Skip to main content

Ranitidine

An Updated Review of its Pharmacodynamic and Pharmacokinetic Properties and Therapeutic Use in Peptic Ulcer Disease and Other Allied Diseases

Summary

Synopsis

Ranitidine, a histamine H2-receptor antagonist, is now well established as a potent inhibitor of gastric acid secretion effective in the treatment and prophylaxis of gastrointestinal lesions aggravated by gastric acid secretion.

Therapeutic trials involving several thousands of patients with peptic ulcer disease confirm that ranitidine 300mg daily administered orally in single or divided doses is at least as effective as cimetidine 800 to 1000mg daily in increasing the rate of healing of duodenal and gastric ulcers. Similar dosages of ranitidine have been shown to relieve the symptoms of reflux oesophagitis and heal or prevent gastrointestinal damage caused by ulcerogenic drugs. Ranitidine 150mg orally at night maintains ulcer healing in the long term. Ranitidine has also demonstrated good results in the treatment of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and in the prevention of aspiration pneumonitis when given prior to surgery and to pregnant women at full term. It may also have a place in the management of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding and in the prevention of stress ulcers in the intensive care setting, although these areas require further investigation. Ranitidine has been used safely in obstetric patients during labour, in children, the elderly, and in patients with renal impairment when given in appropriate dosages. The drug is very well tolerated and is only infrequently associated with serious adverse reactions or clinically significant drug interactions. Even at high dosages, ranitidine appears devoid of antiandrogenic effects.

Ranitidine is clearly comparable or superior to most other antiulcer agents in the treatment and prevention of a variety of gastrointestinal disorders associated with gastric acid secretion. With its favourable efficacy and tolerability profiles, ranitidine must be considered a first-line agent when suppression of gastric acid secretion is indicated.

Pharmacodynamic Properties

In vitro studies have shown that ranitidine specifically antagonises histamine H2-receptors, receptors which appear to mediate a final common pathway in the release of gastric acid. In normal volunteers and patients with peptic ulcer disease, ranitidine 150mg daily or 300mg daily in 1 or 2 divided doses decreases the number of low intragastric pH-metry readings per 24 hours and decreases 24-hour integrated hydrogen ion activity predominantly through suppression of nocturnal acid secretion. Ranitidine suppresses basal acid output and experimentally stimulated acid secretion but usual therapeutic dosages do not consistently suppress normal meal-stimulated acid secretion. Ranitidine also suppresses pepsin output which, in conjunction with decreased gastric acidity, results in decreased pepsin activity. The pattern of acid and pepsin inhibition achieved during ranitidine treatment of peptic ulcer disease appears not to facilitate microbial colonisation of the stomach, although colonisation may occur during the sustained achlorhydria produced by high-dose intravenous regimens in the critically ill.

Cholinomimetic effects have been ascribed to ranitidine in vitro and in vivo in animals but evidence of clinically significant cholinomimetic effects in humans is lacking. Mixed results have been reported regarding ranitidine-induced changes in gastric motility; the underlying mechanisms and clinical significance of these motility-modifying effects are unclear.

Some studies suggest that ranitidine treatment is associated with an increase in serum gastrin concentration and/or an increase in meal-stimulated gastrin release. Elevated serum gastrin concentrations return to pretreatment levels once ranitidine is discontinued.

Ranitidine, in therapeutic dosages, does not induce clinically significant changes in serum prolactin, cortisol or thyroid-stimulating hormone, and has no apparent antiandrogen activity. Because ranitidine possesses a furan rather than an imidazole nucleus, it binds only weakly to cytochrome P450 and, in consequence, has minimal effects on drug metabolism by the liver.

Pharmacokinetic Properties

Following oral administration, peak plasma ranitidine concentrations are reached within 1 to 3 hours and are not influenced by food. A single 150mg oral dose of ranitidine produces a peak plasma concentration of about 0.4 mg/L. Bioavailability, which varies markedly between individuals, averages about 50%. The apparent volume of distribution in normal adults is approximately 1.4 L/kg. Comparison of ranitidine pharmacokinetics following intravenous and oral administration suggests significant hepatic biotransformation following oral absorption. Thus, 30% of an administered oral dose of ranitidine is excreted unchanged in the urine versus 70% of an intravenous dose. The normal elimination half-life of ranitidine is 2 to 3 hours, but it is prolonged to 4 to 9 hours in patients with severe renal disease. Ranitidine is approximately 15% protein bound and, while it is removed by dialysis, the percentage of total dose recovered in dialysate is small and dosage supplementation is not recommended.

Although the degree of acid inhibition required for ulcer healing is unknown, dose-response studies have found that experimentally stimulated acid secretion is decreased 50% by ranitidine at plasma concentrations of about 0.1 mg/L, which are maintained for at least 10 hours following a single 150mg oral dose. Limited studies to date suggest that, in patients with duodenal ulcer, sensitivity of the gastric mucosa to secretagogues may change during ranitidine treatment; however, the role of ranitidine in this process and its clinical significance are unclear.

Therapeutic Trials

In non-comparative, placebo-comparative and other controlled clinical trials, oral ranitidine 200 to 320mg daily has achieved cumulative duodenal ulcer healing rates of 62 to 96% after 4 weeks and 78 to 98% after 8 weeks. The superiority of ranitidine over placebo has been confirmed in a number of recent trials in patients with duodenal ulcer. The rate of healing achieved with oral ranitidine 150mg twice daily was comparable to that obtained with a single 300mg nightly dose. Oral ranitidine 300mg daily was superior or comparable to cimetidine 800 to 1000mg daily in achieving duodenal ulcer healing after 4 and 8 weeks. In comparisons of orally administered ranitidine 300mg daily, famotidine 40 to 80mg daily and nizatidine 300mg nocte, there were no significant differences in healing rates. Trials comparing the efficacy of ranitidine, enprostil, misoprostol and rioprostil in the treatment of duodenal ulceration showed ranitidine to be superior with respect to rates of healing and relief of symptoms. Healing rates of duodenal ulcer achieved with ranitidine are comparable with those of deglycyrrhizinised liquorice (‘Caved-S’), colloidal bismuth subcitrate and sucralfate, while ranitidine was superior to antacids and was better tolerated. Evidence to date indicates that ranitidine heals duodenal ulcers more slowly than omeprazole, and although the rate of healing of duodenal ulcers is faster with ranitidine than with selective anticholinergics such as pirenzepine, the reverse is true with respect to duodenal erosions. In small studies, combining the anxiolytic, prazepam, with ranitidine appeared to accelerate healing. The combination of ranitidine with ofloxacin in patients with positive Campylobacter pylori cultures from the ulcer site appeared to speed healing over that obtained with ranitidine alone, although this combination was seemingly less effective in eradicating C. pylori or in healing ulcers than was a bismuth subsalicylate/ofloxacin combination.

Ranitidine 150mg orally twice daily healed 59 to 88% of gastric ulcers after 3 to 6 weeks, compared with 20 to 53% healing in placebo-treated patients. A single oral dose of 300mg nightly was as effective as 150mg twice daily. Ranitidine was similar to cimetidine in healing gastric ulcers after 4 and 8 weeks, and similar healing rates were seen in trials comparing ranitidine with deglycyrrhizinised liquorice, rioprostil, enprostil, famotidine, and colloidal bismuth subcitrate over the same period. However, in comparison with omeprazole, ranitidine heals gastric ulcers and relieves their symptoms more slowly. In comparison with the anticholinergic drug pirenzepine, ranitidine was superior in healing gastric ulcers, and inferior in healing gastric erosions. Patients with gastric or duodenal ulcers which fail to respond to cimetidine treatment may respond to a subsequent course of ranitidine.

Prophylactic oral administration of ranitidine 150mg daily in patients with recently healed duodenal or gastric ulcers resulted in relapse in 15 to 49% of patients after 12 months, while 59 to 87% of placebo-treated patients relapsed. Continuous daily ranitidine treatment was superior to intermittent seasonal dosage (in the spring and autumn) in preventing relapse. Ranitidine appeared to be superior to enprostil and cimetidine in preventing relapse, and similar to sucralfate after 12 months of continuous treatment, and has proven to be effective in preventing relapse in the majority of patients treated for as long as 5 years.

Oral ranitidine is suitable for use in high dosages in the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome to reduce gastric acid secretion and resultant damage and symptoms, and as an adjunct to surgery, as it appears to lack the endocrine adverse effects and effects on hepatic metabolism sometimes seen with cimetidine. Dosage must be individualised, and results may be improved by addition of an anticholinergic agent such as pirenzepine. In this syndrome, the dosage of ranitidine required to reduce gastric acid to below 10 mEq/h has been found to be 3 to 4 times less than that of cimetidine but nearly 10 times greater than that of famotidine.

Ranitidine has been studied in attempts to control acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding and to reduce rebleeding. Compared with placebo, ranitidine 150mg administered intravenously in divided doses and oral ranitidine 300mg daily significantly (p < 0.05) lowered the incidence of severely bleeding gastric ulcers and reduced the need for blood transfusions in patients with gastric and duodenal ulcer. However, the drug was not thought to influence significantly the outcome for patients with acute bleeding. Ranitidine was significantly (p > 0.05) superior to antacid in controlling bleeding and preventing rebleeding in high risk patients. Ranitidine appeared to be comparable to cimetidine in acute bleeding, although preliminary studies suggest that somatostatin may be superior. Overall, the role of ranitidine in the treatment and prevention of upper gastrointestinal bleeding is still uncertain and further study is needed.

In critically ill patients, ranitidine was as effective as antacid in preventing stress ulcers when given orally or intravenously. Studies searching for optimal ranitidine dosages were equivocal, but found that continuous intravenous ranitidine infusion in the range of 0.125 to 0.25 mg/kg/h were effective. Ranitidine appeared to be comparable to cimetidine in preventing stress ulcers and ulcer bleeding, and although superior to pirenzepine in ulcer prevention, ranitidine-treated patients appeared to be at greater risk of pneumonia. Studies comparing ranitidine and sucralfate for stress ulcer prophylaxis show sucralfate recipients to be at a lower risk of both gastrointestinal bleeding and nosocomial pneumonia.

Ranitidine 150 to 300mg orally, 1 to 2.5 mg/kg or 50mg intravenously, or 50mg intramuscularly on the morning of surgery was superior to placebo or no treatment in reducing the risk of lung damage due to pulmonary aspiration of the acidic contents of the stomach while under general anaesthetic. Ranitidine appears to be comparable or superior to cimetidine and superior to metoclopramide alone, while the addition of metoclopramide to ranitidine provided no additional protection from pulmonary acid aspiration. In women in labour or undergoing emergency or elective caesarean section, intravenous or intramuscular (50mg) or oral (150mg) ranitidine provided adequate protection from acid aspiration, with no ill-effects on the newborn infant or complications in labour.

In gastro-oesophageal reflux disease oral ranitidine 300mg daily in single or divided doses healed lesions and significantly (p < 0.05) reduced symptoms of pain, pyrosis, regurgitation and dysphagia after 6 to 24 weeks compared with placebo group and baseline levels. After 4 to 8 weeks, ranitidine was comparable in efficacy to sucralfate, cisapride and domperidone, and superior to metoclopramide in treating reflux disease, but was less effective in relieving symptoms and slower at healing than omeprazole. Ranitidine appears to be useful in long term maintenance treatment of reflux disease, but further study is needed to clarify which patients will benefit from long term therapy of reflux disease.

Ranitidine is effective in preventing or treating gastrointestinal damage caused by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), reducing bleeding, gastric mucosal and duodenal damage in patients with rheumatic disease and with peptic ulcer, often despite continuation of NSAID treatment. One study tested the ability of ranitidine to prevent gastrointestinal damage in patients receiving cytostatic drugs and prednisone for lymphoproliferative disease, with promising results in a small number of patients.

Ranitidine has been studied in children and was effective in healing and preventing the recurrence of peptic ulceration, particularly when dosages were titrated to reduce acid secretion by 90%. In critically ill children, ranitidine 0.75 to 1.5 mg/kg intravenously or 2 to 4 mg/kg orally prevented the development of stress ulcers. Ranitidine 2 mg/kg administered orally 1 to 3 hours prior to surgery protected children from the risk of pulmonary aspiration of the acidic contents of the stomach.

Adverse Effects

Ranitidine is very well tolerated, producing minor adverse effects such as headache, diarrhoea and constipation in less than 5% of patients. The frequency and profile of these effects are similar to those seen in patients receiving placebo. Serious and treatment-limiting adverse effects occur rarely, with elderly and seriously ill patients being more susceptible, or appear to be idiosyncratic. Hepatotoxicity, with raised hepatic enzyme levels and biopsy-proven hepatocellular changes, has been seen rarely. Haematological changes, such as thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis and general myelosuppression, have been reported sporadically in a small number of patients. Central nervous system adverse effects of mental confusion, severe headache, hallucinations and mania have also occurred in small numbers of patients, but rarely in patients without predisposing risks. A variety of idiosyncratic reactions have been reported in individuals, including fever, rashes, bradycardia, heart block, gouty arthritis attacks, erosive duodenitis and gynaecomastia. Seriously ill patients and those with renal insufficiency may require close monitoring for unusual effects.

