 (1979).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  49. Foster, C.; Costill, D.L.; Daniels, J.T. and Fink, W.J.: Skeletal muscle enzyme activity, fiber composition and VO2max in relation to distance running performance. European Journal of Applied Physiology 39: 73–80 (1978).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Furusho, T.: On the manifestation of genotype responsible for stature. Human Biology 40: 437–455 (1968).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  51. Furusho, T.: Genetic study on growth of stature. Japanese Journal of Human Genetics 17: 249–272 (1972).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  52. Furusho, T.: Genetic study on stature. Japanese Journal of Human Genetics 19: 1–25 (1974).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  53. Garn, S.M.: Fat patterning and fat intercorrelations in the adult male. Human Biology 26: 59–69 (1954).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  54. Garn, S.M.: Relative fat patterning: an individual characteristic. Human Biology 27: 75–89 (1955).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  55. Garn, S.M.: The genetics of normal human growth; in Gedda (Ed.) De Genetica Medica, vol 2, pp. 415–434 (Mendel Institute, Rome 1962a).

    Google Scholar 

  56. Garn, S.M. Determinants of size and growth during the first three years. Modern Problems of Paediatrics 7: 50–54 (1962b).

    Google Scholar 

  57. Garn, S.M.: Body size and its implication; in Hoffman and Hoffman (Eds) Review of Child Development Research 2 (Sage Foundation, New York 1966).

  58. Garn, S.M.; Clark, A.; Landkof, L. and Newell, L.: Parental body build and developmental progress in the offspring. Science 132: 1555–1556 (1960).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Garn, S.M.; Hertzog, K.P. and Rohmann, C.G.: Evidence for X-linkage of tibial length and body length. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 31: 187–190 (1969).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Garn, S.M. and Rohmann, C: Interaction of nutrition and genetics in the timing of growth and development. Pediatric Clinics of North America 13: 353–359 (1966).

    Google Scholar 

  61. Gerylovova, A. and Bouchalova, M: The relationship between children’s and parent’s heights in the age range 0–6 years. Annals of Human Biology 1: 229–232 (1974).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Gollnick, P.D.; Armstrong, R.B.; Saubert IV, C.W.; Piehl, K. and Saltin, B.: Enzyme activity and fiber composition in skeletal muscle of untrained and trained men. Journal of Applied Physiology 33: 312–319 (1972).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  63. Gollnick, P.D.; Armstrong, R.B.; Saubert IV, C.W.; Sembrovich, W.L.; Shepherd, R.E. and Saltin, B.: Glycogen depletion patterns in human skeletal muscle fibers during prolonged work. Pflügers Archiv 344: 1–12 (1973).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Gollnick, P.D. and Saltin, B.: Significance of skeletal muscle oxidative enzyme enhancement with endurance training. Clinical Physiology 2: 1–12 (1982).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Grewal, M.S. and Purushothaman, S.C.: Genetic factors in coronary heart disease: anatomical evidence from mice. Lancet 1: 603 (1978).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Hamel, P.; Lortie, G.; Simoneau, J.A.; Lesage, R.; Boulay, M.R. and Bouchard, C.: Relationship between human muscle characteristics and maximal aerobic capacity. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences 8: 221 (1983).

    Google Scholar 

  67. Havlik, R.J.; Garrison, R.J.; Fabsitz, R. and Feinleib, M.: Variability of heart rate, P-R, QRS and Q-T durations in twins. Journal of Electrocardiology 13: 45–48 (1980).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Hewitt, D.: Some familial correlations in height, weight and skeletal maturity. Annals of Human Genetics 22: 26–35 (1957a).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Hewitt, D.: Sib resemblance in bone, muscle and fat measurements of the human calf. Annals of Human Genetics 22: 213–221 (1957b).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  70. Hickson, R.C.; Bomze, H.A. and Holloszy, J.O.: Linear increase in aerobic power induced by a strenuous program of endurance exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology: Respiratory and Environmental Exercise Physiology 42: 372–376 (1977).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  71. Hislop, A. and Reid, L.: The similarity of the pulmonary artery branching system in siblings. Forensic Science International 2: 37–52 (1973).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Holmér, I.: Cardiorespiratory adjustments to swimming; in Landry and Orban (Eds) Exercise Physiology, pp. 45–60 (Symposia Specialists, Miami 1978).

