, Volume 57, Issue 6, pp 967–989 | Cite as


A Review of its Use in Erectile Dysfunction
  • Heather D. Langtry
  • Anthony MarkhamEmail author
Adis Drug Evaluation


Sildenafil is an oral therapy for erectile dysfunction of a broad range of causes. By selectively inhibiting phosphodiesterase type 5, it allows corpus cavernosum smooth muscle to relax, potentiating erections during sexual stimulation. Blood pressure is reduced transiently by sildenafil, but more marked hypotension may occur during concurrent administration of sildenafil and organic nitrates; this combination is contraindicated.

Sildenafil is rapidly absorbed, with dose-proportional peak plasma concentrations within 1 hour of administration. The elimination half-life is 3 to 5 hours. Dosages usually begin at 50mg taken when needed ≈1 hour before sexual activity no more than once daily. The maximum dose is 100mg when needed once daily and lower doses (e.g. 25mg) may be used in elderly patients and those with hepatic or renal impairment or receiving cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as ritonavir, saquinavir, ketoconazole, erythromycin or cimetidine.

More than 3000 patients with erectile dysfunction of organic (e.g. diabetes or spinal cord injury), psychogenic or mixed origin received sildenafil 5 to 100mg or placebo in fixed- or titrated-dose trials. Sildenafil was associated with dose-related improvements in the frequency, hardness and duration of erections and in patients’ abilities to achieve and maintain erections adequate for successful sexual intercourse. In titrated-dose trials, the most commonly effective doses were 50 or 100mg, although lower doses were effective in some patients. Sildenafil was significantly more effective than placebo in erectile dysfunction of all tested causes.

The efficacy of sildenafil was not affected by patient age (> or ≤65 years) or by antihypertensive or antidepressant medications. The drug was effective in patients with severe erectile dysfunction. Efficacy was maintained in long term (1-year) studies. Sildenafil also appears to improve the quality of life of both patients and their sexual partners.

Common adverse events associated with sildenafil were transient and mild or moderate and included headache, flushing, dyspepsia, nasal congestion and abnormal vision. Tolerability was maintained in long term (≤1 year) studies. No serious sildenafil-related adverse events occurred in clinical trials; cardiovascular events seen in postmarketing surveillance generally occurred in patients with other known risk factors.

Conclusions: Sildenafil is an effective oral treatment in men with erectile dysfunction. It was significantly superior to placebo in improving erections and allowing successful penetrative sexual intercourse. Although its place in disease management is still emerging and there are contraindications to its use, if preliminary positive reports are confirmed, sildenafil will be the pre-eminent first-line therapy for erectile dysfunction.

Background to the Evaluation of Sildenafil

Erectile dysfunction is the inability of a male to achieve and maintain an erect penis as a part of overall male sexual function. The most common organic causes of erectile dysfunction are vascular, neurological and pharmacological. The incidence of erectile dysfunction generally increases with advancing age.

The pharmacological effects of agents such as sildenafil can be measured objectively, but because of the personal and interpersonal nature of erectile function, clinical assessment of the drug must rely on subjective reports from patients. Objective pharmacodynamic measurement of the response of erectile function to sildenafil in humans is primarily performed by determining penile rigidity in response to visual sexual stimulation. Clinical assessments are made using a detailed sexual questionnaire surveying patients on general issues such as whether they thought their erections had improved, supplemented by diary data and partner surveys.

Pharmacological Properties

Sildenafil promotes erections in response to sexual stimulation by inducing smooth muscle relaxation in the corpus cavernosum through selective inhibition of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5). By reducing the inactivation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) rather than promoting its production, sildenafil promotes penile erection only in response to sexual stimulation, but has no effects in the absence of sexual stimulation. Indeed, the effects of sildenafil on cGMP were enhanced by sodium nitroprusside in rabbit corpus cavernosum in vitro, indicating that sildenafil augments nitric oxide-mediated activity in this tissue. The activity of sildenafil is highly selective, being 80- to >8500-fold greater against human PDE5 than against several other human PDEs and 7.7- to 16.6-fold greater against human PDE5 than PDE6.