Dosage and Administration

The usual oral dosage of ranitidine for the treatment of duodenal or benign gastric ulcer or gastro-oesophageal reflux is 150mg twice daily or 300mg nightly, with treatment continuing for 4 to 8 weeks or until healing occurs. For maintenance prophylaxis oral ranitidine 150mg nightly may be given. In Zollinger-Ellison syndrome an initial dosage of 150mg twice daily may be increased up to 6g daily as needed. Ranitidine 50mg intravenously or intramuscularly every 6 to 8 hours may be used to treat and prevent acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. A ranitidine dosage of 150mg orally 2 or more hours prior, or 50mg intravenously or intramuscularly 45 to 60 minutes prior to general anaesthesia may minimise the risk of pulmonary damage due to acid aspiration. Oral ranitidine 150mg 6-hourly in women in labour may be supplemented by a non-particulate antacid to prevent pulmonary acid aspiration in the event of emergency surgery. In patients with renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance < 50 ml/min) only half the normal ranitidine dose is recommended. Dosage adjustments may also be needed in elderly patients. Children aged 8 to 18 years have been treated with oral ranitidine up to 150mg twice daily.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • Adebayo GI, Coker HAB. Lack of efficacy of cimetidine and ranitidine as inhibitors of tolbutamide metabolism. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 34: 653–656, 1988

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Agura ED, Vila E, Petersen FB, Shields AF, Thomas ED. The use of ranitidine in bone marrow transplantation. Transplantation 46: 53–56, 1988

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Albin H, Vinçon G, Begaud B, Bistue C, Perez P. Effect of aluminimum phosphate on the bioavailability of ranitidine. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 32: 97–99, 1987

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Alexandre C, Amouretti M, Ansenay M, Bader J-P, Baillet J, et al. A multicenter controlled trial of ranitidine and cimetidine in treatment of cimetidine-resistant peptic ulcer disease. Gastroenterologie Clinique et Biologique 9: 147–152, 1985

    Google Scholar 

  • Allegri G, Pellegrini K, Dobrilla G. First-degree atrioventricular block in a young duodenal ulcer patient treated with a standard oral dose of ranitidine. Agents and Actions 24: 237–242, 1988

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Arcidiacono R, Benvestito V, Bonomo GM, Bottari M, Buscarini L, et al. Comparison between ranitidine 150mg b.d. and ranitidine 300mg nocte in the treatment of duodenal ulcer. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Therapy and Toxicology 24: 381–384, 1986

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Aromaa U, Kalima TV. Ranitidine and prevention of pulmonary aspiration syndrome. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 30: 10–12, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ayoola EA, Atoba MA, Lewis EA. Ranitidine and cimetidine in duodenal ulcer: comparison in Nigerian patients. Current Therapeutic Research 37: 992–995, 1985

    Google Scholar 

  • Azzolini A, Gianrossi R, Livi S, Corazza M, Petillo A, et al. Cardiac function during ranitidine long-lasting administration. Current Therapeutic Research 33: 1023–1028, 1983

    Google Scholar 

  • Bacigalupa A, Van Lint MT, Peralvo J, Figari GPO, Marmont AM. Ranitidine and hematologic recovery in aplastic anemia. Haematologica 72: 378–379, 1988

    Google Scholar 

  • Baldi F, Ferrarini F, Balestra R, Borioni D, Brunetti G, et al. Oesophageal function after oral ranitidine: an acute double blind study in normal subjects. Hepato-gastroenterology 31: 38–40, 1984

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Balestrazzi P, Gregori G, Bernasconi S, Giovannelli G. Bradycardia and neurologic disorders associated with ranitidine in a child. American Journal of Diseases of Children 139: 442, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Barbara L, Blasi A, Cheli R, Corinaldesi R, Dobrilla G, et al. Omeprazole vs ranitidine in the short-term treatment of duodenal ulcer: an Italian multicenter study. Hepato-gastroenterology 34: 229–232, 1987a

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Barbara L, Corinaldesi R, Adamo S, Comin V, Dobrilla G, et al. A double-blind controlled trial of ranitidine 300mg nocte and ranitidine 150mg bid in the short-term treatment of gastric ulcer. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Therapy and Toxicology 24: 104–107, 1986

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Barbara L, Corinaldesi R, Bianchi Porro G, Lazzaroni M, Blasi A, et al. Famotidine in the management of duodenal ulcer: experience in Italy. Digestion 32 (Suppl. I): 24–31, 1985

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Barbara L, Saggioro A, Olsson J, Cisternino M, Franceschi M. Omeprazole 20mg om and ranitidine 150mg bd in the healing of benign gastric ulcers — an Italian multicentre study. Gut 28: A1341, 1987b

    Google Scholar 

  • Bardhan KD, Bianchi Porro G, Bose K, Daly M, Hinchliffe RFC, et al. A comparison of the different doses of omeprazole versus ranitidine in treatment of duodenal ulcers. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 8: 408–413, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bardhan KD, Lee FI, Bose K, Hinchliffe RFC, Morris P, et al. A comparison of enprostil and ranitidine in treatment of duodenal ulcer. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 10: 137–142, 1988

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Baron JH, Perrin VL, and Others. Gastric ulcer healing with ranitidine and cimetidine. A multicentre study. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 18: 973–976, 1983

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Barr GD, Paris CH, Middleton WRJ, Piper DW. Comparison of ranitidine with cimetidine in duodenal ulcer healing. In: Misiewicz and Wormsley (Eds). The Clinical Use of Ranitidine, Medicine Publishing Foundation Series 5, pp. 146–151, Medicine Publishing Foundation, Oxford, 1982

    Google Scholar 

  • Basso N, Bagarani M, Bracci F, Cucchiara G, Gizzonio D, et al. Ranitidine and somatostatin. Their effects on bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal tract. Archives of Surgery 121: 833–835, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bauerfeind P, Cilluffo T, Emde C, Fimmel C, Kohler W, et al. Reduction of gastric acidity with ranitidine or famotidine: early evening dosage is more effective than late evening dosage. Digestion 37: 217–222, 1987

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bayerdörffer E, Kasper G, Pirlet Th, Sommer A, Ottenjann R. Ofloxacin in the treatment of Campylobacter pylori-positive duodenal ulcer: a prospective controlled randomized trial. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 112: 1407–1411, 1987a

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bayerdörffer E, Simon Th, Bastlein Ch, Ottenjann R, Kasper G. Bismuth/ofloxacin combination for duodenal ulcer. Lancet 2: 1467–1468, 1987b

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Belaiche J, Cattan D, Zittoun J, Marquet J, Yvart J. Effect of ranitidine on cobalamin absorption. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 28: 667–668, 1983

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Belgian Peptic Ulcer Study Group. Single blind comparative study of ranitidine and cimetidine in patients with gastric ulcer. Gut 25: 999–1002, 1984

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Berkowitz JM, Adler SN, Sharp JT, Warner CW. Reduction of aspirin-induced gastroduodenal mucosal damage with ranitidine. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 8: 377–380, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bertaccini G, Coruzzi G. Cholinergic-like effects of the new histamine H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine. Agents and Actions 12: 168–171, 1982

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bertaccini G, Lucchin L, Bonoldi C, Felder M, Dobrilla G. Absence of cholinergic-like activity of ranitidine on human salivary and lacrimal secretions. Italian Journal of Gastroenterology 13: 253–254, 1981

    Google Scholar 

  • Bertrand J, Dorval ED, Metman EH. Huten N. Ranitidine-induced modifications of gastric emptying in controls and duodenal ulcer patients. Abstract. Gut 25: A1320, 1984

    Google Scholar 

  • Bianchi Porro G, Cheli R. Gynecomastia and ranitidine. Italian Journal of Gastroenterology 16: 56, 1984

    Google Scholar 

  • Bianchi Porro G, Dal Monte PR, Lazzaroni M, Petrillo M, D’Imperio N, et al. Pirenzepine and ranitidine for chronic gastric ulcer: a comparison in short-term and maintenance treatment. Current Therapeutic Research 39: 149–155, 1986

    Google Scholar 

  • Bianchi Porro G, Lazzaroni M, Barbara L, Corinaldesi R, Dal Monte PR, et al. Tripotassium dicitrate bismuthate and ranitidine in duodenal ulcer. Healing and influence on recurrence. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 23: 1232–1236, 1988

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bianchi Porro G, Pace F, Caruso I. Why are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs important in peptic ulceration? Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1: 540S–547S, 1987b

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bianchi Porro G, Pace F, Lazzaroni M. Esophagitis healing with ranitidine. Gastroenterology 92: 2051–2052, 1987a

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bianchi Porro G, Parente F. Single morning dose vs bedtime dose of ranitidine in duodenal ulcer healing. Hepato-gastroenterology 35: 44, 1988

    Google Scholar 

  • Bianchi Porro G, Petrillo M, Lazzaroni M, Caruso I, Montrone F. Ranitidine in the treatment of gastric lesions induced by anti-inflammatory drugs. Hepato-gastroenterology 29: 86–87, 1982

    Google Scholar 

  • Blasi A, Mangiameli A, Castelli G, Girelli M, Familiari L, et al. Long-term (24 month) ranitidine in prevention of duodenal ulcer relapses: comparison of continuous and seasonal treatment. Italian Journal of Gastroenterology 19: 141–144, 1987

    Google Scholar 

  • Blumer JL, Rothstein FC, Kaplan BS, Yamashita TS, Eshelman FN, et al. Pharmacokinetics determination of ranitidine pharmacodynamics in pediatric ulcer disease. Journal of Pediatrics 107: 301–306,1985

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bogues K, Dixon GT, Fowler P, Jenner WN, Maconochie JG, et al. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of ranitidine in humans. British Journal of Pharmacology 73: 275P, 1981

    Google Scholar 

  • Bohnet HG, Riley AJ. An investigation of the effect of oral ranitidine treatment on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in male and female volunteers. In Misiewicz JJ, Wormsley KG (Eds). The clinical use of ranitidine. Medicine Publishing Foundation series 5, pp. 69–76, Medicine Publishing Foundation, Oxford, 1982

    Google Scholar 

  • Bolin TD, Davis AE, Billington B. Prevention of duodenal ulcer occurrence. Double-blind comparison of ranitidine and cimetidine. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 9: 310–313, 1987

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Boschi S, DiMarco MG, Pigna A, Rossi R. The effect of ranitidine on gastric pH and volume in patients undergoing caesarian section: possible relationship to Mendelson’s syndrome. Current Therapeutic Research 35: 654–662, 1984

    Google Scholar 

  • Bossa R, Galatulas I. Neuromuscular blocking activity of H2receptor antagonists. British Journal of Pharmacology 86: 779P, 1985

    Google Scholar 

  • Bove A, Cirella M, Amitrano L, Ficco C, Gullace R, et al. Gastrooesophageal Candida colonisation in the course of ranitidine treatment. Clinical Trials Journal 22: 208–212, 1985

    Google Scholar 

  • Bovero E, Cheli R, Barbara L, Baldi F, Boero A, et al. Short-term treatment of reflux oesophagitis with ranitidine 300mg nocte. Italian multicentre study. Hepato-gastroenterology 34: 155–159, 1987b

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bovero E, Poletti M, Boero A, Mura BC, Camarri E, et al. Nizatidine in the short-term treatment of duodenal ulcer — an Italian multicenter study. Hepato-gastroenterology 34: 269–272, 1987a

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Boyd EJS, Peden NR, Brauning MCK, Saunders JHB, Wormsley KG. Clinical and endocrine aspects of treatment with ranitidine. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 16 (Suppl. 69): 81, 1981

    Google Scholar 

  • Boyd EJS, Penston JG, Johnston DA, Wormsley KG. Does maintenance therapy keep duodenal ulcers healed? Lancet 1: 1324–1327, 1988

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Boyd EJS, Wilson JA, Wormsley KG. Effects of treatment compliance and overnight gastric secretion on outcome of maintenance therapy of duodenal ulcer with ranitidine. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 18: 193–200, 1983

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Boyd EJS, Wilson JA, Wormsley KG. Safety of ranitidine maintenance treatment of duodenal ulcer. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 19: 394–400, 1984

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Brackmann HP, Brinkhoff H, Dammann HG, Gierthmühlen FW, Hüttemann W, et al. Akutbehandlung der ulkus-duodeni-erkrankung mit ranitidin. 2 mal 150mg täglich versus 300mg nocte. Therapiewoche 34: 5232–5237, 1984

    Google Scholar 

  • Brater DC, Peters MN, Eshelman FN, Richardson CT. Clinical comparison of cimetidine and ranitidine. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 32: 484–489, 1982

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brazer SR, Pancotto FS, Brice RS, Garbutt JT, Wildermann NM, et al. A comparison of famotidine 40mg once daily with ranitidine 150mg twice daily in the treatment of benign gastric ulcer: a community-based U.S. multicenter trial. Gastroenterology 92: 1327, 1987

    Google Scholar 

  • Breen KJ, Burg R, Desmond PV, Mashford ML, Morphett B, et al. Effects of cimetidine and ranitidine on hepatic drug metabolism. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 31: 297–300, 1982

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brenner LO. Agranulocytosis and ranitidine. Annals of Internal Medicine 104: 896, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Brittain RT, Jack D, Reeves JJ, Stables R. Pharmacological basis for the induction of gastric carcinoid tumours in the rat by loxtidine, an insurmountable histamine H2-receptor blocking drug. British Journal of Pharmacology 85: 843–847, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brockmeyer NH, Breithaupt H, Hattingberg MV, Ohnhaus EE. Metabolism of mexiletine alone and in combination with cimetidine and ranitidine in vivo and in vitro British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 24: 246P, 19

  • Brogden RN, Carmine AA, Heel RC, Speight TM, Avery GS. Ranitidine: a review of its pharmacology and therapeutic use in peptic ulcer disease and other allied diseases. Drugs 24: 267–303, 1982

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brunner G, Losgen H, Harke U. Ranitidine in the treatment of cimetidine-resistant ulcerations of the upper intestinal tract. In Misiewicz and Wormsley (Eds) The Clinical Use of Ranitidine, Medicine Publishing Foundation Series 5, pp. 252–254, Medicine Publishing Foundation, Oxford, 1982

    Google Scholar 

  • Bytzer P, Lauritsen K, Rask-Madsen J. Symptomatic recurrence of healed duodenal and prepyloric ulcers after treatment with ranitidine or high-dose antacid. A 1-year follow-up study. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 21: 765–768, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Carey PF, Martin LE, Owen P. A method for the determination of ranitidine and its metabolites in urine by h.p.l.c. and its application to study the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of ranitidine in man. Biochemical Society Transactions 1: 112, 1981

    Google Scholar 

  • Cate EW, Rogers JF, Powell JR. Inhibition of tolbutamide elimination by cimetidine but not ranitidine. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 26: 372–377, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Chariot J, Rozé C, Scarpignato C. The effect of ranitidine on exocrine pancreatic secretion in the rat. Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie 274: 166–176, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Chau NP, Zech PY, Pozet N, Hadj-Aissa A. Ranitidine kinetics in normal subjects. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 31: 770–774, 1982

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chiverton SG, Burget DW, Hunt RH. Smoking does not impair the response to therapy in duodenal ulcer healing. Gastroenterology 94: A69, 1988

    Google Scholar 

  • Clark AJL, Bilous RW, Keen H. Ranitidine in insulin-dependent diabetes. Lancet 2: 883, 1982

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Classen M, Dammann HG, Domschke W, Huttemann W, Long-dong W, et al. Abheilungsraten nach omeprazol-und ranitidine-behandlung des ulcus ventriculi. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 110: 628–632, 1985a

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Classen M, Dammann H-G, Domschke W, Huttemann W, Long-dong W, et al. Omeprazole heals duodenal but not gastric ulcers more rapidly than ranitidine. Results of two German multicentre trials. Hepato-gastroenterology 32: 243–245, 1985b

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Collen MJ, Howard JM, McArthur KE, Raufman J-P, Cornelius MJ, et al. Comparison of ranitidine and cimetidine in the treatment of gastric hypersecretion. Annals of Internal Medicine 100: 52–58, 1984

