Skip to main content

Antidepressants and Sleep

A Qualitative Review of the Literature

Abstract

Most antidepressants change sleep; in particular, they alter the physiological patterns of sleep stages recorded overnight with EEG and other physiological measures. These effects are greatest and most consistent on rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and tend to be in the opposite direction to the sleep abnormalities found in major depression, but are usually of greater degree. Reductions in the amount of REM sleep and increases in REM sleep onset latency are seen after taking antidepressants, both in healthy volunteers and in depressed patients. Antidepressants that increase serotonin function by blocking reuptake or by inhibiting metabolism have the greatest effect on REM sleep. The decrease in amount of REM sleep appears to be greatest early in treatment, and gradually diminishes during long-term treatment, except after monoamine oxidase inhibitors when REM sleep is often absent for many months. Sleep initiation and maintenance are also affected by antidepressants, but the effects are much less consistent between drugs. Some antidepressants such as clomipramine and the selective serotonin receptor inhibitors (SSRIs), particularly fluoxetine, are sleep-disturbing early in treatment and some others such as amitriptyline and the newer serotonin 5-HT2-receptor antagonists are sleep promoting. However, these effects are fairly short-lived and there are very few significant differences between drugs after a few weeks of treatment. In general, the objectively measured sleep of depressed patients improves during 3–4 weeks of effective antidepressant treatment with most agents, as does their subjective impression of their sleep. Sleep improvement earlier in treatment may be an important clinical goal in some patients, perhaps when insomnia is particularly distressing, or to ensure compliance. In these patients, the choice of a safely used and effective antidepressant which improves sleep in short term is indicated. Patients with other sleep disorders such as restless legs syndrome and REM sleep behaviour disorder should be identified before choosing a treatment, as some antidepressants worsen these conditions. Conversely, there is evidence that some antidepressants may be useful in the treatment of sleep disorders such as night terrors.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Table I
Table II
Fig. 2
Table III
Table IV
Table V

References

  1. Thase ME. Antidepressant treatment of the depressed patient with insomnia. J Clin Psychiatry 1999; 60 Suppl. 17: 28–31

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Lauer CJ, Schreiber W, Holsboer F, et al. In quest of identifiying vulnerability markers for psychiatric disorders by all-night polysomnography. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1995; 52: 145–52

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Thase ME, Buysse DJ, Frank E, et al. Which depressed patients will respond to interpersonal psychotherapy? The role of abnormal EEG sleep profiles. Am J Psychiatry 1997; 154(4): 502–9

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Wilson SJ, Bailey JE, Alford C, et al. Effects of 5 weeks of administration of fluoxetine and dothiepin in normal volunteers on sleep, daytime sedation, psychomotor performance and mood. J Psychopharmacol 2002; 16(4): 321–31

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Wilson SJ, Bailey JE, Rich AS, et al. Using sleep to evaluate comparative serotonergic effects of paroxetine and citalopram. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2004; 14(5): 367–72

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Bell C, Wilson S, Rich A. Effects on sleep architecture of pindolol, paroxetine and their combination in healthy volunteers. Psychopharmacology Berl 2003; 166(2): 102–10

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Owens MJ, Morgan WN, Plott SJ, et al. Neurotransmitter receptor and transporter binding profile of antidepressants and their metabolites. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1997; 283(3): 1305–22

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E. Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1994; 114(4): 559–65

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Richelson E, Nelson A. Antagonism by antidepressants of neurotransmitter receptors of normal human brain in vitro. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1984; 230(1): 94–102

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, et al. Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol 1997; 340(2–3): 249–58

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Bolden-Watson C, Richelson E. Blockade by newly-developed antidepressants of biogenic amine uptake into rat brain synaptosomes. Life Sci 1993; 52(12): 1023–9

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Claassen V, Davies JE, Hertting G, et al. Fluvoxamine, a specific 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake inhibitor. Br J Pharmacol 1977: 60(4): 505–16