In well controlled studies in patients with erectile dysfunction of a variety of causes, single doses of sildenafil enabled more men to achieve an erection than placebo, and erections were maintained for longer with sildenafil than placebo. More patients achieved >60% rigidity of the base of the penis, and this rigidity lasted for longer, with sildenafil than placebo. Single doses of sildenafil appear to produce dose-related rigidity at the base and tip of the penis in response to visual sexual stimulation. Daily sildenafil improved erections in more patients than placebo and was associated with an increased rate of erections (6.1 vs 1.3 erections in 7 days, p = 0.005).

Blood pressure was transiently reduced by sildenafil 100mg, and larger blood pressure reductions may occur when sildenafil is given with nitrates; the ECG, however, did not change. Dose-related effects of sildenafil on retinal PDE6 may cause the impairment of colour (blue/green) discrimination seen with sildenafil, but the drug had no major effects on vision in healthy volunteers. Sildenafil alone or with aspirin has no effects on bleeding time, but sodium nitroprusside-induced inhibition of platelet aggregation was increased in vitro by sildenafil.

Oral sildenafil is rapidly absorbed, with peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) occurring within 1 hour. Absolute bioavailability was 41%. Food slows absorption but does not affect the area under the plasma sildenafil concentration-time curve (AUC). AUC and Cmax were dose-proportional over single sildenafil doses from 1.25 to 200mg. The steady-state volume of distribution was 105L, indicating wide distribution. Plasma protein binding was ≈96%. The elimination half-life was 3 to 5 hours. ≈80% of a dose was found in the faeces and ≈13% in the urine as metabolites; <2% was excreted unchanged. N-demethylation by CYP3A4 is the major route of metabolism. Clearance of sildenafil is reduced in healthy elderly patients, patients with renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance <1.8 L/h or <30 ml/min) and those with hepatic cirrhosis.

Clinical Efficacy

The clinical effects of sildenafil have been studied in patients with erectile dysfunction of a broad range of causes (organic, psychological or mixed origin), including those with clear organic causes such as spinal cord injury or diabetes. Three major end-points of clinical trials were whether treatment improved erections or affected the patient’s ability to achieve penetration or maintain an erection after penetration. All trials were well designed, with suitable controls for bias (e.g. randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind), and most enrolled large numbers of patients or used crossover design. Fixed-dose and dose-titration studies were performed, testing doses from 5 to 100mg. In all studies, sildenafil was administered when needed no more than once a day ≈1 hour before sexual activity. In all trials, the ability of sildenafil to improve erections was superior to that of placebo and exhibited a dose-response effect.

In patients with broad spectrum erectile dysfunction, 2 major trials found sildenafil to be effective in improving erectile function and enabling successful sexual intercourse. Patients were more likely to require sildenafil doses of 50 or 100mg for efficacy. Patients receiving sildenafil were more likely to have erections adequate for sexual intercourse and to be able to maintain their erections for longer periods than those receiving placebo in both fixed- and titrated-dose studies. Erectile function, orgasmic function, intercourse satisfaction and overall satisfaction with treatment improved with sildenafil to a greater extent than with placebo (p < 0.001). Mean scores for sexual desire were unaffected by therapy. The number of successful attempts at sexual intercourse also increased in the final weeks of treatment with sildenafil relative to placebo (5.9 over 4 weeks vs 1.5 attempts with placebo, p < 0.001) and 69% of attempts at sexual intercourse were successful in sildenafil recipients (vs 22% with placebo, p < 0.001). A 200mg sildenafil dose did not provide additional efficacy over that seen with a 100mg dose, but tended to produce more adverse events.

Early trials of sildenafil in patients with erectile dysfunction of no known organic cause found 3-fold more frequent erections and more patients reporting improvements in erections with sildenafil (65 to 93%) than placebo (20 and 27%). Dose-response effects of sildenafil 10, 25 and 50mg were reported on hardness, frequency and duration of erections and frequency of sexual intercourse in 1 trial, but the drug did not alter the number of attempts at intercourse. After a single dose of sildenafil 50mg, 86% of patients subsequently randomised to placebo reported their erections were ‘worse’ during placebo than they had been during sildenafil treatment; patients also reported more frequent erections in the sildenafil than placebo groups. 87% of sildenafil recipients had doses titrated to 50 or 100mg.