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Collins R, Langman M. Treatment with histamine H2 antagonists in acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. New England Journal of Medicine 313: 660–666, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Coppens J-P, Warzee P, Schapira M, Fiasse R, Dive C. Single dose ranitidine: influence of the time of administration on gastric acidity in normal subjects and in patients with duodenal ulcer. Gastroentérologie Clinique et Biologique 12: 537–541, 1988

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Coraggio F, Scarpato P, Spina M, Lombardi S. Somatostatin and ranitidine in the control of iatrogenic haemorrhage of the upper gastrointestinal tract. British Medical Journal 289: 224, 1984

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Corinaldesi R, Pasquali R, Capelli M, Galassi A, Plate L, et al. Effect of acute oral and intravenous administration of ranitidine on prolactin, thyrotropin and gonadotropin serum levels. Hepato-gastroenterology 29: 120–123, 1982

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Corinaldesi R, Scarpignato C, Galassi A, Stanghellini V, Calamelli R, et al. Effect of ranitidine and cimetidine on gastric emptying of a mixed meal in man. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Therapy and Toxicology 22: 498–501, 1984

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Cortot A, Henry-Amar M, Pappo M, Paris JC. Efficacité comparée de la ranitidine (150mg × 2) et de la cimétidine (400mg × 2) dans le traitment de l’ulcère duodenal en poussée. Essai thérapeutique contrôlé multicentrique français. Gastroenterologie Clinique et Biologique 11: 136–141, 1987

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Craven DE, Kunches LM, Kilinsky V, Lichtenberg DA, Make BJ, et al. Risk factors for pneumonia and fatality in patients reeiving continuous mechanical ventilation. American Review of Respiratory Diseases 133: 792–796, 1986

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Cunningham J, Segre GV, Slatopolsky E, Avioli LV. Effect of histamine H2-receptor blockade on parathyroid status in normal and uraemic man. Nephron 38: 17–21, 1984

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Curry SH, DeVane CL, Wolfe MM. Lack of interaction of ranitidine with amitriptyline. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 32: 317–320, 1987

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cutler SJ, Ederer F. Maximum utilization of the life table method in analysing survival. Journal of Chronic Disease 8: 699–712, 1958

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Czarnobilski Z, Bern S, Czarnobilski K, Konturek SJ. Carprofen and the therapy of gastroduodenal ulcerations by ranitidine. Hepato-gastroenterology 32: 20–23, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Czerwonka R, Tsikas D, Brunner G. Release of histamine by H2-receptor antagonists? Lancet 2: 216–217, 1987

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dai S. Cardiovascular effects of ranitidine and cimetidine during acute myocardial ischaemia in anaesthetized dogs. Agents and Actions 19: 26–33, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dal Negro RW, Turco P, Zoccatelli O. Effects of orally administered cimetidine, ranitidine and oxmetidine on bronchomotor tone in normal volunteers. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Research 4: 481–482, 1984

    Google Scholar 

  • Dal Negro R, Turco P, Zoccatelli O, Trevisan F, Pomart C. H2-antagonist derangement of the kinetics of sustained-release oral theophylline. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Therapy and Toxicology 23: 329–332, 1985

    Google Scholar 

  • Dalton MJ, Powell JR, Messenheimer Jr JA. Ranitidine does not alter single-dose carbamazepine pharmacokinetics in healthy adults. Drug Intelligence and Clinical Pharmacy 19: 941–944, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Daly MJ, Stables R. In vitro actions of ranitidine, a new histamine H2-receptor antagonist. Agents and Actions 10: 190, 1980

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Daly MJ, Humphray JM, Stables R. Inhibition of gastric acid secretion in the dog by the H2-receptor antagonists, ranitidine, cimetidine and metiamide. Gut 21: 408, 1980

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Daly MJ, Humphray JM, Stables R. Some in vitro and in vivo actions of the new histamine H2-receptor antagonist, ranitidine. British Journal of Pharmacology 72: 49, 1981a

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Daly MJ, Humphray JM, Bunce KT, Stables R. The effect of ranitidine on gastric acid secretory response curves to histamine, pentagastrin, or bethanechol in the dog with a Heidenhain pouch. Agents and Actions 11: 160, 1981b

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Daly MJ, Humphray JM, Stables R. Antagonism of vasodepressor and gastric secretory responses to histamine by H2-receptor antagonists ranitidine and cimetidine in the anaesthetised dog. British Journal of Pharmacology 72: 55, 1981c

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Daly MJ, Humphray JM, Stables R. Effects of H2-receptor antagonists and anticholinoceptor drugs on gastic and salivary secretion induced by bethanechol in the anaesthetised dog. British Journal of Pharmacology 76: 361–365, 1982

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dammann HG, Blum AL, Lux G, Rehner M, Riecken EO, et al. Differences in healing tendency of reflux oesophagitis with omeprazole and ranitidine. Results of an Austria-German-Swiss multicenter trial. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 111: 123–128, 1986a

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dammann HG, Burkhardt F, Müller P, Simon B. Effect of intravenous famotidine and ranitidine on intragastric pH and hormone levels in critical care patients. 5th International Conference on Experimental Ulcer. Abstract. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 30: 372, 1985

    Google Scholar 

  • Dammann H-G, Huttemann W, Kalek HD, Rohner HG, Simon B. Comparative clinical trial of enprostil and ranitidine in the treatment of gastric ulcer. American Journal of Medicine 81 (Suppl. 2A): 80–84, 1986b

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Deakin M, Glenny HP, Ramage JK, Mills JG, Burland WL, et al. Large single daily dose of histamine H2 receptor antagonist for duodenal ulcer. How much and when? A clinical pharmacological study. Gut 28: 566–572, 1987

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Delitala G, Devilla L, Pende A, Canessa A. Effects of the H2 receptor antagonist ranitidine on anterior pituitary hormone secretion in man. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 22: 207–211, 1982

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Delle Fave G, Annibale B, Puoti M, Forte A, Giordano E, et al. Reversible sustained hypergastrinemia in subjects long term treated with H2 antagonists (H2A). Gastroenterology 92: 1367, 1987

    Google Scholar 

  • Denis P, Galmiche JP, Ducrotte P, Colin R, Pasquis P, et al. Effect of ranitidine on resting pressure and pentagastrin response of human lower esophageal sphincter. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 26: 999–1002, 1981

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Desmond PV, Mashford ML, Harman PJ, Morphett BJ, Breen KJ, et al. Decreased oral warfarin clearance after ranitidine and cimetidine. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 35: 338–341, 1984

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dickinson RJ, Royston CMS, Sutton DR. A comparison of famotidine and ranitidine in an elderly population: a multicentre study. Postgraduate Medical Journal 62 (Suppl. 2): 63–65, 1986

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dixon GT, Fowler PA, Maconochie JG. Preclinical volunteer studies with ranitidine. In Misiewicz JJ, Wormsley KG (Eds), The clinical use of ranitidine, Medicine Publishing Foundation Series 5, pp. 11–17, Medicine Publishing Foundation, Oxford, 1982

    Google Scholar 

  • Dobrilla G, de Pretis G, Piazzi L, Chilovi F, Comberlato M, et al. Is ethanol metabolism affected by oral administration of cimetidine and ranitidine at therapeutic doses? Hepato-gastroenterology 31: 35–37, 1984

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dobrilla G, De Pretis G, Piazzi L, Boero A, Camarri E, et al. Comparison of once-daily bedtime administration of famotidine and ranitidine in the short-term treatment of duodenal ulcer: a multicenter, double-blind, controlled study. Gastroenterology 22 (Suppl. 134): 21–28, 1987

    Google Scholar 

  • Domschke W, Lux G, Domschke S. Furan H2-antagonist ranitidine inhibits pentagastrin-stimulated gastric secretion stronger than cimetidine. Gastroenterology 79: 1267, 1980

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Donn KH, Powell JR, Rogers JF, Eshelman FN. The influence of H2-receptor antagonists on steady-state concentrations of propranolol and 4-hydroxypropranolol. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 24: 500–508, 1984

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Driks MR, Craven DE, Celli BR, Manning M, Burke RA, et al. Nosocomial pneumonia in intubated patients given sucralfate as compared with antacids or histamine type 2 blockers. The role of gastric colonization. New England Journal of Medicine 317: 1376–1382, 1987

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Duma St. Prophylaxis of stress ulcers with cimetidine and ranitidine. Weiner Medizinische Wochenschrift (Wein) 136: 467–472, 1986

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Eandi M, De Carli GF, Buraglio M, Recchia G. Ranitidine: seven years of drug surveillance. Clinical Trials Journal 25: 152–157, 1988

    Google Scholar 

  • Ehsanullah RSB, Page MC, Tildesley G, Wood JR. Prevention of gastroduodenal damage induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: controlled trial of ranitidine. British Medical Journal 297: 1017–1021, 1988

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Einarson TR, Turchet EN, Goldstein JE, MacNay KR. Gout-like arthritis following cimetidine and ranitidine. Drug Intelligence and Clinical Pharmacy 19: 201–202, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ekström T, Lindgren BR, Tibbling L. Effects of ranitidine treatment on patients with asthma and a history of gastro-oesophageal reflux: a double blind crossover study. Thorax 44: 19–23, 1989

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Elashoff JD, Koch GG, Chi GYH. Designing a clinical trial to demonstrate prevention of ulcer recurrence: modelling simulation approaches. Statistics in Medicine 7: 877–888, 1988

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Elwood RJ, Hildebrand PJ, Dundee JW, Collier PS. Influence of ranitidine on uptake of oral midazolam. British Journal of Anaesthesia 55: 241P, 1983

    Google Scholar 

  • Epstein CM, Klopper J. Ranitidine headache. Headache 25: 392–393, 985

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Eshelman FN, Plachetka JR, Brown DCP. Bioavailability and tolerance of repeated intramuscular injections of ranitidine. Abstract no. C10. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 33: 251, 1983

    Google Scholar 

  • Familiari L, Germanotta G, Maimone P, Pustorino S, Ferrau O. Short-term ranitidine (Ranidil) and cimetidine therapy of duodenal ulcer: a comparative endoscopic investigation. Clinical Trials Journal 20: 126–132, 1983

    Google Scholar 

  • Farley A, Lévesque D, Paré P, Thomson ABR, Sherbaniuk R, et al. A comparative trial of ranitidine 300mg at night with ranitidine 150mg twice daily in the treatment of duodenal and gastric ulcer. American Journal of Gastroenterology 80: 665–668, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Fee JPH, Collier PS, Howard PJ, Dundee JW. Cimetidine and ranitidine increase midazolam bioavailability. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 41: 80–84, 1987

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fiamengo SA, Askari FK, Hartman GS, Riker WF Jr.. Neuromuscular and cardiovascular effects of ranitidine HCl. Anesthesiology 65: A297, 1986

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fimmel CJ, Etienne A, Cilluffo T, v. Ritter C, Gasser T, et al. Long-term ambulatory gastric pH monitoring: validation of a new method and effect of H2-antagonists. Gastroenterology 88: 1842–1851, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Fölsch UR, Wichmann G-Ch, Torossian A. Effect of 6-hourly intermittent intravenous boluses of oxmetidine and ranitidine on gastric acidity and serum prolactin. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 33: 267–271, 1987

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fontana G, Maiolo P, Baratta PF, Fratton A, Bombardieri F, et al. Ranitidine short-term treatment of duodenal ulcer: 150mg b.d. v 300mg nocte, a multicentre randomised trial. Clinical Trials Journal 22: 324–334, 1985

    Google Scholar 

  • Friedl W, Barth HO, Müller P, Simon B, Dammann H-G. Ranitidin, cimetidin und stressulcus — prophylaxe. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 108: 396–397, 1983

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Frislid K, Berstad A. High dose of antacid reduces the bioavailability of ranitidine. British Medical Journal 286: 1358, 1983

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Frislid K, Berstad A. Prolonged influence of a meal on the effect of ranitidine. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 19: 429–432, 1984

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Frislid K, Berstad A. Gastric secretion in response to a meal 12-13h after ranitidine. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 20: 711–714, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Frislid K, Berstad A. Effect of ranitidine on meal-induced gastric pepsin and acid secretion and the influence of adding ethanol to the meal. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 21: 123–128, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Funder JW, Mercer JE. Cimetidine, a histamine H2-receptor antagonist, occupies androgen receptors. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 48: 189, 1979

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gabryelewicz A, Sarosiek J, Laszewicz W. The effect of ranitidine on gastric mucus, pepsin and hydrochloric acid secretion in patients with duodenal ulcer. Acta Medica Polona 22: 335–339, 1983

    Google Scholar 

  • Gabryelewicz A, Konturek S, Piotrowski J, Rydzewska G, Kwiecień N. Preventative effect of ranitidine against gastrointestinal disorders in rheumatic patients treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). Gastroenterology 92: 1398, 1987

    Google Scholar 

  • Gafter U, Komlos L, Weinstein T, Zevin D, Levi J. Thrombocytopenia, eosinophilia, and ranitidine. Annals of Internal Medicine 106: 447, 1987

    Google Scholar 

  • Galli A, Mantovani P, Pepeu G. Effect of ranitidine on ileal myenteric plexus preparation and on acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase. Biochemical Pharmacology 33: 1845–1850, 1984

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Galmiche JP, Desechalliers JP, Denis P, Chevalier B, Colin R. Ranitidine treatment of cimetidine-resistant peptic ulcers: preliminary clinical and 24-hour intragastric acidity results. In Misiewicz and Wormsley (Eds) The Clinical use of ranitidine. Medicine Publishing Foundation Series 5, pp. 241–248, Medicine Publishing Foundation, Oxford, 1982

    Google Scholar 

  • Garg DC, Weidler DJ, Baltodano N, Eshelman FN. Pharmacokinetics of ranitidine, a new histamine H2-receptor blocker. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 29: 248, 1981

    Google Scholar 

  • Garg DC, Weidler DJ, Eshelman FN. Ranitidine bioavailability and kinetics in normal male subjects. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 33: 445–452, 1983

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Garg DC, Eshelman FN, Weidler DJ. Pharmacokinetics of ranitidine following oral administration with ascending doses and with multiple-fixed doses. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 25: 437–443, 1985a

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Garg DC, Baltodano N, Perez GO, Oster JR. Jallad NS, et al. Pharmacokinetics of ranitidine after intravenous administration in hemodialysis patients. Pharmacology 31: 189–193, 1985b