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Millan MJ, Gobert A, Lejeune F, et al. S33005, a novel ligand at both serotonin and norepinephrine transporters. I: receptor binding, electrophysiological, and neurochemical profile in comparison with venlafaxine, reboxetine, citalopram, and clomipramine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2001; 298(2): 565–80

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Millan MJ, Gobert A, Rivet JM, et al. Mirtazapine enhances frontocortical dopaminergic and corticolimbic adrenergic, but not serotonergic, transmission by blockade of alpha2-adrenergic and serotonin2C receptors: a comparison with citalopram. Eur J Neurosci 2000; 12(3): 1079–95

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Moore P, Gillin C, Bhatti T, et al. Rapid tryptophan depletion, sleep electroencephalogram, and mood in men with remitted depression on serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1998; 55(6): 534–9

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Landolt HP, Kelsoe JR, Rapaport MH, et al. Rapid tryptophan depletion reverses phenelzine-induced suppression of REM sleep. J Sleep Res 2003; 12(1): 13–8

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Saletu B, Frey R, Krupka M, et al. Sleep laboratory studies on the single-dose effects of serotonin reuptake inhibitors paroxetine and fluoxetine on human sleep and awakening qualities. Sleep 1991; 14(5): 439–47

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Vasar V, Appelberg B, Rimon R, et al. The effect of fluoxetine on sleep: a longitudinal double blind polysomnographic study of healthy volunteers. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 1994; 9: 203–6

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Feige B, Voderholzer U, Riemann D, et al. Fluoxetine and sleep EEG: effects of a single dose, subchronic treatment, and discontinuation in healthy subjects. Neuropsychopharmacology 2002; 26(2): 246–58

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Nicholson AN, Pascoe PA. Studies on the modulation of the sleep-wakefulness continuum in man by fluoxetine, a 5HT uptake inhibitor. Neuropharmacology 1988; 27: 597–602

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Winokur A, DeMartinisIII NA, McNally DP, et al. Comparative effects of mirtazapine and fluoxetine on sleep physiology measures in patients with major depression and insomnia. Clin Psychiatry 2003; 64(10): 1224–9

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Trivedi MH, Rush AJ, Armitage R, et al. Effects of fluoxetine on the polysomnogram in outpatients with major depression. Neuropsychopharmacology 1999; 20(5): 447–59

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Hendrickse WA, Roffwarg HP, Granneman BD, et al. The effects of fluoxetine on the polysomnogram of depressed outpatients: a pilot study. Neuropsychopharmacology 1994; 10: 85–91

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. Rush AJ, Armitage R, Gillin JC, et al. Comparative effects of nefazodone and fluoxetine on sleep in outpatients with major depressive disorder. Biol Psychiatry 1998; 44(1): 3–14

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Sharpley AL, Williamson DJ, Attenburrow ME, et al. The effects of paroxetine and nefazodone on sleep: a placebo controlled trial. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1996; 126(1): 50–4

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Oswald I, Adam K. Effects of paroxetine on human sleep. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1986; 22(1): 97–9

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. Schlosser R, Roschke J, Rossbach W, et al. Conventional and spectral power analysis of all-night sleep EEG after subchronic treatment with paroxetine in healthy male volunteers. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 1998; 8(4): 273–8

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Wilson SJ, Bailey JE, Alford C, et al. Sleep and daytime sleepiness the next day following single nighttime dose of fluvoxamine, dothiepin and placebo in normal volunteers. J Psychopharmacology 2000; 14: 378–86

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Hartmann E, Spinweber C. Fluvoxamine, a serotonin reuptake blocker: effects on sleep. J Sleep Res 1979; 8: 98

    Google Scholar 

  30. Jindal RD, Friedman ES, Berman SR, et al. Effects of sertraline on sleep architecture in patients with depression. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2003; 23(6): 540–8