Significant improvements in ability to achieve and maintain erections were seen in diabetic patients receiving sildenafil 25 to 100mg compared with placebo in a 12-week dose-titration study in 268 patients. At the end of the study, 93% of sildenafil recipients required 100mg doses for efficacy. Data from subgroup analysis of 692 patients with diabetes in both dose-titration and fixed-dose therapeutic trials lasting 6 to 26 weeks showed similar improvements in erections and the ability to achieve and maintain erections.

Whether or not patients had residual erectile function, sildenafil was significantly more effective than placebo for erectile dysfunction caused by spinal cord injuries, with improvements in erections seen in 64% of sildenafil recipients with no residual erectile function and 75 and 78% of those with erectile function. Subgroup analysis from the major clinical trials suggests that men with severe erectile dysfunction respond better to sildenafil than to placebo and that sildenafil is similarly effective in broader patient populations and in patients undergoing antihypertensive therapy, aged ≥65 years or those experiencing depression. Trials in small numbers of patients with heart transplants or receiving maintenance haemodialysis for end-stage renal disease suggest that sildenafil can be effective, although effects of the drug were prolonged in the dialysis patients. The efficacy of sildenafil appears to be maintained after long term treatment.

There are reports of significant positive effects of sildenafil on patients’ quality of life and on female partners’ satisfaction and perceptions of treatment. Significant improvements (p < 0.05) were seen on 7 of 11 quality of life end-points after 12 weeks ’ treatment with sildenafil compared with placebo in a pooled population of 940 patients with broad spectrum erectile dysfunction. In a dose-titration study, partner ratings significantly favouring sildenafil were reported. Female partners of patients with spinal cord injury reported greater personal satisfaction with sexual intercourse and improvements in their partners’ erections after the 178 patients received sildenafil than after placebo.

Tolerability and Drug Interactions

Sildenafil was very well tolerated in clinical trials, with the most commonly reported adverse events being headache, flushing, dyspepsia and nasal congestion. Adverse events were generally transient and mild to moderate and occurred in similar proportions of patients receiving sildenafil and placebo. The incidence of commonly reported adverse events or discontinuations from therapy was dose-related. Vision changes were mild and transient, and included a colour tinge to vision, increased sensitivity to light or blurred vision. In clinical trials, the tolerability of sildenafil in patients receiving antihypertensive medications was similar to that seen in general study populations. There are isolated reports of painful, prolonged erections. In long term studies, sildenafil was well tolerated and headache (10%), flushing (9%), dyspepsia (6%) and respiratory tract infection (6%) were the most common adverse events. Abnormal vision occurred in 2% of patients and no long term vision problems were noted. Good tolerability and low withdrawal rates were seen during 2 years’ treatment.

In clinical trials, no serious adverse events were judged to be related to sildenafil therapy. The incidence of serious cardiovascular events in patients receiving sildenafil was similar to that in patients receiving placebo. After >6 million sildenafil prescriptions were dispensed, most of the 130 deaths associated with sildenafil appear to have occurred in patients with known risk factors or contraindications to the use of the drug (e.g. known or suspected myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest, cardiac symptoms, coronary artery disease, concomitant nitrate use). Symptoms leading to death occurred most often within 4 to 5 hours after administration. 70% of patients had risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

The interaction between sildenafil and organic nitrates contraindicates the concomitant use of these drugs. The potential exists for interactions between sildenafil and inhibitors or inducers of CYP3A4 and CYP2C9; however, only CYP3A4-related interactions have been documented (e.g. with erythromycin, ritonavir, saquinavir, ketoconazole, itraconazole or cimetidine). Rifampicin (rifampin), a CYP3A4 inducer, is expected to decrease sildenafil plasma concentrations. Sildenafil does not appear to interact with magnesium hydroxide/aluminium hydroxide antacids, thiazide diuretics, ACE inhibitors, calcium antagonists, alcohol, amlodipine, the CYP2C9 inhibitors tolbutamide and warfarin or CYP2D6 inhibitors such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressants.