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Garg DC, Baltodano N, Jallad NS, Perez G, Oster JR, et al. Pharmacokinetics of ranitidine in patients with renal failure. Journal of Clinical Pharmacokinetics 26: 286–291, 1986

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gelwan JS, Schmitz RL, Pellecchia C. Ranitidine and leukocytosis. American Journal of Gastroenterology 81: 685–688, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Giacosa A, Cheli R, Molinari F, Parodi MC. Comparison between ranitidine, cimetidine, pirenzepine and placebo in the short term treatment of duodenal ulcer. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 17 (Suppl. 72): 215–219, 1982

    Google Scholar 

  • Gibinski K, Nowak A, Gabryelewicz A, Szalaj W, Hasik J, et al. Ranitidine in the maintenance therapy of gastro-duodenal ulcer disease: Polish open multicentre study. Hepato-gastroenterology 31: 180–182, 1984

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gibson PR, Pidcock ME. Immune-mediated thrombocytopenia associated with ranitidine therapy. Medical Journal of Australia 145: 661–662, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gifford RR, Tilberg AF. Histamine type-2 receptor antagonist immune modulation II. Cimetidine and ranitidine increase interleukin- production. Surgery 102: 242–247, 1987

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gillett GB, Watson JD, Langford RM. Ranitidine and single-dose antacid therapy as prophylaxis against acid aspiration syndrome in obstetric practice. Anaesthesia 39: 638–644, 1984

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gladziwa U, Krishna DR, Klotz U, Ittel TH, Schunkert H, et al. Pharmacokinetics of ranitidine in patients undergoing haemofiltration. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 35: 427–430, 1988

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gledhill T, Howard OM, Buck M, Paul A, Hunt RH. Single nocturnal dose of an H2-receptor antagonist for the treatment of duodenal ulcer. Gut 24: 904–908, 1983

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Goelzer SL, Farin-Rush C, Coursin DB. Ranitidine produces minimal hemodynamic depression in stable intensive care unit patients: a double-blind prospective study. Critical Care Medicine 16: 8–10, 1988

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Goldin E, Stalnikowicz R, Wengrower D, Eliakim R, Fich A, et al. No correlation between indomethacin-induced gastrointestinal damage and inhibition of gastric prostanoid synthesis. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 2: 369–375, 1988

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gonzalez ER, Butler SA, Jones MK, Morford DA, Walsh M, et al. Cimetidine versus ranitidine: single-dose, oral regimen for reducing gastric acidity and volume in ambulatory surgery patients. Drug Intelligence and Clinical Pharmacy 21: 192–195, 1987

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gonzalez-Martin G, Paulos C, Veloso B, Chesta J, Novoa X, et al. Ranitidine disposition in severe hepatic cirrhosis. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Therapy and Toxicology 25: 139–142, 1987

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Goudsouzian NG, Young ET. The efficacy of ranitidine in children. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 31: 387–390, 1987

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gough KR, Korman MG, Bardhan KD, Lee FI, Crowe JP, et al. Ranitidine and cimetidine in prevention of duodenal ulcer relapse. A double-blind, randomised, multicentre, comparative trial. Lancet 2: 659–662, 1984

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Graham DY, Opekun AR, Smith JL, Schwartz JT. Ranitidine and hepatotoxicity. Annals of Internal Medicine 102: 416, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Grange JD. Duodenal erosions during ranitidine treatment. British Medical Journal 293: 823, 1986

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gray BN, De Zwart J, Andrewarther L, Crowley S, Kamm M, et al. Controlled clinical trial of ranitidine in bleeding peptic ulcer. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Surgery 56: 723–727, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Greenblatt DJ, Locniskar A, Scavone JM, Blyden GT, Ochs HR, et al. Absence of interaction of cimetidine and ranitidine with intravenous and oral midazolam. Anesthesia and Analgesia 65: 176–180, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Greene DS, Szego PL, Anslow JA, Hooper JW. The effect of age on ranitidine pharmacokinetics. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 39: 300–305, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Griffin PJA, Ross WB, Salaman JR. The use of ranitidine or aluminum hydroxide in preventing gastrointestinal complications after renal transplantation. Transplantation Proceedings 18: 1439–1440, 1986

    Google Scholar 

  • Grove O, Bekker C, Jeppe-Hansen MG, Karstoft E, Sanchez G, et al. Ranitidine and high-dose antacid in reflux oesophagitis. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 20: 457–461, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Guslandi M, Baltarin E, Tittobello A. Gastric mucus secretion in ranitidine treated patients. British Medical Journal 283: 699, 1981

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Guslandi M, Daniotti S, Ballarin E, Basilico M, Tittobello A. Pirenzepine in erosive duodenitis. A controlled clinical trial versus ranitidine. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 20: 751–755, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Guslandi M, Masci E, Ballarin E, Imbimbo BA, Daniotti S. Luminal bicarbonate outflow in chronic antral erosions is suppressed by pirenzepine. Hepato-gastroenterology 34: 171–173, 1987a

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Guslandi M, Testoni PA, Masci E. Effect of H2-receptor blockade on gastric mucus composition. A comparative study with ranitidine and famotidine. Journal of International Medical Research 15: 224–226, 1987b

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Guslandi M, Testoni PA, Passaretti S, Masci E, Ballarin E, et al. Ranitidine vs metoclopramide in the medical treatment of reflux esophagitis. Hepatogastroenterology 30: 96–98, 1983

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gustavsson S, Bergstrom R, Erwall C, Krog M, Lindholm C-E, et al. Reflux esophagitis: assessment of therapy effects and observer variation by video documentation of endoscopy findings. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 22: 585–591, 1987

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gwee MCE, Cheah LS. Actions of cimetidine and ranitidine at some cholinergic sites: implications in toxicology and anesthesia. Life Sciences 39: 383–388, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gwee MCE, Cheah LS, Shoon ML. Cimetidine and ranitidine: a study of competitive and ion-channel blockade in the toad isolated rectus abdominus muscle. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 13: 613–618, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Haboubi N, Asquith P. Rash mediated by immune complexes associated with ranitidine treatment, British Medical Journal 296: 897, 1988

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hamborg B, Kittang E, Schjønsby H. The effect of ranitidine on the absorption of food cobalamins. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 20: 756–758, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hansen WE, Berti S. Inhibition of cholinesterases by ranitidine. Lancet 1: 235, 1983

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hanslip JI, Gidden D, Boyd EJS, Marks IN, Wormsley KG. Effects of ‘mucosal protective’ and antisecretory drugs on assimilation of food bound vitamin B12. Abstract. Gut 28: A1341, 1987

    Google Scholar 

  • Hanson RG, Mihaly GW, Smallwood RA, Louis WJ, Yeomans ND. The inhibition of gastric acid secretion by ranitidine: the effect of 6 weeks ranitidine therapy. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine 12: 111, 1982

    Google Scholar 

  • Harman PJ, Gannoulis N, Kamm M, Desmond PV, Mashford ML. The effect of antacids and food on the absorption of cimetidine and ranitidine. Abstract no. 202. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology Suppl. 10: 114, 1987

    Google Scholar 

  • Harris PW, Morrison DH, Dunn GL, Fargas-Babjak AM, Moudgil GC, et al. Intramuscular cimetidine and ranitidine as prophylaxis against gastric aspiration syndrome — a randomized double-blind study. Canadian Anaesthetists’ Society Journal 31: 599–603, 1984

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Harron DWG, Uprichard ACG. Are cimetidine and ranitidine proarrhythmic? British Journal of Pharmacology 91: 325P, 1987

    Google Scholar 

  • Harvey RF, Gordon PC, Hadley N, Long DE, Gill TR, et al. Effects of sleeping with the bed-head raised and of ranitidine in patients with severe peptic oesophagitis. Lancet 2: 1200–1203, 1987

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Havelund T, Laursen LS, Skoubo-Kristensen E, Anderson BN, Pedersen SA, et al. Omeprazole and ranitidine in treatment of reflux oesophagitis: double blind comparative trial. British Medical Journal 296: 89–92, 1988

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hawkey CJ, Somerville KW, Marshall S. Prophylaxis of aspirin-induced gastric mucosal bleeding with ranitidine. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 2: 245–252, 1988

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hendel L, Aggestrup S, Stentoft P. Long-term ranitidine in progressive systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) with gastroesophageal reflux. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 21: 799–805, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hentschel E, Schutze K, Reichel W, Kerstan E, Kratochvil P, et al. Nizatidine versus ranitidine in the prevention of duodenal ulcer relapse. Six-month interim results of a European multi-centre study. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 22 (Suppl. 136): 84–88, 1987

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hetzel DJ, Shearman DJC, Korman MG, Hansky J, Piper D, et al. Famotidine (MK208) in the treatment of duodenal ulcer (DU). Short term multicentre studies and a maintenance trial. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine 15 (Suppl. 2): 547, 1985

    Google Scholar 

  • Hiesse C, Cantarovich M, Santelli C, Francais P, Charpentier B, et al. Ranitidine hepatotoxicity in renal transplant patient. Lancet 1: 1280, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hine KR, Harrop JS, Hopton MR, Holmes GKT, Matthews HL. The effects of ranitidine on pituitary-thyroid function. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 18: 608–611, 1984

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hirschowitz BI, Berenson MM, Berkowitz JH, Bright-Asare P, De Luca VA, et al. A multicenter study of ranitidine treatment of duodenal ulcers in the United States. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 8: 359–366, 1986a

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hirschowitz BI, De Luca V, Graham D, Lorber S, Bright-Asare P, et al. Treatment of benign chronic gastric ulcer with ranitidine: a randomised, double-blind, and placebo-controlled six week trial. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 8: 371–376, 1986b

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hitanant S, Tuchinda P, Kachintorn U, Petchroungrong B, Plengvanit U, et al. A comparison of prostaglandin E2 analogue (enprostil) and ranitidine in the treatment of duodenal ulcer. (Abstract. Gastroenterology 92: 1436, 1987

    Google Scholar 

  • Hoensch HP, Hutzel H, Kirch W, Ohnhaus EE. Isolation of human hepatic microsomes and their inhibition by cimetidine and ranitidine. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 29: 199–206, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hofman J, Michalska I, Kuczewska B, Chyrek-Borowska S. The influence of cimetidine and ranitidine on basophil histamine release and bronchial reactivity in asthmatic patients. Agents and Actions 20: 317–319, 1987

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Holloway RH, Kuljian B, Eshelman F, McCallum RW. Effects of ranitidine and of cimetidine on pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 35: 203–207, 1984

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Holtzman JL, Gebhard RL, Eckfeldt JH, Mottonen LR, Finley DK, et al. The effects of several weeks of ethanol consumption on ethanol kinetics in normal men and women. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 38: 157–162, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Houghton LA, Read NW. A comparative study of the effect of cimetidine and ranitidine on the rate of gastric emptying of liquid and solid test meals in man. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1: 401–408, 1987

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Howard JM, Chremos AN, Collen MJ, McArthur KE, Cherner JA, et al. Famotidine, a new, potent, long-acting histamine H2-receptor antagonist: comparison with cimetidine and ranitidine in the treatment of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Gastroenterology 88: 1026–1033, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Howden CW, Fletcher CD, Farish E, Reid JL. Effects of ranitidine and cimetidine on plasma lipoproteins in healthy subjects. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 26: 97–99, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hughes JM, Seale JP, Temple DM. Ranitidine does not potentiate mediator release from human lung in vitro.British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 19: 711–712, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hui WM, Lam SK, Lau WY, Branicki FT, Lai CL, et al. Omeprazole (OME) vs ranitidine (RAN) for duodenal ulcer (DU) — one week, low-dose regimens and factors affecting healing. Gastroenterology 92: 1443, 1987

    Google Scholar 

  • Huscher C, Falchetti D, Besozzi F, Dessanti A, Ekema G. Ranitidine and total gastric emptying of liquids and solids. Current Therapeutic Research 36: 916–920, 1984

    Google Scholar 

  • Hüscher C, Magni G, Salmi A, Bossini S, Felini C, et al. Ranitidine versus ranitidine and prazepam in the short-term treatment of duodenal ulcer — a double-blind controlled trial. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 28: 177–180, 1985

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hyman PE, Abrams C, Garvey TQ. Ranitidine tachyphylaxis. Gastroenterology 88: 1426, 1985a

    Google Scholar 

  • Hyman PE, Garvey TQ, Harada T. Effect of ranitidine on gastric acid hypersecretion in an infant with short bowel syndrome. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 4: 316–319, 1985b

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ilett KF, Nation RL, Tjokrosetio R, Thompson WR, Oh TE, et al. Pharmacokinetics of ranitidine in critically ill patients. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacokinetics 21: 279–288, 1986

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ireland A, Colin-Jones DG, Gear P, Golding PL, Ramage JK, et al. Ranitidine 150mg twice daily vs 300mg nightly in treatment of duodenal ulcers. Lancet 2: 274–276, 1984

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jackson JE, Bentley JB, Glass SJ, Fukui T, Gandolfi AJ, et al. Effects of histamine-2 receptor blockade on lidocaine kinetics. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 37: 544–548, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Janisch H, Bouzo M, Hütteman W. Cisapride versus ranitidine in reflux oesophagitis. Abstract PO8. Italian Journal of Gastroenterology 19 (Suppl.): 52S, 1987

    Google Scholar 

  • Johansson K-E, Boeryd B, Johansson K, Tibbling L. Double-blind crossover study of ranitidine and placebo in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 21: 769–778, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Johansson K-E, Tibbling L. Maintenance treatment with ranitidine compared with fundoplication in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 21: 779–788, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Johnson WS, Miller DR. Ranitidine and bradycardia. Annals of Internal Medicine 108: 493, 1988

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jonderko K. Gastric emptying in active duodenal ulcer. Hepatogastroenterology 34: 272–274, 1987

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jonderko K. Influence of oral cimetidine and ranitidine on gastric emptying in active duodenal ulcer. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 10: 143–149, 1988

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jones DB, Howden CW, Burget DW, Silletti C, Hunt RH. Alteration of H2 receptor sensitivity in duodenal ulcer patients after maintenance treatment with an H2 receptor antagonist. Gut 29: 890–893, 1988

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jorde R, Burhol PG. A single-centre study of gastric ulcer healing with 300mg ranitidine at night versus 150mg ranitidine twice daily. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 21: 833–836, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jorde R, Burhol PG, Hansen T. Ranitidine 150mg at night in the prevention of gastric ulcer relapse. Gut 28: 460–463, 1987

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Juma FD. Ranitidine in the treatment of peptic ulceration in Kenyans. East African Medical Journal 62: 752–754, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kagevi I, Wählby L. CSF concentrations of ranitidine. Lancet 1: 164–165, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kapur BK, Bardhan KD. 24-Hour intra-gastric pH profile in healed and in active duodenal ulcer disease. Abstract. Gut 29: A1452, 1988

    Google Scholar 

  • Karachalios GN. Ranitidine and hepatitis. Annals of Internal Medicine 103: 634–635, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kearns GL, McConnell RF, Trang JM, Kluza RB. Appearance of ranitidine in breast milk following multiple dosing. Clinical Pharmacy 4: 322–324, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kelly JG, Salem SAM, Kinney CD, Shanks RG, McDevitt DG. Effects of ranitidine on the disposition of metoprolol. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 19: 219–224, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kelly HW, Powell JR, Donohue JF. Ranitidine at very large doses does not inhibit theophylline elimination. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 39: 577–581, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kempf M, Kaufmann D, Walt RP, Heim J, Mappes A, et al. TV snacks are bad for H2 receptor blockade. Abstract. Gastroenterology 94 (Part 2): A222, 1988

    Google Scholar 

  • Kirch W, Hoensch H, Janisch HD. Interactions and non-interactions with ranitidine. Clinical Pharmacokinetics 9: 493–510, 1984

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ketterl R, Hölscher AH, Weiser HF, Siewert JR. Control of intragastric pH in patients with sepsis or peritonitis by ranitidine versus cimetidine — a double blind study. Zeitschrift für Gastroenterology 22: 602–608, 1984

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Klinkenberg-Knol EC, Jansen JMBJ, Festen HPM, Meuwissen SGM, Lamers CBHW. Double-blind multicentre comparison of omeprazole and ranitidine in the treatment of reflux oesophagitis. Lancet 1: 349–351, 1987

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Klotz U, Arvela P, Rosenkranz B. Effect of single doses of cimetidine and ranitidine on the steady-state plasma levels of midazolam. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 38: 652–655, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Klotz U, Gottlieb W, Keohane PP, Dammann HG. Nocturnal doses of ranitidine and nizatidine do not affect the disposition of diazepam. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 27: 210–212, 1987

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Knigge U, Dejgaard A, Wollesen F, Ingerslev O, Bennett P, et al. The acute and long term effect of the H2-receptor antagonists cimetidine and ranitidine on the pituitary-gonadal axis in men. Clinical Endocrinology 18: 307–313, 1983

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Koelz HR, Aeberhard P, Wagner H, Hassler H, Kunz H, et al. Prevention of acute gastroduodenal stress lesions: low dose antacid treatment without and with additional ranitidine (Abstract). Gastroenterology 92: 1476, 1987

    Google Scholar 

  • Koelz HR, Birchler R, Bretholz A, Bron B, Capitaine Y, et al. Healing and relapse of reflux esophagitis during treatment with ranitidine. Gastroenterology 91: 1198–1205, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Koga Y, Iwatsuki N, Hasimoto Y. Direct effects of H2-receptor antagonists on airway smooth muscle and on responses mediated by H1- and H2-receptors. Anesthesiology 66: 181–185, 1987

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Konturek SJ, Obtulowicz W, Kwiecien N, Sito E, Mikos E, et al. Comparison of ranitidine and cimetidine in the inhibition of histamine, sham feeding and meal induced gastric secretion in duodenal ulcer patients. Gut 21: 181, 1980

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Konturek SJ, Obtulowicz W, Kwiecien N, Kopp B, Oleksy J. Kinetics and duration of action of ranitidine on gastric secretion and its effect on pancreatic secretion in duodenal ulcer patients. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 16 (Suppl. 69): 91, 1981

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Konturek SJ. Pharmacology and clinical use of ranitidine. Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine 49: 370–382, 1982

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kopitar Z, Cvelbar P, Zorz M, Milutinović S, Jankovič N. Pharmacokinetics of ranitidine in adult patients with end stage renal disease after single and multiple dosing. Acta Pharmaceutica Jugoslavia 37: 371–379, 1987

    Google Scholar 

  • Korman MG, Hansky J, Eaves ER, Schmidt GT. Influence of cigarette smoking on healing and relapse in duodenal ulcer disease. Gastroenterology 85: 871–874, 1983

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kozarek R, Berenson M, Berkowitz J, Bright-Asare P, DeLuca V, et al. Maintenance therapy with ranitidine following healing of acute duodenal ulcer. Current Therapeutic Research 38: 341–351, 1985

    Google Scholar 

  • Kubacka RT, Antal EJ, Juhl RP. The effects of cimetidine and ranitidine on glyburide pharmacokinetics. Abstract no. 82. Drug Intelligence and Clinical Pharmacy 19: 461, 1985

    Google Scholar 

  • Kurowski M, Reim H-G. Metabolische interaktion zwischen cimetidin, ranitidin und amitriptylin/chlordiazepoxid. Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie 24: 627–634, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Laggner AN, Lenz K, Graninger W, Gremmel F, Grimm G, et al. Stress ulcer prophylaxis in a general intensive care unit: sucralfate versus ranitidine. Anaesthesist 37: 704–710, 1988

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lalonde RL, North DS, Mattern AL, Kapil RP. Tocainide pharmacokinetics after H-2 antagonists. Abstract no. IIIA-1. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 41: 241, 1987

    Google Scholar 

  • Lam AM, Grace DM, Manninen PH. The effects of cimetidine and ranitidine with and without metoclopramide on gastric volume and pH in morbidly obese patients. Canadian Anaesthetists’ Society Journal 33: 773–779, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lam SK, Isenberg JI, Grossman MI, Lane WH, Hogan DL. Rapid gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 27: 598–604, 1982

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lam KT, Lai ST, Kan YS, Chan AYT. Sucralfate compared with ranitidine in the short-term healing of duodenal ulcers. Journal of International Medical Research 13: 338–341, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lane MR, Lee SP. Recurrence of duodenal ulcer after medical treatment. Lancet 1: 1147–1149, 1988

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Langman MJS. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding: the trials of trials. Gut 26: 217–220, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lanza F, Robinson M, Bowers J, Griffin J, Kogut D, et al. A multi-center double-blind comparison of ranitidine vs placebo in the prophylaxis of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) induced lesions in gastric and duodenal mucosae. Gastroenterology 94: A250, 1988

    Google Scholar 

  • Lanzon-Miller S, Pounder RE, Raymond F, Hamilton MR, Chronos NAF, et al. 24 hour intragastric acidity and plasma gastrin concentration in healthy volunteers taking nizatidine 150mg, nizatidine 300mg, ranitidine 300mg or placebo at 21:15h. Gastroenterology 92: 1492, 1987a

    Google Scholar 

  • Lanzon-Miller S, Pounder RE, Hamilton MR, Ball S, Chronos NAF, et al. Twenty-four-hour intragastric acidity and plasma gastrin concentration before and during treatment with either ranitidine or omeprazole. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1: 239–251, 1987b

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lanzon-Miller S, Pounder RE, Chronos NAF, Hamilton M, Ball S, et al. Can high dose oral ranitidine eliminate intragastric acid, and what does it do to plasma gastrin? Gastroenterology 92: 1491, 1987c

    Google Scholar 

  • Lauritsen K, Bytzer P, Hansen J, Bekker C, Rask-Madsen J. Comparison of ranitidine and high-dose antacid in the treatment of prepyloric or duodenal ulcer. A double-blind controlled trial. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 20: 123–128, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lauritsen K, Laursen LS, Havelund T, Bytzer P, Svendsen LB, et al. Enprostil and ranitidine in duodenal ulcer healing: double blind comparative trial. British Medical Journal 292: 864–866, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lauritsen K, Havelund T, Laursen LS, Bytzer P, Kjaergaard J, et al. Enprostil and ranitidine in prevention of duodenal ulcer relapse: one year double blind comparative trial. British Medical Journal 294: 932–934, 1987

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lazzaroni M, Sangaletti O, Parente F, Imbimbo BP, Bianchi Porro G. Inhibition of food stimulated acid secretion by association of pirenzepine and ranitidine in duodenal ulcer patients. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Therapy and Toxicology 24: 685–688, 1986

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lebert PA, MacLeod SM, Mahon WA, Soldin SJ, Vandenberghe HM. Ranitidine kinetics and dynamics. I. Oral dose studies. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 30: 539–544, 1981a

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lebert PA, Mahon WA, MacLeod SM, Soldin SJ, Fenje P, et al. Ranitidine kinetics and dynamics II. Intravenous dose studies and comparison with cimetidine. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 30: 545–550, 1981b

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lee FI, Fielding JD, Costello FT. Ranitidine compared with cimetidine in the short-term healing of duodenal ulcer. Postgraduate Medical Journal 59: 88–92, 1983

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lee FI, Fielding JD, MacKay C, Mitchell K, Mohammed R, et al. Comparison of twice-daily ranitidine and placebo in the treatment of duodenal ulcer–a multicentre study in the United Kingdom. Hepato-gastroenterology 29: 127–129, 1982

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lee JH, Kim JM, Ha TY. Effect of the new histamine H2-receptor antagonist, ranitidine, on the immune response in mice. Medical Abstracts, Korea 12: 96, 1985a. Abstract no. 038-105-84

    Google Scholar 

  • Lee FI, Reed PI, Crowe JP, Mclsaac RL, Wood JR. Acute treatment of duodenal ulcer: a multicentre study to compare ranitidine 150mg twice daily with ranitidine 300mg once at night. Gut 27: 1091–1095, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lee FI, Samloff IM, Hardman M. Comparison of tri-potassium di-citrato bismuthate tablets with ranitidine in healing and relapse of duodenal ulcers. Lancet 1: 1299–1302, 1985b

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Leeder JS, Harding L, MacLeod SM. Ranitidine pharmacokinetics in children. Abstract no. A23. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 37: 201, 1985

    Google Scholar 

  • Lehtola J, Niemelä S, Martikainen J, Krekelä I. Ranitidine 150mg three times a day, in the treatment of reflux oesophagitis. A placebo-controlled double-blind study. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 21: 175–180, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lehy T, Mignon M, Cadiot G, Elouaer-Blanc L, Ruszniewski P, et al. Gastric endocrine cell behaviour in Zollinger-Ellison patients upon long-term potent antisecretory treatment. Gastroenterology 96: 1029–1040, 1989

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Liedberg G, Davies HJ, Enskog L, Eriksson S, Frederiksen B, et al. Ulcer healing and relapse prevention by ranitidine in peptic ulcer disease. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 20: 941–944, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lombardo L, Babando GM, De La Pierre M, Masoero G, Sategna-Guidetti C, et al. Long-term treatment of duodenal ulcer with ranitidine: an endoscopic, biochemical and clinical trial. Panminerva Medica 25: 105–108, 1983

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Loperfido S, Monica F, Godena F, Grigoletto S, Melchiori S, et al. Efficacy of ranitidine in the treatment of severe upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding. Medicina Rivista Delia Enciclopedia Medica Italiana 7: 446–449, 1987

    Google Scholar 

  • Lopez-Herce Cid J, Velasco LA, Codoceo R, Dominguez MAD, Jimenez E, et al. Ranitidine prophylaxis in acute gastric mucosal damage in critically ill pediatric patients. Critical Care Medicine 16: 591–593, 1988

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • MacDermott AJ, Insole J, Kaufman B. Acute confusional episodes during treatment with ranitidine. British Medical Journal 294: 1616, 1987

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • MacKinnon M, Duggan J, Alp M, Pirola R, Anstad WI, et al. Enprostil and ranitidine: comparative efficacy and safety in patients with duodenal ulcer. Australian and New Zealand Medical Journal 17: 316–320, 1987

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • MacNab MSP, Milne MK, Allison RH. Oral ranitidine in labour. British Journal of Anaesthesia 57: 1040–1041, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Maconochie JG, Thomas M, Michael MF, Jenner WR, Tanner RJN. Ranitidine sucralfate interaction. Abstract no. P110-2. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 41: 205, 1987

    Google Scholar 

  • MacWalter RS, El Debani AH, Felly J, Stevenson IH. Potentiation by ranitidine of the hypoglycaemic response to glipizide in diabetic patients. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 19: 121P, 1985

    Google Scholar 

  • Mahachai V, Walker K, Thomson ABR. Comparison of cimetidine and ranitidine on 24-hour intragastric acidity and serum gastric profile in patients with esophagitis. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 30: 321–328, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mahon WA, MacLeod PA, Lebert SJ, Soldin SJ. Ranitidine vs cimetidine: effects on pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid and pepsin. Abstract no. 73. World Conference on Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, London, August, 1980

  • Manchikanti L, Colliver JA, Grow JB, Demeyer RG, Hadley CH, et al. Dose-response effects of intravenous ranitidine on gastric pH and volume in outpatients. Anaesthesiology 65: 180–185, 1986a

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Manchikanti L, Colliver JA, Roush JR, Canella MG. Evaluation of ranitidine as an oral antacid in outpatient anaesthesia. Southern Medical Journal 78: 818–822, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Manchikanti L, Colliver JA, Marrero TC, Roush JR. Ranitidine and metoclopramide for prophylaxis of aspiration pneumonitis in elective surgery. Anesthesia and Analgesia 63: 903–910, 1984

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Manchikanti L, Roush JR, Colliver JA. Effect of preanaesthetic ranitidine and metoclopramide on gastric contents in morbidly obese patients. Anesthesia and Analgesia 65: 195–197, 1986b

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mangiameli A, Condorelli G, Dato A, Monaco S. Cardiovascular response to the acute intravenous administration of the H2-receptor antagonists ranitidine and cimetidine. Current Therapeutic Research 36: 13–17, 1984

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mandai SK. Psychiatric side effects of ranitidine. British Journal of Clinical Practice 40: 260, 1986

    Google Scholar 

  • Manniche C, Malchow-Møller A, Andersen JR, Pedersen C, Hansen TM, et al. Randomised study of the influence of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the treatment of peptic ulcer in patients with rheumatic disease. Gut 28: 226–229, 1987

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Marchant J, Summers K, Mclsaac RL, Wood JR. A comparison of two ranitidine intravenous infusion regimens in critically ill patients. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 2: 55–63, 1988

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Marchant J, Summers K, Reed PI, Stevens LA, Wood RJ. Ranitidine pharmacokinetics: effect of administration time and food. Gastroenterology 92: 1516, 1987

    Google Scholar 

  • Marchesi M, Pedrazzoni M, Palummeri E, Provvedini D, Passeri M. Effects of ranitidine and cimetidine on serum immunoreactive parathyroid hormone in young healthy subjects. Clinical Trials Journal 20: 275–286, 1983

    Google Scholar 

  • Marks IN, Young GO, Tigler-Wybrandi NA, Newton K, Winter TA. Acid secretory response and parietal cell sensitivity in patients with duodenal ulcer before and after healing with sucralfate or ranitidine. Abstract. Gastroenterology International 1 (Suppl. 1): 627A, 1988a

    Google Scholar 

  • Marks IN, Winter TA, Lucke W, Wright JP, Newton KA, et al. Omeprazole and ranitidine in duodenal ulcer healing. South African Medical Journal 24 (Suppl.): 54–56, 1988b

    Google Scholar 

  • Marks IN, Wright JP. Comparison of famotidine 40mg with ranitidine 300mg at night in short-term duodenal ulcer healing: a South African multicentre study. South African Medical Journal 72: 18–20, 1987

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Marks IN, Young GO. Changes in acid secretory response and parietal cell sensitivity on healing predict early relapse in patients with duodenal ulcer. Abstract no. 233. American Journal of Gastroenterology 83: 1075, 1988

    Google Scholar 

  • Martin LE, Bell JA, Carey PF, Dallas FAA, Dixon GT, et al. A review of pharmacokinetics and metabolism of ranitidine in animals and man. In Misiewicz JJ, Wormsley KG (Eds). The clinical use of ranitidine, Medicine Publishing Foundation series 5, pp. 23–31, Medicine Publishing Foundation, Oxford, 1982

    Google Scholar 

  • Martin L, Ruiz-Capellan R, Dicenta C. A randomized, double-blind study comparing famotidine with ranitidine in the treatment of benign gastric ulcers. Italian Journal of Gastroenterology 19 (Suppl.): 165 (Abstract), 1987

    Google Scholar 

  • Masci E, Testoni PA, Passaretti S, Guslandi M, Tittobello A. Comparison of ranitidine, domperidone maleate and ranitidine + domperidone maleate in the short-term treatment of reflux oesophagitis. Drugs under Experimental Clinical Research 11: 687–692, 1985

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Masoero G, Rocchia F, Rossanino A, Marchetto M, Benitti V, et al. Comparison of ranitidine and sucralfate in the long-term treatment of duodenal ulcer. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 8: 624–627, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mathews HML, Wilson CM, Thompson EM, Moore J. Combination treatment with ranitidine and sodium bicarbonate prior to obstetric anaesthesia. Anaesthesia 41: 1202–1206, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • McAuley DM, Moore J, Dundee JW, McCaughey W. Oral ranitidine in labour. Anaesthesia 39: 433–438, 1984

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • McCullough AJ. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind study comparing famotidine with ranitidine in the treatment of active duodenal ulcer disease. American Journal of Medicine 81 (Suppl. 4B): 17–24, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • McFadyen ML, Folf PI, Marks IN, Wright JP, Lucke W. The pharmacokinetics of ranitidine in patients with chronic duodenal ulceration. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 16 (Suppl. 69): 109, 1981

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • McFadyen ML, Folb PI, Miller R, Marks IN, Moshal MG. The pharmacokinetics of ranitidine in patients with chronic duodenal ulceration: a comparison of responders and non-responders. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 24: 441–447, 1983a

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • McFadyen ML, Folb PI, Miller R, Keeton GR, Marks IN. Pharmacokinetics of ranitidine in patients with chronic renal failure. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 25: 347–351, 1983b

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • McGonigle RJS, Williams LC, Amphlett GE, England RJ, Parsons V. The pharmacokinetics of ranitidine in renal disease. In Misiewicz JJ, Wormsley KG (Eds), The clinical use of ranitidine, Medicine Publishing Foundation Series 5, pp. 41–46, Medicine Publishing Foundation, Oxford, 1982a

    Google Scholar 

  • McGonigle RJS, Williams LC, Amphlett GE, England RJ, Parsons V. Ranitidine clearance in patients with renal impairment. Abstract no. 435. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 17 (Suppl. 78): 109, 1982b

    Google Scholar 

  • McIsaac RL, McCanless I, Summers K, Wood JR. Ranitidine and cimetidine in the healing of duodenal ulcer: meta-analysis of comparative clinical trials. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1: 369–381, 1987

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • McNeil JJ, Mihaly GW, Anderson A, Marshall AW, Smallwood RA, et al. Pharmacokinetics of the H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine in man. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 12: 411, 1981

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Medina LA, Rollan A, Lucchini A, Avendaño S, Fuster F, et al. Estudio Comparativo de ranitidina en dosis diaria unica y en dos dosis en el tratamiento a corto plazo de la ulcera duodenal. Revista Medica de Chile 114: 843–847, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mehta SM, Bhalara DD, Goyal RK. Effects of ranitidine on the enzyme cholinesterase and the rat anococcygeus muscle. Agents and Actions 21: 38–40, 1987

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mekel RCPM, Den Boer DJ. Prevention of duodenal ulcer relapse with ranitidine. South African Medical Journal 68: 385–386, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Merki H, Witzel L, Harre K, Scheurle E, Bauerfeind P, et al. Circadian pattern of intragastric acidity in duodenal ulcer patients. A comparison with healthy controls. Abstract. Gastroenterology 90 (Part 2): 1549, 1986

    Google Scholar 

  • Merki H, Witzel L, Harre K, Scheurle E, Neumann J, et al. Single dose treatment with H2 receptor antagonists: is bedtime administration too late? Gut 28: 451–454, 19

  • Merki HS, Witzel L, Kaufmann D, Kempf M, Müssig V, et al. The effects of roxatidine acetate (HOE-760) on 24-hour intragastric acidity in healthy volunteers: comparison with ranitidine and placebo. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 2: 73–81, 1988a

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Merki HS, Witzel L, Walt RP, Neumann J, Scheurle E, et al. Double blind comparison of the effects of cimetidine, ranitidine, famotidine, and placebo on intragastric acidity in 30 normal volunteers. Gut 29: 81–84, 1988b

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Meyrick Thomas J, Trotman IF, Misiewicz JJ. Ranitidine and lower oesophageal sphincter pressure. Lancet 1: 418, 1983

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Meyrick Thomas RH, Browne PD, Kirby JDT. The influence of ranitidine, alone and in combination with clemastine, on histamine-mediated cutaneous weal and flare reactions in human skin. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 20: 377–382, 1985

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Meyrick Thomas J, Misiewicz JJ, Cook AR, Hill MJ, Smith PLR, et al. Effects of one year’s treatment with ranitidine and of truncal vagotomy on gastric contents. Gut 28: 726–738, 1987

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Miettinen P, Anttonen V, Aukee S, Huttunen R, Lahtinen J, et al. Ranitidine versus anticholinergic/antacid for duodenal ulcer. A randomized, endoscopically controlled, single-blind multi-centre trial. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 20: 701–705, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mignon M, Vallot T, Bonfils S. Use of ranitidine in the management of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. In Misiewicz JJ, Wormsley KG (Eds) The clinical use of ranitidine, Medicine Publishing Foundation Series 5, pp. 279–280, Medicine Publishing Foundation, Oxford, 1982

    Google Scholar 

  • Mihaly GW, Marino AT, Webster LK, Jones DB, Louis WJ, et al. High dose of antacid (Mylanta II) reduces bioavailability of ranitidine. British Medical Journal 285: 998–999, 1982

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Miller R. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of ranitidine in humans. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 73: 1376–1379, 1984

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Miller J, Nelson HS. Suppression of immediate skin tests (IST) by ranitidine. Abstract no. 3. Annals of Allergy 60: 154, 1988

    Google Scholar 

  • Mills JG, Clancy A, Bond B, Burland WL, Bradbrook I, et al. A comparison of the effects of cimetidine, ranitidine, oxmetidine and placebo on the metabolism and clearance of racemic warfarin. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 21: 566P, 1986

    Google Scholar 

  • Missale G, Agosti A, Bertelè A. Inhibition of gastric acid secretion in man by nizatidine and ranitidine. Italian Journal of Gastroenterology 19: 261–263, 1987

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mohammed R, Holden RJ, Hearns JB, McKibben BM, Buchanan KD, et al. Effects of eight weeks’ continuous treatment with oral ranitidine and cimetidine on gastric acid secretion, pepsin secretion, and fasting serum gastrin. Gut 24: 61–66, 1983

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mojaverian, Rocci ML Jr., Kellner PE, Gordon SJ, Vlasses PH. Oral ranitidine decreases the gastric residence time of an indigestible solid in man. Abstract. Gastroenterology 92 (Part 2): 1538, 1987

    Google Scholar 

  • Moore JG, Goo RH. Day and night aspirin-induced gastric mucosal damage and protection by ranitidine in man. Chronobiology International 4: 111–116, 1987

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Moore JG, McIntyre B, Alazraki N. Gastric emptying of combined liquid-solid meals in healed duodenal ulcer. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 30: 1134–1138, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • More DG, Raper RF, Munro IA, Watson CJ, Boutagy JS, et al. Randomized, prospective trial of cimetidine and ranitidine for control of intragastric pH in the critically ill. Surgery 97: 215–223, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Morgan AG, McAdam WAF, Pacsoo C. A comparison of ranitidine with Caved-S in duodenal ulcer treatment. In The clinical use of ranitidine, Misiewicz and Wormsley (Eds), Medical Publishing Foundation Series 5, pp. 166–169, Medicine Publishing Foundation, Oxford, 1982

    Google Scholar 

  • Morgan AG, McAdam WAF, Pacsoo C. Comparison between enprostil and ranitidine in the treatment of gastric ulceration and subsequent follow up (interim report). Gut 26: A1149 (Abstract F13), 1985b

    Google Scholar 

  • Morgan AG, Pacsoo C, McAdam WAF. Comparison between ranitidine and ranitidine plus Caved-S in the treatment of gastric ulceration. Gut 26: 1377–1379, 1985a

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Morichau-Beauchant M, Houin G, Mavier P, Alexandre C, Dhumeaux D. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of ranitidine in normal subjects and cirrhotic patients. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 31: 113–118, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Morison DH, Dunn GL, Fargas-Babjak AM, Mondgil AM, Smedstad K, et al. A double-blind comparison of cimetidine and ranitidine as prophylaxis against gastric aspiration syndrome. Anaesthesia and Analgesia 61: 988–992, 1982

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Morris DL, Markham S, Beachey A, Hicks F, Summers K, et al. Ranitidine for stress ulceration: effect of bolus or infusion administration. Gut 26: A1106, 1985

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Muirhead M, Somogyi A, Rolan P, Bochner F. Multiple site interactions between triamterene and ranitidine in man: a common mechanism for reduced renal and hepatic clearance? Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology Suppl. 10: 44, 1987

    Google Scholar 

  • Müller P, Biewer R, Bouzo F, Dammann HG, Schultz E, et al. Ranitidine heals gastroduodenal lesions associated with chronic NOSAC therapy in rheumatic patients. Gastroenterology 92: 1543, 1987a

    Google Scholar 

  • Müller P, Dammann HG, Simon B. Does ranitidine improve gastroduodenal tolerability of indomethacin and acemetacin in man? Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology 5 (Suppl. 2): 270, 1987b

    Google Scholar 

  • Muller-Lissner SA, Sonnenberg A, Eichenberger P, Blum AL. Effect of ranitidine on gastric acid and pepsin secretion following sham feeding. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 16 (Suppl. 69): 27, 1981

    Google Scholar 

  • Mullersman G, Gotz VP, Russell WL, Derendorf H. Lack of clinically significant in vitro and in vivo interactions between ranitidine and sucralfate. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 75: 995–998, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Murphy MS, Eastham EJ, Jimenez M, Nelson R, Jackson RH. Duodenal ulceration: review of 110 cases. Archives of Disease in Childhood 62: 554–558, 1987

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Murray FE, Lombard M, Dervan P, Fitzgerald RJ, Crowe J. Bleeding from multifocal heterotopic gastric mucosa in the colon controlled by an H2 antagonist. Gut 29: 848–851, 1988

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Murray WR, LaFerla G, Cooper G, Archibald M. Duodenal ulcer healing after presentation with haemorrhage. Gut 27: 1387–1389, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Myren J, Osnes M, Larsen S, Hansen T, Ness K. The effect of ranitidine on the gastroduodenal motility as determined by the maximal pressure periods. Gastroenterology 21: 733–736, 1986

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Naccaratto R, Cremer M, Dammann HG, Keohane PP, Mulder H, et al. Nizatidine versus ranitidine in gastric ulcer disease. A European multicentre trial. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 22 (Suppl. 136): 71–78, 1987

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Noseworthy TW, Shustack A, Johnston RG, Anderson BJ, Konopad E, et al. A randomized clinical trial comparing ranitidine and antacids in critically ill patients. Critical Care Medicine 15: 817–819, 1987

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ochs HR, Greenblatt DJ, Matlis R, Weinbrenner J. Interaction of ibuprofen with the H-2 receptor antagonists ranitidine and cimetidine. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 38: 648–651, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • O’Connor HJ, Riley SE, Axon ATR, Garner RC. Effect of histamine H2-receptor antagonist (H2RA) therapy on mutagenic activity in gastric juice. Abstract no. T71. Gut 27: A608, 1986

    Google Scholar 

  • Oderda G, Ansaldi N. Peptic ulcers in childhood. Lancet 1: 302–303, 1988

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ohnishi K, Nakayama T, Saito M, Hatano H, Nomura F, et al. Effects of cimetidine and ranitidine on splanchnic hemodynamics in patients with chronic liver disease. American Journal of Gastroenterology 80: 290–293, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ooi KC, Peden NR, Champion MC, Simo EI. The effect of cimetidine and ranitidine on serum high density lipoprotein subfractions. Atherosclerosis 57: 159–162, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • O’Reilly RA. Comparative interaction of cimetidine and ranitidine with racemic warfarin in man. Archives of Internal Medicine 144: 989–991, 1984

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • O’Sullivan G, Sear JW, Bullingham RES, Carrie LES. The effect of magnesium trisilicate mixture, metoclopramide and ranitidine on gastric pH, volume and serum gastrin. Anaesthesia 40: 246–253, 1985

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pace F, Bianchi Porro G, Sangaletti O. Ranitidine therapy in peptic oesophagitis: doubling the dose or duration of treatment? Gut 29: A1446, 1988b

    Google Scholar 

  • Pace F, Colombo E, Ferrara A, Prada A, Rocca F, et al. Nizatidine and ranitidine in the short-term treatment of duodenal ulcer: a cooperative double-blind study of once-daily bedtime administration. American Journal of Gastroenterology 83: 643–645, 1988a

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Pajares J, Pique J, Guardia J, Pita L, Alcalá R, et al. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind study comparing famotidine versus ranitidine in the treatment of active duodenal ulcer disease. Italian Journal of Gastroenterology 19 (Suppl.): 68S, Abstract P69, 1987

    Google Scholar 

  • Parente F, Lazzaroni M, Petrillo M, Bianchi Porro G. Colloidal bismuth subcitrate and ranitidine in the short-term treatment of benign gastric ulcer. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 21 (Suppl. 122): 42–45, 1986

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pasquali R, Corinaldesi R, Miglioli M, Melchionda A, Capelli M, et al. Effect of prolonged administration of ranitidine on pituitary and thyroid hormones, and their response to specific hypothalamic-releasing factors. Clinical Endocrinology 15: 457, 1981

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Patel L, Weerasuriya K. Effect of cimetidine and ranitidine on propranolol clearance. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 15: 152P, 1983

    Google Scholar 

  • Patterson JF. Mania associated with intravenous ranitidine therapy. Southern Medical Journal (Birmingham) 80: 1467, 1987

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pearce P, Funder JW. Histamine H2-receptor antagonist: radio-receptor assay for antiandrogen side effects. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 7: 442, 1980

    Google Scholar 

  • Pearson MW. Thrombocytopenia associated with ranitidine. British Medical Journal 292: 489, 1986

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Peden NR, Boyd EJS, Browning MCK, Saunders JHB, Wormsley KG. Effects of two histamine H2-receptor blocking drugs on basal levels of gonadotrophins, prolactin, testosterone and oestradiol-17B during treatment of duodenal ulcer in male patients. Acta Endocrinologica 96: 564, 1981a

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Peden NR, Boyd EJS, Saunders JHB, Wormsley KG. Ranitidine in the treatment of duodenal ulceration. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 16: 325, 1981b

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Peden NR, Saunders JHB, Wormsley KG. Inhibition of pentagastrin-stimulated and nocturnal gastric secretion by ranitidine. Lancet 1: 690, 1979

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Peden NR, Robertson AJ, Boyd EJS, Brown RA, Gibbs JH, et al. Mitogen stimulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes of duodenal ulcer patients during treatment with cimetidine or ranitidine. Gut 23: 398–403, 1982

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Penston JG, Wormsley KG. Long-term treatment of duodenal ulcers. Gastroenterology 94: A349, 1988

    Google Scholar 

  • Perret G, Hugues JN, Louchahi M, Varoquaux O, Modigliani E. Effect of short-term oral administration of cimetidine and ranitidine on the basal and thyrotropin-releasing hormone-stimulated serum concentrations of prolactin, thyrotropin and thyroid hormones in healthy volunteers. A double-blind crossover study. Pharmacology 32: 101–108, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Peterson WL, Richardson CT. Intravenous cimetidine or two regimens of ranitidine to reduce fasting gastric acidity. Annals of Internal Medicine 104: 505–507, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Picardo M, Santucci B. Urticaria from ranitidine. Contact Dermatitis 9: 327–328, 1983

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pöch G, Londong W. Simple approach to assess potentiated drug combinations in clinical trials: studies with pirenzepine plus H2-receptor antagonists. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Therapy and Toxicology 23: 283–287, 1985

    Google Scholar 

  • Poggi A, Sciallero S, Indiveri F. In vitro effects of ranitidine on human lymphocyte functions. International Journal of Immunopharmacology 7: 369, 1985

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pollock EMM, Dougall JR, Bryce C, McIntosh M, Wallace PGM, et al. Loss of ranitidine during continuous haemofiltration. British Journal of Anaesthesia 58: 1322P, 1986

    Google Scholar 

  • Polloni A, Marchi S, Bellini M, Savalli E, Cecconi N, et al. Use of antisecretory drugs for gastroprotection during antiblastic chemotherapy. Drugs under Experimental Clinical Research 11: 303–306, 1985

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Potter HP, Byrne EB, Lebovitz S. Fever with cimetidine and ranitidine. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 8: 275–276, 1986

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Powell JR, Donn KH. Histamine H2-antagonist drug interactions in perspective: mechanistic concepts and clinical implications. American Journal of Medicine 77 (Suppl. 5B): 57–84, 1984

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Poynter D, Pick CR, Harcourt RA, Sutherland MF, Spurling NW, et al. Evaluation of ranitidine safety. In Misiewicz JJ, Wormsley KG (Eds), The clinical use of ranitidine, Medicine Publishing Foundation Series 5, pp. 48–56, Medicine Publishing Foundation, Oxford, 1982

    Google Scholar 

  • Price W, Coli L, Brandstetter RD, Gotz VP. Ranitidine-associated hallucinations. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 29: 375–376, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Prichard PJ, Jones DB, Yeomans ND, Mihaly GW, Smallwood RA, et al. The effectiveness of ranitidine in reducing gastric acid-secretion decreases with continued therapy. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 22: 663–668, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Puppo F, Corsini G, Mangini P. Ranitidine does not modify lymphocyte in vitro reactivity to the mitogens PHA, CON A and PWM. IRCS Medical Science: Classified List 10: 538, 1982

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Quatrini M, Basilisco G, Bianchi PA. Treatment of ‘cimetidineresistant’ chronic duodenal ulcers with ranitidine or cimetidine: a randomised multicentre study. Gut 25: 1113–1117, 1984

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Quina M. Clinical trial of ranitidine in duodenal ulcer in Portugal. In: Misiewicz and Wormsley (Eds) The clinical use of ranitidine, Medicine Publishing Foundation Series 5, pp. 176–177, Medicine Publishing Foundation, Oxford, 1982

    Google Scholar 

  • Quinton A, Goldfain D, Weber F, Briaud M, Plane D, et al. Gastric ulcer healing. Rioprostil versus ranitidine. Gastroenterology 92: 1586 (Abstract), 1987

    Google Scholar 

  • Re L, Cingolani ML, Concettoni C, Rossini L. Cholinergic effects of cimetidine and ranitidine. Pharmacological Research Communications 15: 485–517, 1983

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Reid SR, Bayliff CD. The comparative efficacy of cimetidine and ranitidine in controlling gastric pH in critically ill patients. Canadian Anaesthetists’ Society Journal 33: 287–293, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Reimann IW, Klotz U, Frölich J. Effects of cimetidine and ranitidine on steady-state propranolol kinetics and dynamics. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 32: 749–757, 1982

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rendic S, Ruf HH, Weber P, Kajfez F. Cimetidine and ranitidine: their interaction with human and pig liver microsomes and with purified cytochrome P-450. European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 9: 195–200, 1984

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Reynolds JR, Walt RP, Clark AG, Hardcastle JD, Langman MJS. Intragastric pH monitoring in acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding and the effect of intravenous cimetidine and ranitidine. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1: 23–30, 1987

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Richards DA. Comparative pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of cimetidine and ranitidine. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 5 (Suppl. 1): 81–90, 1983

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Richardson CT, Peters MN, Feldman M, McClelland RN, Walsh JH, et al. Treatment of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome with exploratory laparotomy, proximal gastric vagotomy, and H2-receptor antagonists. A prospective study. Gastroenterology 89: 357–367, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Riley AJ, Crowley P, Harrison C. Transfer of ranitidine to biological fluids: milk and semen. In Misiewicz JJ, Wormsley KG (Eds), The clinical use of ranitidine, Medicine Publishing Foundation Series 5, pp. 77–86, Medicine Publishing Foundation, Oxford, 1982

    Google Scholar 

  • Roberts CJC. Clinical pharmacokinetics of ranitidine. Clinical Pharmacokinetics 9: 211–221, 1984

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Robson RA, Wing LMH, Miners JO, Lillywhite KJ, Birkett DJ. The effect of ranitidine on the disposition of lignocaine. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 20: 170–173, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rodvold KA, Paloucek FP, Jung D, Gallastegui J. Interaction of steady-state procainamide with H2-receptor antagonists cimetidine and ranitidine. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring 9: 378–383, 1987

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rogers M, Holmfield J, Primrose J, Gledhill T, Johnston D. Is suppression of nocturnal acid important for the healing of duodenal ulcers? Abstract no. T42. Gut 29: A710, 1988

    Google Scholar 

  • Rohner HG, Wienbeck M, Ran 2-1-Study Group. Zwei oder eine tagesdosis ranitidin zur behandlung der refluxösophagitis? Zeitschrift fur Gastroenterologie 24: 396–402, 19

  • Rohner H-G, Gugler R. Treatment of active duodenal ulcers with famotidine. American Journal of Medicine 81 (Suppl. 4B): 13–16, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Roy AK, Cuda MP, Levine RA. Induction of theophylline toxicity and inhibition of clearance rates by ranitidine. American Journal of Medicine 85: 525–527, 1988

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Royer JE, Triplett RG. Effect of preoperative cimetidine and ranitidine on gastric secretion. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 43: 956–957, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ryan FP, Jorde R, Ehsanullah RSB, Summers K, Wood JR. A single night time dose of ranitidine in the acuttreatment of gastric ulcer: a European multicentre trial. Gut 27: 784–788, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rylance GW, Woods CG, Lamb R. The use of intravenous ranitidine in stressed children. Gastroenterology 92: 1606, 1987

    Google Scholar 

  • Sacco T, Corinaldesi R, Miglioli M, Accorsi A, Moretti G, et al. The prevention of Mendelson’s syndrome. Oral and intravenous administration of ranitidine. Clinical Trials Journal 23: 193–200, 1986

    Google Scholar 

  • Sandhar BK, Maltby JR, Goresky G, Strunin L Preoperative fluids and ranitidine in children. British Journal of Anaesthesia 60: 324P-325P, 19

  • Sandmark S, Carlsson R, Fausa O, Lundell L. Omeprazole or ranitidine in the treatment of reflux esophagitis. Results of a double blind, randomized, Scandinavian multicenter study. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 23: 625–632, 1988

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sannia A, Benna GM. LH, FSH and PRL levels after a high intra- venous dose of ranitidine. IRCS Medical Science: Classified List 10: 126, 1982

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Santana IA, Sharma BK, Pounder RE, Wood EC, Masters S, et al. 24 hour intragastric acidity during maintenance treatment with ranitidine. British Medical Journal 289: 1420, 1984

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Santos JEC, Bremner CG, Allen C, Warman B, Fotheringham G, et al. Ranitidine in the control of acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. A prospective randomized trial. South African Medical Journal 65: 1005–1006, 1984

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sarosiek J, Slomiany BL, Slomiany A, Gabryelewicz A. Effect of ranitidine on the content of glyceroglucolipids in gastric secretion of patients with gastric and duodenal ulcer. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 19: 650–654, 1984

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sasaki Y, Hayashi N, Kasahara A, Matsuda Y, Furusawa S, et al. Influence of ranitidine on hepatic blood flow assessed by organ-reflectance spectrophotometer and pulse-doppler ultrasonic flowmeter. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 30: 1043–1048, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Saunders JHB, Oliver RJ, Higson DL. Dyspepsia: incidence of non-ulcer disease in a controlled trial of ranitidine in general practice. British Medical Journal 292: 665–668, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Savarino V, Sandro Mela G, Scalabrini P, Di Timoteo E, Magnolia RM, et al. Continuous 24-hour intragastric pH monitoring in the evaluation of the effect of a nightly dose of famotidine, ranitidine and placebo on gastric acidity in patients with duodenal ulcer. Digestion 37: 103–109, 1987

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Scarpignato C, Bertaccini G. Different effects of cimetidine and ranitidine on gastric emptying in rats and man. Agents and Actions 12: 172–173, 1982

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Scarpignato C, Vitulo F, Zimbaro G, Pezzetta A. Effect of some H2-receptor antagonists on gastric emptying of solids in humans: are H2-receptors involved? British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 25: 11 IP, 19

  • Scavone JM, Greenblatt DJ, Matlis R, Harmatz JS. Interaction of oxaprozin with acetaminophen, cimetidine, and ranitidine. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 31: 371–374, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schaub N, Meyrick Thomas J, Misiewicz JJ, Lovell D, Trotman IF. Investigation of ranitidine 150mg bd or 300mg bd in the treatment of reflux disease. Hepato-gastroenterology 33: 208–213, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Schulz TB, Berstad A, Rydning A, Frislid K. Treatment of gastric ulcer with ranitidine. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 19: 119–121, 1984

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Schwartz JB, Upton RA, Lin ET, Williams R, Benet LZ. Effect of cimetidine or ranitidine administration on nifedipine pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 43: 673–680, 1988

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Scobie IN, Saunders J, Barnes GD, Hood J, Wheeler MJ, et al. A comparative study of the effects of ranitidine and cimetidine on carbohydrate tolerance, growth hormone secretion and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in man. Current Medical Research and Opinion 10: 285–290, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Seggev JS, Barzilay M, Schey G. No evidence for interaction between ranitidine and theophylline. Archives of Internal Medicine 147: 179–180, 1987

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Seitz HK, Bösche J, Czygan P, Veith S, Simon B, et al. Increased blood ethanol levels following cimetidine but not ranitidine. Lancet 1: 760, 1983

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sewing K-Fr. Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of ranitidine in man. In Misiewicz JJ, Wormsley KG (Eds), The clinical use of ranitidine, Medicine Publishing Foundation Series 5, pp. 32–40, Medicine Publishing Foundation, Oxford, 1982

    Google Scholar 

  • Shields LI, Files JA, Doll DC, Greenberg BR. Ranitidine and agranulocytosis. Annals of Internal Medicine 104: 128, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sherbaniuk RW, Wensel R, Trautman A, Grace M, Lentle B, et al. Gastrin, gastric emptying, and gastroesophageal reflux after ranitidine. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 5: 239–244, 1983

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sherbaniuk R, Wensel R, Bailey R, Trautman A, Grace M, et al. Ranitidine in the treatment of symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux disease. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 6: 9–15, 1984

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sica DA, Harford A, Comstock T, Eshelman F. Ranitidine (R) pharmacokinetics in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Abstract no. B26. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 37: 229, 1985

    Google Scholar 

  • Sica DA, Comstock TJ, Stone S, Garnett WR, Karnes HT, et al. Ranitidine accumulation kinetics in hemodialysis patients. Abstract no. P111D-1. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 41: 220, 1987

    Google Scholar 

  • Siepler J, Prindiville T, Nishikawa R, Trudeau W. Prophylaxis of stress ulceration in the ICU: a comparison of cimetidine and ranitidine constant infusion. (Abstract.) Gastroenterology 92: 1639, 1987

    Google Scholar 

  • Silvis S. Results of the United States ranitidine maintenance trials. American Journal of Medicine 77 (Suppl. 5B): 33–38, 1984

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Simjee AE. Campylobacter pylori. South African Medical Journal 74 (Suppl.): 38–39, 1988