    Google Scholar 

  73. Holzinger, K.: The relative effect of nature and nurture influences on twin differences. Journal of Educational Psychology 20: 241–248 (1929).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Howald, H.: Ultrastructure and biochemical function of skeletal muscle in twins. Annals of Human Biology 3: 455–462 (1976).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Howald, H.: Training-induced morphological and functional changes in skeletal muscle. International Journal of Sports Medicine 3: 1–12 (1982).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  76. Howells, W.W.: Correlations of brothers in factor scores. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 11: 121–140 (1953).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  77. Ikoma, E. and Murotani, N.: A genetic study on the length of tibia. Annals of Human Genetics 39: 475–483 (1976).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  78. Ingjer, F.: Maximal aerobic power related to the capillary supply of the quadriceps femoris muscle in man. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 104: 238–240 (1978).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  79. Ivy, J.L.; Withers, R.T.; Van Handel, P.J.; Elger, D.H. and Costill, D.L.: Muscle respiratory capacity and fiber type as determinants of the lactate threshold. Journal of Applied Physiology: Respiratory Environmental and Exercise Physiology 48: 523–527 (1980).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  80. Keul, J.; Dickhuth, H.H.; Lehmann, M. and Staiger, J.: The athlete’s heart — haemodynamics and structure. International Journal of Sports Medicine 3: 33–43 (1982).

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  81. Klissouras, V.: Heritability of adaptive variation. Journal of Applied Physiology 31: 338–344 (1971).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  82. Klissouras, V.: Genetic limit of functional adaptability. Internationale Zeitschrift für angewandte Physiologie 30: 85–94 (1972).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  83. Klissouras, V.: Prediction of athletic performance: genetic considerations. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences 1: 195–200 (1976).

    Google Scholar 

  84. Klissouras, V.; Pirnay, F. and Petit, J.M.: Adaptation to maximal effort: genetics and age. Journal of Applied Physiology 35: 288–293 (1973).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  85. Komi, P.V.; Ito, A.; Sjödin, B.; Wallenstein, R. and Karlsson, J.: Muscle metabolism, lactate breaking point, and biochemical features of endurance training. International Journal of Sports Medicine 2: 148–153 (1981).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  86. Komi, P.V. and Karlsson, J.: Physical performance, skeletal muscle enzyme activities, and fibre types in monozygous and dizygous twins of both sexes. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica (Suppl. 462): 1–28 (1979).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  87. Komi, P.V.; Viitasalo, J.T.; Havu, M.; Thorstensson, A.; Sjödin, B. and Karlsson, J.: Skeletal muscle fibers and muscle enzyme activities in monozygous and dizygous twins of both sexes. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 100: 383–392 (1977).

    Google Scholar 

  88. Kumagai, S.; Tanaka, K.; Matsuura, Y.; Matsuzaka, A.; Hirakoba, K. and Asano, K.: Relationships of the anaerobic threshold with the 5km, 10km, and mile races. European Journal of Applied Physiology 49: 13–23 (1982).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  89. Landry, F.; Bouchard, C.; Prud’homme, D.; Diano, R.; Leblanc, C. and D’Amours, Y.: Cardiac dimensions in twins following endurance training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 15: 125 (1983).

    Google Scholar 

  90. Leitch, A.G.: Chemical control of breathing in identical twin athletes; in Weiner (Ed.) Physiological Variation and its Basis, pp. 67–76 (Taylor and Francis Ltd, London 1977).

    Google Scholar 

  91. Livson, N.; McNeill, D. and Thomas, K.: Pooled estimates of parent-child correlations in stature from birth to maturity. Science 138: 818–820 (1962).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  92. Lortie, G.; Bouchard, C; Leblanc, C; Tremblay, A.; Simoneau, J.A.; Thériault, G. and Savoie, J.P.: Familial similarity in aerobic power. Human Biology 54: 801–812 (1982).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  93. Lortie, G.; Simoneau, J.A. and Bouchard, C: Muscle fiber type distribution and enzyme activities in biological sibs, dizygotic and monozygotic twins. 1984 Olympic Scientific Congress, Eugene, Oregon (1984a).

    Google Scholar 

  94. Lortie, G.; Simoneau, J.A.; Hamel, P.; Boulay, M.R.; Landry, F. and Bouchard, C: Responses of maximal aerobic power and capacity to aerobic training (Submitted for publication, 1984b).

    Google Scholar 

  95. Mahler, R.F.: Disorders of glycogen metabolism. Clinics in Endocrinology and Metabolism 5: 579–598 (1976).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  96. Malina, R.M.; Mueller, W.H.; Bouchard, C; Shoup, R.F. and Larivière, G.: Fatness and fat patterning among athletes at the Montreal Olympic Games, 1976. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 14: 445–452 (1982).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  97. Man, S.F.P. and Zamel, N.: Genetic influence on normal variability of maximum expiratory flow-volume curves. Journal of Applied Physiology 41: 874–877 (1976).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  98. Mathers, J.A.L.; Osborne, R.H. and De George, F.V.: Studies of blood pressure, heart rate, and the electrocardiogram in adult twins. American Heart Journal 62: 634–642 (1961).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  99. McKusick, V.A.: Mendelian Inheritance in Man. Catalogs of Autosomal Dominant, Autosomal Recessive, and X-Linked Phenotypes (Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore 1982).

    Google Scholar 

  100. Moller, P. and Heiberg, A.: Atrioventricular conduction time — a heritable trait? II. Family studies. Clinical Genetics 18: 454–455 (1980).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  101. Montoye, H.J. and Gayle, R.: Familial relationships in maximal oxygen uptake. Human Biology 50: 241–249 (1978).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  102. Motulsky, A.G.: Genetics of coronary heart diseases. Pediatrician 6: 366–370 (1977).

    Google Scholar 

  103. Mueller, W.H.; Chakraborty, R.; Barton, S.A.; Rothammer, F. and Schull, W.J.: Genes and epidemiology in anthropological adaptation studies: familial correlations in lung function in population residing at different altitude in Chile. Medical Anthropology 4: 367–384 (1980).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  104. Osborne, R.H. and DeGeorge, F.V.: Genetic Basis of Morphological Variation (Harvard University Press, Massachusetts 1959).

    Google Scholar 

  105. Parnell, R.W.: Behaviour and Physique (Arnold, London 1958).

    Google Scholar 

  106. Paul, P. and Issekutz, B.: Role of extramuscular energy sources in the metabolism of the exercising dog. Journal of Applied Physiology 22: 615–622 (1967).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  107. Pernow, B. and Saltin, B.: Availability of substrates and capacity for prolonged heavy exercise in man. Journal of Applied Physiology 31: 416–422 (1971).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  108. Personen, E.; Norio, R. and Sarna, S.: Thickenings in the coronary arteries in infancy as an indication of genetic factors in coronary heart disease. Circulation 51: 218–225 (1975).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  109. Pirnay, F.; Klissouras, V.; Deroanne, R. and Petit, J.M.: Aptitude physique des jumeaux. Médecine du Sport 49: 29–33 (1975).

    Google Scholar 

  110. Pirnay, F.; Klissouras, V. and Petit, J.M.: Fonction pulmonaire et génétique. Acta Tuberculosea Pneumologica Belgica 6: 477–483 (1972).

    Google Scholar 

  111. Pollock, M.L.: The quantification of endurance training programs; in Wilmore (Ed.) Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, vol. 1, pp. 155–158 (Academic Press, New York 1973).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  112. Prud’homme, D.; Bouchard, C; Landry, F.; Fontaine, E.; D’A-mours, Y. and Leblanc, C: Sensitivity of maximal aerobic power to training is genotype dependent. (Abstract). Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 15: 133 (1983).

    Google Scholar 

  113. Prud’homme, D.; Bouchard, C.; Leblanc, C.; Landry, F. and Fontaine, E.: Sensitivity of maximal aerobic power to training is genotype dependent (Submitted for publication, 1984).

    Google Scholar 

  114. Ready, A.E. and Quinney, H.A.: Alterations in anaerobic threshold as the result of endurance training and detraining. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 14: 292–296 (1982).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  115. Reynolds, E.L.: The distribution of subcutaneous fat in childhood and adolescence. Monography Society of Research in Child Development 15: Serial 50, No. 2 (1951).

    Google Scholar 

  116. Reynolds, E.L. and Schoen, G.: Growth pattern of identical triplets from 8 through 18 years. Child Development 18: 130–151 (1947).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  117. Roberts, D.F.: Physiological variation and its genetic basis; in Weiner (Ed.) Methods and Problems in Physiological Genetics, pp. 23–41 (Taylor and Francis Ltd, London 1977).

    Google Scholar 

  118. Rost, W. and Hollmann, W.: Athlete’s heart: a review of its historical assessment and new aspects. International Journal of Sports Medicine 4: 147–165 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  119. Rusko, H.; Havu, M. and Karvinen, E.: Aerobic performance capacity in athletes. European Journal of Applied Physiology 38: 151–159 (1978).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  120. Rusko, H.; Rahkila, P. and Karvinen, E.: Anaerobic threshold, skeletal muscle enzyme and fiber composition in young female cross-country skiers. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 108: 263–268 (1980).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  121. Saltin, B.: The effect of physical training on the oxygen transporting system in man; in Cumming, Taylor and Sridal (Eds) pp. 151–162 (Canadian Association of Sport Sciences, Edmonton 1972).

  122. Saltin, B.; Blomqvist, G.; Mitchell, J.H.; Johnson, R.L.; Wilden-thal, K. and Chapman, C.B.: Response to exercise after bed rest and after training. Circulation (Suppl. 7): 1–68 (1968).

    Google Scholar 

  123. Saltin, B.; Henrikson, J.; Nygaard, E.; Andersen, P. and Jansson, E.: Fiber types and metabolic potentials of skeletal muscles in sedentary man and endurance runners. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 301: 3–29 (1977).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  124. Savard, R.; Bouchard, C.; Leblanc, C. and Tremblay, A.: Familial resemblance in fatness indicators. Annals of Human Biology 10: 111–118 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  125. Savard, R.; Després, J.P.; Deshaies, Y.; Marcotte, M. and Bouchard, C.: Adipose tissue lipid accumulation pathways in highly trained marathon runners (Submitted for publication, 1984a).

    Google Scholar 

  126. Savard, R.; Després, J.P.; Leblanc, C. and Bouchard, C: Genetic effects in human adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase and lipogenic activities and in their response to prolonged exercise (Submitted for publication, 1984b).

    Google Scholar 

  127. Savard, R. Després, J.P.; Marcotte, M.; Thériault, G.; Allard, C. and Bouchard, C: Acute effect of endurance exercise on human adipose tissue lipid accumulation (Submitted for publication, 1984c).

    Google Scholar 

  128. Schreider, E.: Biométrie et génetique. Biométrie Humaine 4: 65–85 (1969).

    Google Scholar 

  129. Scoggin, C.H.; Dockel, R.D.; Kryger, M.H.; Zwillick, C.W. and Weil, J. V.: Familial aspects of decreased hypoxic drive in endurance athletes. Journal of Applied Physiology 44: 464–468 (1978).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  130. Sing, C.F. and Skolnick, M. (Eds): Genetic analysis of common diseases: applications to predictive factors in coronary disease. Progress in Clinical and Biological Research 32: (1979).

  131. Skinner, J.S. and Riddell, J.: Trainability of formerly-active (10 years or more before) vs. never-active males aged 30–39 years. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 15: 133 (1983).

    Google Scholar 

  132. Smith, D.M.; Nance, W.E.; Kang, K.W.; Christian, J.C. and Johnston, C.C.: Genetic factors in determining bone mass. Journal of Clinical Investigations 52: 2800–2808 (1973).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  133. Stamler, J.; Rhomberg, P.; Schoenberger, J.A.; Shekelle, R.B.; Dyer, A.; Shekelle, S.; Stamler, R. and Wannamaker, J.: Multivariate analysis of the relationship of seven variables to blood pressure: findings of the Chicago Heart Association detection project in industry, 1967–1972. Journal of Chronic Diseases 28: 527–548 (1975a).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  134. Stamler, J.; Stamler, R.; Rhomberg, P.; Dyer, A.; Berkson, D.M.; Reedus, W. and Wannamaker, J.: Multivariate analysis of the relationship of six variables to blood pressure: findings from Chicago community surveys, 1965–1971. Journal of Chronic Diseases 28: 499–525 (1975b).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  135. Suzanne, C.: Genetic and environmental influences on morphological characteristics. Annals of Human Biology 2: 279–287 (1975).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  136. Takkunen, J.: Anthropometric, electrocardiographic and blood pressure measurements in twins. Annalles Academia Scien-tiarum Fennicae [A] (Suppl. 107): 1–82 (1964).

    Google Scholar 

  137. Tanaka, K. and Matsuura, Y.: A multivariate analysis of the role of certain anthropometric and physiological attributes in distance running. Annals of Human Biology 9: 473–482 (1982).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  138. Tanner, J.M.: Inheritance of morphological and physiological traits; in Sorsby (Ed.) Clinical Genetics, pp. 155–174 (Mosby, St Louis 1953).

    Google Scholar 

  139. Tanner, J.M.: The Physique of the Olympic Athlete (George Allen and Unwin, London 1964).

    Google Scholar 

  140. Tanner, J.M. and Israelsohn, W.J.: Parent-child correlations for body measurements of children between the ages of one month and seven years. Annals of Human Genetics 26: 245–259 (1963).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  141. Tanner, J.M.; Goldstein, H. and Whitehouse, R.H.: Standards for children’s height at ages 2-9 years allowing for height of the parents. Archives of Disease in Childhood 45: 755–762 (1970).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  142. Tesch, P.; Daniels, W.L. and Sharp, S.: Lactate accumulation in muscle and blood during submaximal exercise. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 114: 441–446 (1982).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  143. Tremblay, A.; Després, J.P. and Bouchard, C.: Adipose tissue characteristics of ex-obese long distance runners (Submitted for publication, 1984).

    Google Scholar 

  144. Vandenberg, S.G.: How stable are heritability estimates? A comparison of heritability estimates from six anthropometric studies. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 20: 331–338 (1962).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  145. Vandenberg, S.G. and Strandskov, H.H.: A comparison of identical and fraternal twins on some anthropometric measures. Human Biology 36: 45–52 (1964).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  146. Venerando, A. and Milani-Comparetti, M.: Heredity versus environment in biomechanics; in Cerquiglini, Venerando and Wartenweiler (Eds) Biomechanics III, pp. 151–155 (Karger, Basel 1973).

    Google Scholar 

  147. Vogel, F. and Wendt, G.G.: Zwillingsuntursuchung über die Erblichkeit Einiger Anthropologischer Masse und Konstitutionsindices. Zeitschrift Menschliche Vererbung und Konstitutionslehre 33: 425–446 (1956).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  148. Von Verschuer, O.: Wirksame Faktoren im Leben des Menschen (F. Steiner, Wiesbaden 1954).

    Google Scholar 

  149. Weber, G.; Kartodihardjo, W. and Klissouras, V.: Growth and physical training with reference to heredity. Journal of Applied Physiology 40: 211–215 (1976).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  150. Welon, Z. and Bielicki, T.: Further investigations of parent-child similarity in stature as assessed from longitudinal data. Human Biology 43: 517–525 (1971).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  151. Wilmore, J.H.; Brown, C.H. and Davis, J.A.: Body physique and composition of the female distance runner. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 301: 764–776 (1977).

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Dr Claude Bouchard.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Bouchard, C., Lortie, G. Heredity and Endurance Performance. Sports Medicine 1, 38–64 (1984). https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-198401010-00004

Download citation

Keywords

  • Genetic Effect
  • Endurance Performance
  • Endurance Training
  • Twin Pair
  • Aerobic Training