Dosage and Administration

Sildenafil is indicated as an oral therapy for male patients with erectile dysfunction. In the US, sildenafil is contraindicated in patients taking organic nitrates or nitric oxide donors and in those for whom sexual activity carries a major cardiovascular risk; it should be used with caution in patients with recent heart attack, stroke, life-threatening arrhythmia, significant hypo- or hypertension, unstable angina, heart disease that could be affected by reductions in blood pressure, or retinitis pigmentosa. In Europe, contraindications to the use of sildenafil include the use of nitrates or nitric oxide donors and patients in whom sexual activity is not advised (e.g. patients with severe cardiac illness such as unstable angina or severe heart failure), those with hypotension, severe hepatic impairment, retinitis pigmentosa, or a recent history of stroke or myocardial infarction.

The usual dosage of sildenafil is a single 50mg dose taken when needed ≈1 hour before sexual activity, but the drug may be taken from 0.5 to 4 hours before sexual activity. No more than 1 dose should be taken in any given day. Depending on effectiveness and tolerability, single doses may be increased to a maximum of 100mg or reduced to 25mg.

A lower (25mg) initial dose may be considered in patients aged >65 years, or those with hepatic impairment or moderate to severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance <1.8 L/h or <30 ml/min), or those receiving concomitant CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g. ritonavir, saquinavir, erythromycin, ketoconazole, itraconazole).