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Simjee AE, Spitaels JM, Pettengell KE, Manion GL. A comparative study of misoprostol and ranitidine in the healing of duodenal ulcers. South African Medical Journal 72: 15–17, 1987

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Simon B, Dammann HG, Jakob G, Miederer SE, Muller P, et al. Famotidine versus ranitidine for the short-term treatment of duodenal ulcer. Digestion 32 (Suppl. 1): 32–37, 1985

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Simon B, Bianchi Porro G, Cremer M, Dobrilla G, Haglund U, et al. A single nighttime dose of ranitidine 300mg versus ranitidine 150mg twice daily in the acute treatment of duodenal ulcer: a European multicentre trial. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 8: 367–370, 1986a

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Simon B, Dammann H-G, Müller P. Prostaglandins and peptic ulcer disease: nocturnal administration of rioprostil vs ranitidine in duodenal ulcer healing. Klinische Wochenschrift 64 (Suppl. VII): 44–46, 1986b

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Simon B, Cremer M, Dammann HG, Hentschel E, Keshane PP, et al. 300mg nizatidine at night versus 300mg ranitidine at night in patients with duodenal ulcer. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 22 (Suppl. 136): 61–70, 1987

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Simon B, Mueller P. Comparison of the effect of sucralfate and ranitidine in reflux esophagitis. American Journal of Medicine 83 (Suppl. 3B): 43–47, 1987

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Smith IL, Ziemniak JA, Bernhard H, Eshelman FN, Martin LE, et al. Ranitidine disposition and systemic availability in hepatic cirrhosis. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 35: 487–494, 1984

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Smith CL, Bardgett DM, Hunter JM. Haemodynamic effects of the IV administration of cimetidine or ranitidine in the critically ill patient. A double-blind prospective study. British Journal of Anaesthesia 59: 1397–1402, 1987a

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Smith SR, Kendall MJ, Lobo J, Beerahee A, Jack DB, et al. Ranitidine and cimetidine; drug interactions with single dose and steady-state nifedipine administration. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 23: 311–315, 1987b

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Smout AJPM, Bogaard JW, van Hattum J, Akkermans LMA. Effects of cimetidine and ranitidine on interdigestive and postprandial lower esophageal sphincter pressures and plasma gastrin levels in normal subjects. Gastroenterology 88: 557–563, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Socha J, Rondio H, Chaba-Celinska D, Rasiński A, Bogoniowska Z. Treatment of hyperchlorhydria in children and teenagers with ranitidine and cimetidine. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 17 (Suppl 78): 776, 1982

    Google Scholar 

  • Somogyi A, McLean A, Heinzow B. Cimetidine-procainamide pharmacokinetic interaction in man: evidence of competition for tubular secretion of basic drugs. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 25: 339–345, 1983

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Somogyi A, Bochner F. Dose and concentration dependent effect of ranitidine on procainamide disposition and renal clearance in man. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 18: 175–181, 1984

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sontag S, Robinson M, McCallum RW, Barwick KW, Nardi R. Ranitidine therapy for gastroesophageal reflux disease. Archives of Internal Medicine 147: 1485–1491, 1987

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Souza Lima MA. Hepatitis associated with ranitidine. Annals of Internal Medicine 101: 207–208, 1984

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Spahn H, Mutschler E, Kirch W, Ohnhaus EE, Janisch HD. Influence of ranitidine on plasma metoprolol and atenolol concentrations. British Medical Journal 286: 1546–1547, 1983

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Spychal RT, Wickham NWR. Thrombocytopenia associated with ranitidine. British Medical Journal 291: 1687, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stock JGL, Sutherland AD. The role of H2 receptor antagonist premedication in pregnant day care patients. Canadian Anaesthetists’ Society Journal 32: 463–467, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stock KP, Bach GL. Ranitidine heals ulcers caused by antiphlogistic treatment. Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology 5 (Suppl. 2): 258, 1987

    Google Scholar 

  • Sullivan KM, Small RE, Rock WL, Cox SR, Willis HE. Effects of cimetidine or ranitidine on the pharmacokinetics of flurbiprofen. Clinical Pharmacy 5: 586–589, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Susi D, Iannetti G, DiPietro AM. Long-term therapy of peptic ulcer: our experience with ranitidine after four years. (Abstract P74.) Italian Journal of Gastroenterology 19 (Suppl.): 695, 1987

    Google Scholar 

  • Sutherland DL, Remillard AJ, Haight KR, Brown MA, Old L. The influence of cimetidine versus ranitidine on doxepin pharmacokinetics. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 32: 159–164, 1987b

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sutherland AD, Maltby JR, Sale JP, Crawford RG. The effect of preoperative oral fluid and ranitidine on gastric fluid volume and pH. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesiology 34: 117–121, 1987a

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tarditi E, Valenti G, Scarpignato C, Bertaccini G. Impaired TSH response to TRH after intravenous ranitidine in man. Experientia 39: 109–110, 1983

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Terruzzi V, Minoli G, Tadeo G, Nespoli M, Rossini A. The influence of cimetidine and ranitidine on the plasma lipid pattern. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 19: 846–848, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Texereau P, Ancelin P, Briaud M, Moussie D. Un cas d’agranulocytose aiguë chez un malade traité par ranitidine. Gastroenterologie Clinique et Biologie 11: 829–830, 1987

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Thomas M, Michael M, Chilton A, Fowler P, Maconochie JG, et al. Effect of higher doses of ranitidine on antipyrine metabolism in man. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 19: 543P-544P, 1985

    Google Scholar 

  • Thompson EM, Loughran PG, McAuley DM, Wilson CM, Moore J. Combined treatment with ranitidine and saline antacids prior to obstetric anaesthesia. Anaesthesia 39: 1086–1090, 1984

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Thomson ABP, Maguire T, Wensel RH, Sherbaniuk RW, Bailey RJ, et al. Ranitidine versus cimetidine in the management of acute upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 6: 295–299, 1984

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Toon S, Hopkins KJ, Garstang FM, Rowland M. Comparative effects of ranitidine and cimetidine on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin in man. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 32: 165–172, 1987

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Toon S, Davidson EM, Garstang FM, Batra H, Bowes RJ, et al. The racemic metoprolol H2-antagonist interaction. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 43: 283–289, 1988

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tosi S, Cagnoli M. Painful gynecomastia with ranitidine. Lancet 2: 160, 1982

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tryba M, Zerounou F, Wruk G. Stress bleeding and pneumonia in patients under postoperative intensive care receiving ranitidine or pirenzepine. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 113: 930–936, 1988

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vallot T, Mignon M, Mazure R, Bonfils S. Evaluation of anti-secretory drug therapy of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome using 24-hour pH monitoring. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 28: 577–584, 1983

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Van Deventer GM, Cagliola A, Whipple J, Humphries T, and the Omeprazole DU Comparative Study Group. Duodenal ulcer healing with omeprazole: a multicenter, double-blind, ranitidine controlled study. Gastroenterology 94 (Part 2): A476, 1988

    Google Scholar 

  • Van Deventer GM, Elashoff JD, Reedy TJ, Schneidman D, Walsh JH. A randomised study of maintenance therapy with ranitidine to prevent the recurrence of duodenal ulcer. New England Journal of Medicine 320: 1113–1119, 1989

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Van Hecken AM, Tjandramaga TB, Mullie A, Verbesselt R, De Schepper PJ. Ranitidine: single dose pharmacokinetics and absolute bioavailability in man. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 14: 195–200, 1982

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vantrappen G, Rutgeerts L, Schurmans P, Coenegrachts J-L. Omeprazole (40mg) is superior to ranitidine in short-term treatment of ulcerative reflux esophagitis. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 33: 523–529, 1988

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Voudouris C, Parpoulas S, Kalligatsis C, Banavas K, Trifonidis P, et al. Histamine H2 antagonists do not prevent gastrointestinal damage caused by antiinflammatory agents. Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology 5 (Suppl. 2): 56, 1987

    Google Scholar 

  • Walan A, Bader JP, Classen M, Lamers CBHW, Piper DW, et al. Effect of omeprazole and ranitidine on ulcer healing and relapse rates in patients with benign gastric ulcer. New England Journal of Medicine 320: 69–75, 1989

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wallin L, Madsen T, Boesby S. Gastro-oesophageal function in normal subjects after oral administration of ranitidine. Gut 24: 154–157, 1983

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Walt RP, Male P-J, Rawlings J, Hunt RH, Milton-Thompson GJ, et al. Comparison of the effects of ranitidine, cimetidine and placebo on the 24 hour intragastric acidity and nocturnal acid secretion in patients with duodenal ulcer. Gut 22: 49–54, 1981a

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Walt RP, La Brooy SJ, Avgerinos A, Oehr T, Riley A, et al. Investigation on the penetration of ranitidine into the cerebrospinal fluid and a comparison of the effects of ranitidine on male sex hormones. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 16 (Suppl. 60): 19, 1981b

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Walt RP, Gomes M de FA, Wood EC, Logan LH, Pounder RE. Effect of daily oral omeprazole on 24 hour intragastric acidity. British Medical Journal 287: 12–14, 1983

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Walt RP, Hunt RH, Misiewicz JJ, Trotman I, Colley S, et al. Comparison of ranitidine and cimetidine maintenance treatment of duodenal ulcer. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 19: 1045–1047, 1984

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Walt RP, Pounder RE, Hawkey CJ, Santana IA, Somerville KW, et al. Twenty-four-hour intragastric acidity and clinical trial of bedtime enprostil 70μg compared with ranitidine 300mg in duodenal ulcer. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1: 161–166, 1987

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wang C, Wong KL, Lam KC, Lai CL. Ranitidine does not affect gonadal function in man. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 16: 430–432, 1983

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ward M, Halliday C, Cowen AE. A comparison of colloidal bismuth subcitrate tablets and ranitidine in the treatment of chronic duodenal ulcers. Digestion 34: 173–177, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Watts RW, Hetzel DJ, Bochner F, Hallpike JF, Hann CS, et al. Lack of interaction between ranitidine and phenytoin. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 15: 499–500, 1983

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Webster LK, Mihaly GW, Jones DB, Smallwood RA, Phillips JA, et al. Effect of cimetidine and ranitidine on carbamazepine and sodium valproate pharmacokinetics. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 27: 341–343, 1984

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Webster LK, Jones DB, Smallwood RA. Influence of cimetidine and ranitidine on ethanol pharmacokinetics. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine 15: 359–360, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Webster LK, Jones DB, Smallwood RA. Reply to: Sullivan JT, Sellers EM. Influence of cimetidine and ranitidine on ethanol pharmacokinetics. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine 16: 414 and 414–415, 1986

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wells BG, Pieper JA, Self TH, Stewart CF, Waldon SL, et al. The effect of ranitidine and cimetidine on imipramine disposition. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 31: 285–290, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wiest D, O’Neal W, Reigart J, Brundage R, Gillette P, et al. Pharmacokinetics of ranitidine in critically ill infants. Developmental Pharmacology and Therapeutics 12: 7–12, 1989

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Williams JG, Strunin L. Pre-operative intramuscular ranitidine and cimetidine. Double-blind comparative trial, effect on gastric pH and volume. Anaesthesia 40: 242–245, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wilson JA, Craig IF. Effects of cimetidine and ranitidine on high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. British Medical Journal 290: 807–808, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Winship LC, McKenney JM, Wright JT, Wood JH, Goodman RP. The effect of ranitidine and cimetidine on single-dose diltiazem pharmacokinetics. Pharmacotherapy 5: 16–19, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Witzel L, Wolbergs E. Peptic ulcer healing with ranitidine in cimetidine resistance. Lancet 2: 1224, 1982

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wolff AA, Levi R, Chenouda AA, Fisher VJ. Ventricular arrhythmias parallel cardiac histamine release after coronary artery occlusion in the dog: effects of ranitidine. Abstract no. 899. Circulation 70: II–225, 1984

    Google Scholar 

  • Woodings EP, Dixon GT, Harrison C, Carey P, Richards DA. Ranitidine — a new H2-receptor antagonist. Gut 21: 187, 1980

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yap I, LaBrooy SJ, Tay HH, Guan R, Kang JY. Ranitidine in the acute treatment of duodenal ulcer — a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Singapore Medical Journal 26: 539–542, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Young CJ, Daneshmend TK, Roberts CJC. Effects of cirrhosis and ageing on the elimination and bioavailability of ranitidine. Gut 23: 819–823, 1982

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zeitoun P, d’Azemar P. International multicentre clinical trial of ranitidine in duodenal ulcer. Comparison with cimetidine. In: Misiewicz and Wormsley (Eds), The clinical use of ranitidine, Medicine Publishing Foundation Series 5, pp. 141–145, Medicine Publishing Foundation, Oxford, 1982

    Google Scholar 

  • Zeitoun P, Desjars De Keranroué N, Isal P. Omeprazole versus ranitidine in erosive oesophagitis. Lancet 2: 621–622, 1987

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zimmerman TW, Schenker S. A comparative evaluation of cimetidine and ranitidine. Rational Drug Therapy 19: 1–7, 1985

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Zoli G, Pasquinelli G, Bonvicini F, Gasbarrini G, Laschi R. S.E.M. Study II: protective effect of ranitidine against gastric and duodenal lesions induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. International Journal of Tissue Reactions 8: 71–77, 1986

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Additional information

Various sections of the manuscript reviewed by: G. Bianchi Porro, Gastrointestinal Unit, Ospedale L. Sacco, Milano, Italy; J.F. Critchow, Department of Surgery, Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; H.G. Dammann, Krankenhau Bethanien, Hamburg, West Germany; D.B. Jones, Gastroenterology Unit, Repatriation General Hospital Concord, Sydney, Australia; M.J.S. Langman, Department of Internal Medicine, Queen Elizabeth Medical Centre, Birmingham, England; K. Lauritsen, Department of Medical Gastroenterology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark; I.N. Marks, Gastrointestinal Clinic, Department of Medicine, Groote Schuur Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; S. Okabe, Department of Applied Pharmacology, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto, Japan; D.W. Piper, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, Australia; C. Scarpignato, Universita’ Degli Studi Di Parma, Istituto di Farmacologia, Ospedale Maggiore, Parma, Italy; C. Tasman-Jones, Department of Medicine, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; K.G. Wormsley, Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, Scotland

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Grant, S.M., Langtry, H.D. & Brogden, R.N. Ranitidine. Drugs 37, 801–870 (1989). https://doi.org/10.2165/00003495-198937060-00003

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.2165/00003495-198937060-00003

Keywords

  • Cimetidine
  • Duodenal Ulcer
  • Ranitidine
  • Famotidine
  • Pirenzepine