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Hicks JA, Argyropoulos SV, Rich AS, et al. Randomised controlled study of sleep after nefazodone or paroxetine treatment in out-patients with depression. Br J Psychiatry 2002 Jun; 180: 528–35

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Kupfer DJ, Perel JM, Pollock BG, et al. Fluvoxamine versus desipramine: comparative polysomnographic effects. Biol Psychiatry 1991; 29: 33–40

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Wilson SJ, Bell C, Coupland N, et al. Sleep changes during long-term treatment of depression with fluvoxamine: a home based study. Psychopharmacology 2000; 149: 360–5

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. van Bemmel AL, van den Hoofdakker RH, Beersma DGM, et al. Changes in sleep polygraphic variables and clinical state in depressed patients during treatment with citalopram. Psychopharmacology 1993; 113: 225–30

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Staner L, Kerkhofs M, Detroux D, et al. Acute, subchronic and withdrawal sleep EEG changes during treatment with paroxetine and amitriptyline: a double-blind randomized trial in major depression. Sleep 1995; 18(6): 470–7

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. Salin-Pascual RJ, Galicia-Polo L, Drucker-Colin R. Sleep changes after 4 consecutive days of venlafaxine administration in normal volunteers. J Clin Psychiatry 1997 58(8): 348–50

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Luthringer R, Toussaint M, Schaltenbrand N, et al. A doubleblind, placebo-controlled evaluation of the effects of orally administered venlafaxine on sleep in inpatients with major depression. Psychopharmacol Bull 1996; 32(4): 637–46

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. Farina B, Delia Marca G, Mennuni G, et al. The effects of reboxetine on human sleep architecture in depression: preliminary results. J Affect Disord 2002; 71(1–3): 273–5

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Dunleavy DL, Brezinova V, Oswald I, et al. Changes during weeks in effects of tricyclic drugs on the human sleeping brain. Br J Psychiatry 1972; 120(559): 663–72

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Hochli D, Riemann D, Zulley J, et al. Is there a relationship between response to total sleep deprivation and efficacy of clomipramine treatment in depressed patients? Acta Psychiatr Scand 1986; 74(2): 190–2

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Jobert M, Jahnig P, Schulz H. Effect of two antidepressants on REM sleep and EMG activity during sleep. Neuropsychobiology 1999; 39(2): 101–9

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Shipley JE, Kupfer DJ, Griffin SJ, et al. Comparison of effects of desipramine and amitriptyline on EEG sleep of depressed patients. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1985; 85(1): 14–22

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Ware JC, Brown FW, Moorad Jr PJ, et al. Effects on sleep: a double-blind study comparing trimipramine to imipramine in depressed insomniac patients. Sleep 1989; 12(6): 537–49

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  44. Shain BN, Naylor M, Shipley JE, et al. Imipramine effects on sleep in depressed adolescents: a preliminary report. Biol Psychiatry 1990; 28(5): 459–62

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Mendlewicz J, Kempenaers C, de Maertelaer V. Sleep EEG and amitryptiline treatment in depressed inpatients. Biol Psychiatry 1991; 30(7): 691–702

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Gillin JC, Wyatt RJ, Fram D, et al. The relationship between changes in REM sleep and clinical improvement in depressed patients treated with amitriptyline. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1978; 59(3): 267–72

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Herdman JR, Cowen PJ, Campling GM, et al. Effect of lofepramine on 5-HT function and sleep. J Affect Disord 1993; 29(1): 63–72

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Nicholson AN, Pascoe PA, Turner C. Modulation of sleep by trimipramine in man. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1989; 37(2): 145–50

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Akindele MO, Evans JI, Oswald I. Mono-amine oxidase inhibitors, sleep and mood. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1970; 29(1): 47–56

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Wyatt RJ, Fram DH, Kupfer DJ, et al. Total prolonged drug-induced REM sleep suppression in anxious-depressed patients. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1971; 24(2): 145–55

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Landolt HP, Raimo EB, Schnierow BJ, et al. Sleep and sleep electroencephalogram in depressed patients treated with phenelzine. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2001; 58(3): 268–76

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Blois R, Gaillard JM. Effects of moclobemide on sleep in healthy human subjects. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl 1990; 360: 73–5

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Monti JM, Alterwain P, Monti D. The effects of moclobemide on nocturnal sleep of depressed patients. J Affect Disord 1990; 20(3): 201–8

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Steiger A, Benkert O, Holsboer F. Effects of long-term treatment with the MAO-A inhibitor moclobemide on sleep EEG and nocturnal hormonal secretion in normal men. Neuropsychobiology 1994; 30(2–3): 101–5

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Maeda Y, Hayashi T, Furuta H, et al. Effects of mianserin on human sleep. Neuropsychobiology 1990; 24(4): 198–204

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Nicholson AN, Pascoe PA, Stone BM. Modulation of catecholamine transmission and sleep in man. Neuropharmacology 1986; 25(3): 271–4

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Tormey WP, Buckley MP, O’Kelly DA, et al. Sleep-endocrine profile of the antidepressant mianserin. Curr Med Res Opin 1980; 6(7): 456–60

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Mendlewicz J, Dunbar GC, Hoffman G. Changes in sleep EEG architecture during the treatment of depressed patients with mianserin. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl 1985; 320: 26–9

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Asian S, Isik E, Cosar B. The effects of mirtazapine on sleep: a placebo controlled, double-blind study in young healthy volunteers. Sleep 2002; 25(6): 677–9

    Google Scholar 

  60. Ruigt GS, Kemp B, Groenhout CM, et al. Effect of the antidepressant Org 3770 on human sleep. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1990; 38(6): 551–4

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Schittecatte M, Dumont F, Machowski R, et al. Effects of mirtazapine on sleep polygraphic variables in major depression. Neuropsychobiology 2002; 46(4): 197–201

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Sharpley AL, Walsh AE, Cowen PJ. Nefazodone- a novel antidepressant-may increase REM sleep. Biol Psychiatry 1992; 31(10): 1070–3

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Ware JC, Rose FV, McBrayer RH. The acute effects of nefazodone, trazodone and buspirone on sleep and sleep-related penile tumescence in normal subjects. Sleep 1994; 17(6): 544–50

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  64. Vogel G, Cohen J, Mullis D, et al. Nefazodone and REM sleep: how do antidepressants decrease REM sleep? Sleep 1998; 21(1): 70–7

    Google Scholar 

  65. Ware JC, Pittard JT. Increased deep sleep after trazodone use: a double-blind placebo-controlled study in healthy young adults. J Clin Psychiatry 1990; 51 Suppl.: 18–22

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  66. Suzuki H, Yamadera H, Nakamura S, et al. Effects of trazodone and imipramine on the biological rhythm: an analysis of sleep EEG and body core temperature. J Nippon Med Sch 2002; 69(4): 333–41

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Yamadera H, Nakamura S, Suzuki H, et al. Effects of trazodone hydrochloride and imipramine on polysomnography in healthy subjects. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1998; 52(4): 439–43

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  68. van Bemmel AL, Havermans RG, van Diest R. Effects of trazodone on EEG sleep and clinical state in major depression. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1992; 107(4): 569–74

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Scharf MB, Sachais BA. Sleep laboratory evaluation of the effects and efficacy of trazodone in depressed insomniac patients. J Clin Psychiatry 1990; 51 Suppl.: 13–7

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  70. Mouret J, Lemoine P, Minuit MP, et al. Effects of trazodone on the sleep of depressed subjects: a polygraphic study. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1988; 95 Suppl.: S37–43

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. Saletu-Zyhlarz GM, Abu-Bakr MH, Anderer P, et al. Insomnia in depression: differences in objective and subjective sleep and awakening quality to normal controls and acute effects of trazodone. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2002; 26(2): 249–60

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Ott GE, Rao U, Lin KM, et al. Effect of treatment with bupropion on EEG sleep: relationship to antidepressant response. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. Epub 2004 Apr 26

  73. Ott GE, Rao U, Nuccio I, et al. Effect of bupropion-SR on REM sleep: relationship to antidepressant response. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2002; 165(1): 29–36

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Evans L, Golshan S, Kelsoe J, et al. Effects of rapid tryptophan depletion on sleep electroencephalogram and mood in subjects with partially remitted depression on bupropion. Neuropsychopharmacology 2002; 27(6): 1016–26

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Nofzinger EA, ReynoldsIII CF, Thase ME, et al. REM sleep enhancement by bupropion in depressed men. Am J Psychiatry 1995; 152(2): 274–6

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  76. Ferini-Strambi L, Manconi M, Castronovo V, et al. Effects of reboxetine on sleep and nocturnal cardiac autonomic activity in patients with dysthymia. J Psychopharmacol 2004; 18(3): 417–22

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  77. DeVane CL. Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Cell Moll Neurobiol 1999; 19(4): 443–66

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  78. Monaca C, Boutrel B, Hen R, et al. 5-HT 1A/1B receptor-mediated effects of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, citalopram, on sleep: studies in 5-HT 1A and 5-HT IB knockout mice. Neuropsychopharmacology 2003; 28(5): 850–6

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  79. Gillin JC, Jernajczyk W, Valladares-Neto DC, et al. Inhibition of REM sleep by ipsapirone, a 5HT1A agonist, in normal volunteers. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1994; 116(4): 433–6

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  80. Wilson SJ, Bailey JE, Rich AS. The use of sleep measures to compare a new 5HT1A agonist eptapirone with buspirone in humans. J Psychopharmacol. In Press

  81. Lawlor BA, Newhouse PA, Balkin TJ, et al. A preliminary study of the effects of nighttime administration of the serotonin agonist, m-CPP, on sleep architecture and behavior in healthy volunteers. Biol Psychiatry 1991; 29(3): 281–6

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  82. Riemann D, Voderholzer U, Cohrs S, et al. Trimipramine in primary insomnia: results of a polysomnographic double-blind controlled study. Pharmacopsychiatry 2002; 35: 165–74

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  83. Haas H, Panula P. The role of histamine and the tuberomamillary nucleus in the nervous system. Nat Rev Neurosci 2003; 4(2): 121–30

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  84. Sharpley AL, Vassallo CM, Cowen PJ. Olanzapine increases slow-wave sleep: evidence for blockade of central 5-HT(2C) receptors in vivo. Biol Psychiatry 2000; 47(5): 468–70

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  85. Urichuk LJ, Allison K, Holt A, et al. Comparison of neurochemical effects of the monoamine oxidase inhibitors phenelzine, moclobemide and brofaromine in the rat after short- and long-term administration. J Affect Disord 2000; 58(2): 135–44

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  86. de Boer T, Nefkens F, van Helvoirt A, et al. Differences in the modulation of noradrenergic and serotonergic transmission by the alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonists, mirtazapine, mianserin and idazoxan. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1996; 277: 852–60

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  87. Wilson SJ, Glue P, Nutt DJ. The effects of the α-2-adrenoceptor antagonist idazoxan on sleep in normal volunteers. J Psychopharmacol 1991; 5: 105–10

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  88. Haddjeri N, Blier P, de Montigny C. Noradrenergic modulation of central serotonergic neurotransmission: acute and long term actions of mirtazapine. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 1995; 10 Suppl. 4: 11–7

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  89. Chalon S, Pereira A, Lainey E, et al. Comparative effects of duloxetine and desipramine on sleep EEG in healthy subjects. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2005; 177(4): 357–65

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  90. Lemoine P, Faivre T. Subjective and polysomnographic effects of milnacipran on sleep in depressed patients. Hum Psychopharmacol 2004; 19(5): 299–303

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  91. Borbely AA. A two process model of sleep regulation. Hum Neurobiol 1982; 1(3): 195–204

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  92. Ehlers CL, Havstad JW, Kupfer DJ. Estimation of the time course of slow-wave sleep over the night in depressed patients: effects of clomipramine and clinical response. Biol Psychiatry 1996; 39(3): 171–81

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  93. Veitch W, Wilson SJ, Argyropoulos S, et al. Slow waves in sleep are altered by paroxetine and nefazodone in depressed patients [abstract]. J Psychopharm 2001; 15 (3 Suppl.): A18

    Article  Google Scholar 

  94. Sateia MJ, Doghramji K, Hauri PJ, et al. Evaluation of chronic insomnia: an American Academy of Sleep Medicine review. Sleep 2000; 23: 243–308

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  95. Parrott AC, Hindmarch I. Factor analysis of a sleep evaluation questionnaire. Psychol Med 1978; 8: 325–9

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  96. Parrott AC, Hindmarch I. The Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire in psychopharmacological investigations: a review. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1980; 71: 173–9

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  97. Zisapel N, Laudon M. Subjective assessment of the effects of CNS-active drugs on sleep by the Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire: a review. Hum Psychopharmacol 2003; 18: 1–20

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  98. Ware JC. Tricyclic antidepressants in the treatment of insomnia. J Clin Psychiatry 1983; 44: 25–8

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  99. Akerstedt T. Do subjective sleep reports describe objective sleep? Insom 2003; 1: 11–6

    Google Scholar 

  100. Argyropoulos SV, Hicks JA, Nash JR, et al. Correlation of subjective and objective sleep measurements at different stages of the treatment of depression. Psychiatry Res 2003; 120: 179–90

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  101. Mayers AG, van Hooff JC, Baldwin DS. Quantifying subjective assessment of sleep and life-quality in antidepressant-treated depressed patients. Hum Psychopharmacol 2003 18: 21–27

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  102. Oberndorfer S, Saletu-Zyhlarz G, Saletu B. Effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on objective and subjective sleep quality. Neuropsychobiology 2000; 42: 69–81

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  103. Hutchinson DR, Tong S, Moon CA, et al. Paroxetine in the treatment of elderly depressed patients in general practice: a double-blind comparison with amitriptyline. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 1992; 6 Suppl. 4: 43–51

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  104. Dorman T. Sleep and paroxetine: a comparison with mianserin in elderly depressed patients. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 1992; 6 Suppl. 4: 53–8

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  105. Satterlee WG, Faries D. The effects of fluoxetine on symptoms of insomnia in depressed patients. Psychopharmacol Bull 1995; 31: 227–37

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  106. Dossenbach M, Martenyi FS, De Verga E. Sleep quality during fluoxetine therapy in depression. Biol Psychiatry 1997; 42: S243

    Article  Google Scholar 

  107. Stephenson DA, Harris B, Davies RH, et al. The impact of antidepressants on sleep and anxiety: a comparative study of fluoxetine and dothiepin using the Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire. Hum Psychopharmacol 2000; 15: 529–34

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  108. Rosenberg C, Damsbo N, Fuglum E, et al. Citalopram and imipramine in the treatment of depressive patients in general practice: a Nordic multicentre clinical study. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 1994; 9 Suppl. 1: 41–8

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  109. Bech P, Cialdella P. Citalopram in depression: meta-analysis of intended and unintended effects. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 1992; 6 Suppl. 5: 45–54

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  110. Aguglia E, Casacchia M, Cassano GB, et al. Double-blind study of the efficacy and safety of sertraline versus fluoxetine in major depression. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 1993; 8: 197–202

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  111. Bennie EH, Mullin JM, Martindale JJ. A double-blind multicenter trial comparing sertraline and fluoxetine in outpatients with major depression. J Clin Psychiatry 1995; 56: 229–37

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  112. Sechter D, Troy S, Paternetti S, et al. A double-blind comparison of sertraline and fluoxetine in the treatment of major depressive episode in outpatients. Eur Psychiatry 1999; 14: 41–8

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  113. Sogaard J, Lane R, Latimer P, et al. A 12-week study comparing moclobemide and sertraline in the treatment of outpatients with atypical depression. J Psychopharmacol 1999; 13: 406–14

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  114. Nierenberg AA, Adler LA, Peselow E, et al. Trazodone for antidepressant-associated insomnia. Am J Psychiatry 1994; 151: 1069–72

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  115. Blacker R, Shanks NJ, Chapman N, et al. The drug treatment of depression in general practice: a comparison of nocte administration of trazodone with mianserin, dothiepin and amitriptyline. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1988; 95 Suppl.: S18–24

    Google Scholar 

  116. Moon CA, Davey A. The efficacy and residual effects of trazodone (150mg nocte) and mianserin in the treatment of depressed general practice patients. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1988; 95 Suppl.: S7–13

    Article  Google Scholar 

  117. Guelfi JD, Ansseau M, Timmerman L, et al. Mirtazapine versus venlafaxine in hospitalized severely depressed patients with melancholic features. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2001; 21: 425–31

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  118. Baldwin DS, Hawley CJ, Abed RT, et al. A multicenter double-blind comparison of nefazodone and paroxetine in the treatment of outpatients with moderate-to-severe depression. J Clin Psychiatry 1996; 57 Suppl. 2: 46–52

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  119. Manber R, Rush AJ, Thase ME, et al. The effects of psychotherapy, nefazodone, and their combination on subjective assessment of disturbed sleep in chronic depression. Sleep 2003; 26: 130–6

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  120. Buysse DJ, ReynoldsIII CF, Monk TH, et al. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index: a new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatry Res 1989; 28: 193–213

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  121. Nowell PD, ReynoldsIII CF, Buysse DJ, et al. Paroxetine in the treatment of primary insomnia: preliminary clinical and electroencephalogram sleep data. J Clin Psychiatry 1999; 60: 89–95

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  122. Rush CR, Baker RW, Wright K. Acute behavioral effects and abuse potential of trazodone, zolpidem and triazolam in humans. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1999; 144: 220–33

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  123. Walsh JK, Erman M, Erwin CW, et al. Subjective hypnotic efficacy of trazodone and zolpidem in DSM-III-R primary insomnia. Hum Psychopharmacol 1998; 13: 191–8

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  124. Hajak G, Rodenbeck A, Voderholzer U, et al. Doxepin in the treatment of primary insomnia: a placebo-controlled, double-blind, polysomnographic study. J Clin Psychiatry 2001; 62: 453–63

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  125. Ohayon MM, Roth T. Prevalence of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder in the general population. J Psychosom Res 2002; 53(1): 547–54

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  126. Nofzinger EA, Fasiczka A, Berman S, et al. Bupropion SR reduces periodic limb movements associated with arousals from sleep in depressed patients with periodic limb movement disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 2000; 61(11): 858–62

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  127. Cadilhac J. Tricyclics and REM sleep. In: Guilleminault C, Dement WC, Passouant P, editors. Narcolepsy. New York: Spectrum Publication, 1976: 605–23

    Google Scholar 

  128. Guilleminault C, Raynal D, Takahashi S, et al. Evaluation of short-term and long-term treatment of the narcolepsy syndrome with clomipramine hydrochloride. Acta Neurol Scand 1976; 54: 71–87

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  129. Schenck CH, Mahowald MW, Kim SW, et al. Prominent eye movements during NREM sleep and REM sleep behavior disorder associated with fluoxetine treatment of depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Sleep 1992; 15(3): 226–35

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  130. Ellison JM, Stanziani P. SSRI-associated nocturnal bruxism in four patients. J Clin Psychiatry 1993; 54(11): 432–4

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  131. Wise M. Citalopram-induced bruxism [letter]. Br J Psychiatry 2001; 178: 182

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  132. Onofrj M, Luciano AL, Thomas A, et al. Mirtazapine induces REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) in parkinsonism. Neurology 2003; 60(1): 113–5

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  133. Winkelman JW, James L. Serotonergic antidepressants are associated with REM sleep without atonia. Sleep 2004; 27(2): 317–21

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  134. Pagel JF, Helfter P. Drug induced nightmares: an etiology based review. Hum Psychopharmacol 2003; 18(1): 59–67

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  135. Lepkifker E, Dannon PN, Iancu I, et al. Nightmares related to fluoxetine treatment. Clin Neuropharmacol 1995; 18: 90–4

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  136. Markowitz JC. Fluoxetine and dreaming. J Clin Psychiatry 1991; 52(10): 432

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  137. Koponen H, Lepola U, Leiononen E, et al. Citalopram in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: an open pilot study. Acta Psychiat Scand 1997; 96: 343–6

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  138. Kirschner NT. Medication and dreams: changes in dream content after drug treatment. Dreaming 1999; 9: 195–200

    Article  Google Scholar 

  139. Pace-Schott EF, Gersh T, Silvestri R, et al. SSRI treatment suppresses dream recall frequency but increases subjective dream intensity in normal subjects. J Sleep Res 2001; 10(2): 129–42

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  140. Dilsaver SC, Greden JF. Antidepressant withdrawal phenomena. Biol Psychiatry 1984; 19(2): 237–56

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  141. Goldenberg D, Mayskiy M, Mossey C, et al. A randomized, double-blind crossover trial of fluoxetine and amitriptyline in the treatment of fibromyalgia. Arthritis Rheum 1996; 39(11): 1852–9

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  142. Vercoulen JH, Swanink CM, Zitman FG, et al. Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of fluoxetine in chronic fatigue syndrome. Lancet 1996; 347(9005): 858–61

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  143. Wilson SJ, Lillywhite AR, Potokar JP, et al. Adult night terrors and paroxetine. Lancet 1997; 350(9072): 185

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  144. Bengtson H, Broman J-E, Hetta J. The effect of paroxetine on sleepwalking in 8 adults [abstract]. Sleep Res Online 1999; 2 Suppl. 1: 131

    Google Scholar 

  145. Smith IE, Quinnell TG. Pharmacotherapies for obstructive sleep apnoea: where are we now? Drugs 2004; 64(13): 1385–99

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  146. Kopelman PG, Elliott MW, Simonds A, et al. Short-term use of fluoxetine in asymptomatic obese subjects with sleep-related hypoventilation. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1992; 16(10): 825–30

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  147. Kraiczi H, Hedner J, Dahlof P, et al. Effect of serotonin uptake inhibition on breathing during sleep and daytime symptoms in obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep 1999; 22(1): 61–7

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  148. Hanzel DA, Proia NG, Hudgel DW. Response of obstructive sleep apnea to fluoxetine and protriptyline. Chest 1991; 100(2): 416–21

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  149. Evans JH. Evidence based management of nocturnal enuresis. BMJ 2001; 323(7322): 1167–9

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  150. Radhakishun FS, van den Bos J, van der Heijden BC, et al. Mirtazapine effects on alertness and sleep in patients as recorded by interactive telecommunication during treatment with different dosing regimens. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2000; 20(5): 531–7

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  151. Thase ME, Fasiczka AL, Berman SR, et al. Electroencephalographic sleep profiles before and after cognitive behavior therapy of depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1998; 55(2): 138-44

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

No sources of funding were used to assist in the preparation of this review. The authors have no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this review.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Sue Wilson.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Wilson, S., Argyropoulos, S. Antidepressants and Sleep. CNS Drugs 65, 927–947 (2005). https://doi.org/10.2165/00003495-200565070-00003

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.2165/00003495-200565070-00003

Keywords

  • Mirtazapine
  • Trazodone
  • Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index
  • Nefazodone
  • Subjective Sleep