Adis International Limited Erectile Dysfunction Erectile Function Corpus Cavernosum Organic Nitrate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    NIH Consensus Development Panel on Impotence. Impotence. JAMA 1993 Jul 7; 270: 83–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Godschalk MF, Sison A, Mulligan T. Diagnosis and therapy of erectile dysfunction. Drugs Today 1997 Sep; 33: 475–83Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Guay AT. Treatment of erectile dysfunction in men with diabetes. Diabetes Spectrum 1998; 11(2): 101–11Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Feldman HA, Goldstein I, Hatzichristou DG, et al. Impotence and its medical and psychosocial correlates: results of the Massachusetts male aging study. J Urol 1994 Jan; 151: 54–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jeremy JY, Ballard SA, Naylor SA, et al. Effects of sildenafil, a type-5 cGMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor, and papaverine on cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP levels in the rabbit corpus cavernosum in vitro. Br J Urol 1997 Jun; 79(6): 958–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Carter AJ, Ballard SA, Naylor AM. Effect of the selective phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor sildenafil on erectile function in the anesthetized dog. J Urol 1998 Jul; 160: 242–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nachtshein D. Sildenafil: a milestone in the treatment of impotence. West J Med 1998; 169(2): 112–3Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    O’Keefe M, Hunt DK. Assessment and treatment of impotence. Med Clin North Am 1995 Mar; 79: 415–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rosen RC, Riley A, Wagner G, et al. The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF): a multidimensional scale for assessment of erectile dysfunction. Urology 1997; 49(6): 822–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Boolell M, Allen MJ, Ballard SA, et al. Sildenafil: an orally active type 5 cyclic GMP-specific phosphodiesterase inhibitor for the treatment of penile erectile dysfunction. Int J Impot Res 1996 Jun; 8(2): 47–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ballard SA, Gingell CJ, Tang K, et al. Effects of sildenafil on the relaxation of human corpus cavernosum tissue in vitro and on the activities of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase isozymes. J Urol 1998 Jun; 159: 2164–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wallis RM, Casey J, Howe L, et al. Characterisation of retinal phosphodiesterase (PDE) isozymes and the effects of sildenafil in vitro [abstract]. European Association for Vision and Eye Research. 7–10 Oct, 1998. Palma de Mallorca, Spain.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Boolell M, Gepi-Attee S, Gingell JC, et al. Sildenafil, a novel effective oral therapy for male erectile dysfunction. Br J Urol 1996 Aug; 78: 257–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Eardley I, Brook J, Yates PK, et al. Sildenafil (Viagra), a novel oral treatment with rapid onset of action for penile erectile dysfunction [abstract]. Br JUrol 1997 Jun; 79 Suppl. 4: 66Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Price DE, Gingell JC, Gepi-Attee S, et al. Sildenafil: study of a novel oral treatment for erectile dysfunction in diabetic men. Diabetic Med 1998; 15: 821–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Maytom M, Orr M, Osterloh I, et al. Sildenafil (Viagra™) — an oral treatment for men with erectile dysfunction caused by traumatic spinal cord injury: a two-stage, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to assess the efficacy and safety of sildenafil [abstract]. Br J Urol 1997 Sep; 80 Suppl. 2: 94Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Glass C, Derry F, Dinsmore WW, et al. Sildenafil (VIAGRA™): an oral treatment for men with erectile dysfunction caused by traumatic spinal cord injury — a double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose, two-way crossover study using RigiScan [abstract]. J Spinal Cord Med 1997; 20(1): 145Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Anonymous. Viagra (sildenafil citrate) package insert. Pfizer Labs, USA.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Webb D, Boolell M, Muirhead G. Cardiovascular effects of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibition with concomitant nitrate therapy [abstract no. 3348].Circulation 1998 Oct 27; 98 (Suppl.): 1637Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Vobig MA, Klotz T, Staak T, et al. Retinal side-effects of sildenafil [letter]. Lancet 1999 Jan 30; 353: 375PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zrenner E. No cause for alarm over retinal side-effects of sildenafil. Lancet 1999 Jan 30; 353: 340–1PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Muirhead GJ, Allen MJ, James GC, et al. Pharmacokinetics of sildenafil (VIAGRA™), a selective cGMP PDE5 inhibitor, after single oral doses in fasted and fed healthy volunteers [abstract]. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1996 Aug; 42: 268PGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rance DJ, Atkinson FM, James GC, et al. The pharmacokinetics of sildenafil after single intravenous and oral doses to mouse, rat and dog [abstract]. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1996 Aug; 42: 267P-8PGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pfizer Inc. Data on file. New York, NY, USGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Olsson AM, Abramsson L, Grenabo L, et al. Peroral treatment of erectile dysfunction with Sildenafil (Viagra™) (UK-92,480): a double-blind, placebo-controlled, international multicentre study [abstract no. 6]. Scand J Urol Nephrol 1996; 30(181): 9Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dinsmore WW, Gingell CJ, Jardin A, et al. Sildenafil (Viagra™), a new oral treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED), a double blind, placebo controlled, parallel group, once daily dose response study [abstract no. D100]. Int J Impot Res 1996; 8(3): 147Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Derry FA, Dinsmore WW, Fraser M, et al. Efficacy and safety of oral sildenafil (Viagra) in men with erectile dysfunction caused by spinal cord injury. Neurology 1998 Dec;51: 1629–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Goldstein I, Lue TF, Padma-Nathan H, et al. Oral sildenafil in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. N Engl JMed 1998 May 14; 338: 1397–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lue TF, Sildenafil Study Group. A study of sildenafil (Viagra™), a new oral agent for the treatment of male erectile dysfunction [abstract]. J Urol 1997 Apr; 157 Suppl.: 181Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Morales A, Heathcote P. Oral sildenafil (Viagra™) in the treatment of erectile dysfunction: efficacy of 50-mg, 100-mg, and 200-mg doses [abstract no. 300]. Int J Impot Res 1998; 10(3): S40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Montorsi F, McDermott ED, Morgan R, et al. Efficacy and safety of fixed-dose oral sildenafil (in the treatment of erectile dysfunction of various etiologies. Urology. In pressGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Christiansen E, Hodges M, Hollingshead M, et al. Sildenafil (Viagra™) a new oral treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED): Results of a 16 week open dose escalation study [abstract no. D99]. Int J Impot Res 1996; 8(3): 147Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dean J, Hodges M, Osterloh I, et al. Sildenafil (Viagra), a new oral treatment for erectile dysfunction: results of a 16-week open study [abstract]. Br J Urol 1997 Jun; 79 Suppl. 4: 56Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bailey M, Hodges M, Osterloh I, et al. Sildenafil (Viagra™), a new oral treatment for erectile dysfunction: results of an 8-week double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group study [abstract]. Br J Urol 1997 Jun; 79 Suppl. 4: 19Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Virag R, Hodges M, Hollingshead M, et al. Sildenafil (Viagra™) a new oral treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED): an 8 week double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group study [abstract no. A70]. Int J Impot Res 1996; 8(3): 116Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Cuzin B, Emrich HM, Meuleman EJH, et al. Sildenafil (Viagra™): a 6-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled, flexible dose-escalation study in patients with erectile dysfunction [abstract no. 152]. European Society for Impotence Research 1997. Madrid, Spain.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Padma-Nathan N, Steers WD, Wicker PA, et al. Efficacy and safety of oral sildenafil in the treatment of erectile dysfunction: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 329 patients. Int J Clin Pract 1998; 52(6): 375–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Eardley I, Morgan RJ, Dinsmore WW, et al. UK-92,480, a new oral therapy for erectile dysfunction, a double-blind, placebo controlled trial with treatment taken as required [abstract]. J Urol 1996 May; 155 Suppl.: 495ACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Dinsmore WW, Hodges M, Hargreaves C, et al. Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) in erectile dysfunction: near normalization in men with broad-spectrum erectile dysfunction compared with age-matched healthy control subjects. Urology 1999; 53: 800–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Holmgren E, Giuliano F, Hurtling C, et al. Sildenafil (VIAGRA™1) in the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) caused by spinal cord injury (SCI): a double-blind, placebo-controlled, flexible-dose, two-way crossover study [abstract no. P02.133]. Neurology 1998 Apr; 50 Suppl. 4: A127Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Rendell MS, Rajfer J, Wicker PA, et al. Sildenafil for treatment of erectile dysfunction in men with diabetes: a randomised controlled trial. JAMA 1999 Feb 3; 281(5): 421–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Steers WD, Sildenafil Study Group. Meta-analysis of the efficacy of sildenafil (Viagra™) in the treatment of severe erectile dysfunction [abstract]. J Urol 1998 May; 159 Suppl.: 238Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Rendell MS, Moreno F. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, flexible dose-escalation study assessing the efficacy and safety of sildenafil (VIAGRA®) in men with erectile dysfunction and diabetes [abstract]. Diabetes 1998 May; 47 Suppl. 1: A9Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Price DE, Sildenafil Study Group. Sildenafil in the treatment of erectile dysfunction in diabetic men [abstract no. A14]. Diabetic Med 1998; 15 Suppl. 2: S6Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Feldman R, Sildenafil SG. Sildenafil in the treatment of erectile dysfunction: efficacy in patients taking concomitant antihy-pertensive therapy [abstract]. Am J Hypertens 1998 Apr; 11: Pt 2, 10Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Wagner G, Maytom M, Smith MD. Analysis of the efficacy of sildenafil (Viagra™) in the treatment of male erectile dysfunction in the elderly [abstract]. J Urol 1998 May; 159 Suppl.: 239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hargreave TB, Sildenafil Study Group. Efficacy of sildenafil in the treatment of erectile dysfunction in patients with depression [abstract]. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 1998 Jul; 1 Suppl.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Chait J, Kobashigawa J, Chuang J, et al. Efficacy and safety of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) in male heart transplant patients [abstract no. 95]. J Heart Lung Transplant 1999 Jan: 58Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Paul HR, McLeish D, Rao TKS, et al. Initial experience with sildenafil for erectile dysfunction in maintenance hemodialysis [abstract]. 31st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Nephrology. Philadelphia, USA. 25–28 Oct 1998.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Gingell CJ, Guirguis WR, Buvat J, et al. Sildenafil (Viagra™), an oral treatment for erectile dysfunction; 1-year, open-label extension studies [abstract]. Br J Urol 1998 Jun; 81 Suppl. 4: 7Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Buvat J, Gingell CJ, Jardin A, et al. Sildenafil (Viagra™), an oral treatment for erectile dysfunction: a 1-year, open-label, extension study [abstract]. J Urol 1997 Apr; 157 Suppl.: 204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Quirk F, Giuliano F, Peria B, et al. Effect of sildenafil (Viagra™) on qualify-of-life parameters in men with broad-spectrum erectile dysfunction [abstract]. J Urol 1998 May; 159 Suppl: 260Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Young S, Sildenafil SG. Women’s perceptions of the efficacy of sildenafil (Viagra®) in the treatment of erectile dysfunction [abstract]. BrJ Obstet Gynaecol 1998 Jul; 105 Suppl. 17: 126Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hurtling C. Partners’ perceptions of efficacy of sildenafil (Viagra™) in the treatment of erectile dysfunction [abstract no. 246]. Int J Impot Res 1998; 10(3): S32Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Morales A, Gingell C, Collins M, et al. Clinical safety of oral sildenafil citrate (VIAGRA™) in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Int J Impot Res 1998 Jun; 10: 69–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Osterloh I. Sildenafil (Viagra™): overall safety profile in 18 double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trials of erectile dysfunction [abstract no. 243]. Int J Impot Res 1998; 10(3): S31Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ophthalmologists warn of Viagra visual problems. Scrip 1998 May 27-29 (2338-2339): 23Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Grunwald JE, Koppiker NP. Visual adverse events in patients with eye disorders who received sildenafil for the treatment of erectile dysfunction [abstract]. 22nd Macula Society Meeting. 1999 Feb 24–7. San Diego (CA)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Donahue SP, Taylor RJ. Pupil-sparing third nerve palsy associated with sildenafil citrate (Viagra). Am J Ophthalmol 1998 Sep; 126(3): 476–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Hackett G, Gingell JC. Long term safety and efficacy after 2 years of Viagra® (sildenafil citrate) treatment in erectile dysfunction [abstract no. 819]. J Urol 1999; 161 (Suppl.): May 4: 214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Zusman RM, Morales A, Glasser DB, et al. Overall cardiovascular profile of sildenafil citrate. Am J Cardiol 1999; 83 Suppl. C: 35C–44CPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    US Food and Drug Administration. Postmarketing safety of sildenafil citrate (Viagra). 24 Nov 1998. Rockville, MD, USAGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Cheitlin MD, Hutter AM, Brindis RG, et al. Use of sildenafil (Viagra) in patients with cardiovascular disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 1999; 33: 273–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Muirhead GJ, Wulff M, Fielding A, et al. Pharmacokinetic (PK) interactions between HIV protease inhibitors ritonavir (RTV) and saquinavir (SQR) and Viagra® (sildenafil citrate). Pfizer Central Research, Sandwich, UK. Data on file.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    EC commission finally approves Viagra. Scrip 1998 Sep 18; 2371: 17Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Virag R, Bouilly P, Frydman D. Is impotence an arterial disorder? a study of arterial risk factors in 440 impotent men. Lancet 1985; 1: 181–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Rosen RC. Sildenafil: medical advance or media event? Lancet 1998 May 30; 351: 1599–660PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Montorsi F. Clinical safety of oral sildenafil citrate (VIAGRA™) in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Int J Impot Res 1998 Jun; 10: 73–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Guay AT, Nankin HR. AACE clinical practice guidelines forthe evaluation and treatment of male sexual dysfunction. Endocr Pract 1998 Jul/Aug; 4(4): 219–35Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Guay AT. The endocrinologist as the focus in a multidisciplinary approach to management of erectile dysfunction. Endocr Pract 1997 Jan/Feb; 3(1): 1–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Montague DK, Barada JH, Belker AM, et al. Clinical guidelines panel on erectile dysfunction: summary report on the treatment of organic erectile dysfunction. J Urol 1996 Dec; 156(6): 2007–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Jarow JP, Nana-Sinkam P, Sabbagh M, et al. Outcome analysis of goal directed therapy for impotence. J Urol 1996 May; 155: 1609–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Gregoire A. New treatments for erectile impotence. Br J Psychiatry 1992 Mar; 160: 315–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Susman E. Nice try, but no Viagra, say experts reviewing new potency pills. Biotechnol Newswatch 1998 Jun 15: 4–5Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    US insurers turn down Viagra citing lack of safety data. Scrip 1998 Jul 10(2351): 14Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Harling R. National guidance is needed for Viagra. BMJ 1998 Jul 18; 317: 165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Warden J. Viagra unlikely to be prescribed by GPs in Britain. BMJ 1998 Jul 25; 317: 234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Viagra breaks all records in the US. Scrip 1998 May 1(2331): 20Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    No Viagra reimbursement in EU? Scrip 1998 Jul 10 (2351): 3Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Viagra phenomenon set to transform pharma industry. Market-letter 1998 May 11; 25: 2Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis International Limited 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Adis International LimitedAucklandNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations