Ceftriaxone

A Review of its Antibacterial Activity, Pharmacological Properties and Therapeutic Use

Summary

Synopsis: Ceftriaxone 1 is a new ‘third generation’ semisynthetic cephalosporin with a long half-life which has resulted in a recommended once daily administration schedule. It is administered intravenously or intramuscularly and has a broad spectrum of activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobic, and some anaerobic, bacteria. The activity of ceftriaxone is generally greater than that of the ‘first’ and ‘second generation’ cephalosporins against Gram-negative bacteria, but less than that of the earlier generations of cephalosporins against many Gram-positive bacteria. Although ceftriaxone has some activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, on the basis of present evidence it cannot be recommended as sole antibiotic therapy in pseudomonal infections. Ceftriaxone has been effective in treating infections due to other ‘difficult’ organisms such as multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Ceftriaxone was effective in complicated and uncomplicated urinary tract infections, lower respiratory tract infections, skin, soft tissue, bone and joint infections, bacteraemia/septicaemia, and paediatric meningitis due to susceptible organisms. In most of these types of infections once-daily administration appears efficacious. Results were also encouraging in a few patients with ear, nose and throat, intra-abdominal, obstetric and gynaecological infections, and adult meningitis, but conclusions are not yet possible as to the efficacy of the drug in these indications due to limited experience. A single intramuscular dose of ceftriaxone has been compared with standard therapy for gonorrhoea due to non-penicillinase-producing and penicillinase-producing strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and shown to be highly effective. In a few small trials the comparative efficacy of ceftriaxone and other antibacterials has been assessed in other types of infections and in perioperative prophylaxis in patients undergoing surgery. Few significant differences in response rates were found between therapeutic groups in these comparative studies, but larger well-designed studies are needed to more clearly assess the comparative efficacy of ceftriaxone and other antimicrobials, especially the aminoglycosides and other ‘third generation’ cephalosporins, and to confirm the apparent lack of serious side effects with ceftriaxone. If more widespread use confirms the safety and efficacy of ceftriaxone, it will offer an important alternative, particularly for the treatment of serious infections due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria and in situations where the long half-life of the drug could result in worthwhile convenience and cost benefits.

Antibacterial Activity: Ceftriaxone has a broad spectrum of activity in vitro which includes Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobic and some anaerobic bacteria. Both penicillin-sensitive and -resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus are sensitive to ceftriaxone (MIC90s 3 to 7 mg/L), but the drug is poorly active against methicillin- and oxacillin-resistant strains. Ceftriaxone is similar in activity to benzylpenicillin against Streptococcus pneumoniae and pyogenes, and is also active in low concentrations against other Streptococcus species (Str. agalactiae and viridans streptococci). However, Staphylococcus epidermidis is at most only moderately sensitive (MIC90s 11.9 to 50 mg/L) and Streptococcus faecalis is resistant to ceftriaxone. Cephalothin and cefamandole tend to be more active than ceftriaxone against most Gram-positive bacteria.

Ceftriaxone exhibits both a wider spectrum and greater activity against Gram-negative aerobic bacteria than ‘first generation’ and ‘second generation’ cephalosporins, is generally more active than cefoperazone except against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is similar in activity to cefotaxime and moxalactam (latamoxef). 90% of tested strains of most Enterobacteriaceae were inhibited by a ceftriaxone concentration of ⩽ 1 mg/L, but Enterobacter cloacae is less sensitive than most other Enterobacteriaceae (MIC90s 0.5 to 25 mg/L). The reported activity of ceftriaxone against Pseudomonas aeruginosa varies widely, but generally at least 32 mg/L is required to inhibit most strains, and strains resistant to other antibiotics are even less sensitive. The combination of ceftriaxone and an aminoglycoside (amikacin, gentamicin, netilmicin or tobramycin) is synergistic against P. aeruginosa in vitro (20 to 80% of tested strains). However, synergy is less common against aminoglycoside-resistant and/or multidrug-resistant strains. The combination of ceftriaxone and cefoxitin was found to be antagonistic against P. aeruginosa and E. cloacae having inducible β-lactamases. Ceftriaxone is also active at very low concentrations against β-lactamase-positive and -negative strains of Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria gonorrhoeae and meningitidis.

Clostridium difficile and several species of Bacteroides, including B. fragilis, are only moderately sensitive or insensitive to ceftriaxone, but some other anaerobic bacteria are inhibited by the drug.

In general, the β-lactamase stability pattern of ceftriaxone is similar in rate and percentage of inactivation to that of cefotaxime and cefuroxime, which are inactivated by fewer β-lactamases than cefamandole, cephalothin and cephaloridine, but by more β-lactamases than moxalactam and cefoxitin. Thus, ceftriaxone is highly stable to inactivation by β-lactamases produced by many bacteria, but not to those produced by B. fragilis or by some strains of Klebsiella species, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas cepacia.

Pharmacokinetics: Mean peak plasma ceftriaxone concentrations of 82.0, 150.7 and 256.9 mg/L were obtained after 30-minute infusions of 0.5, 1 and 2g, respectively. When the drug was administered 12-hourly by intravenous infusion, steady-state plasma concentrations were achieved within 4 days. The bioavailability of an intramuscular dose of ceftriaxone, alone or in combination with lignocaine (lidocaine), is similar to that following intravenous administration although mean peak plasma concentrations are lower. Peak plasma concentrations occur from 1 to 3 hours following intramuscular administration.

The apparent volume of distribution of total ceftriaxone during the terminal elimination phase (Vdβ) is small due to the high degree of plasma protein binding, and increases with increasing dose (10.16, 11.06 and 13.52L following 30-minute infusions of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0g, respectively). However, the volume of distribution (Vdβ) of the free ceftriaxone fraction remains constant with increasing dose. Concentrations of ceftriaxone inhibitory for most Gram-negative bacteria are attained in inflamed or non-inflamed meninges, in purulent sputum, and in synovial, prostatic, and pleural fluid. Concentrations likely to be effective against most sensitive organisms are similarly attained in blister and peritoneal fluid, bone, myometrium, endometrium and salpinges tissue. Ceftriaxone is excreted in breast milk (AUC in milk is approximately 3 to 4% of the AUC in serum). High concentrations of ceftriaxone are attained in bile.

Ceftriaxone is highly bound to human serum protein, probably albumin, the extent of binding decreasing from 96% to 83% over the concentration range 0.5 to 300 mg/L. This concentration-dependent serum protein binding is responsible for the non-linear dose-dependent pharmacokinetics of the drug.

The elimination half-life of ceftriaxone (6 to 9 hours) is much longer than that for most cephalosporins and it does not vary significantly with dose. The main routes of elimination of ceftriaxone are urine (40 to 60%) and bile (11 to 65%). As the pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone are unaffected by probenecid, glomerular filtration and not tubular secretion appears to be the mechanism of renal excretion.

In infants and children, decreased plasma albumin levels result in decreased plasma protein binding. The greater percentage of free ceftriaxone at a given plasma concentration is the likely cause of the several-fold greater volume of distribution and plasma clearance and somewhat shorter half-life (4 to 6.5 hours) in infants and children as compared with adults. Among neonates, the elimination half-life is prolonged compared with adults.

In patients with severe renal dysfunction, non-renal elimination may compensate for the loss of the renal elimination pathway. However, in some such patients, a concomitant defect in non-renal pathways of elimination not revealed by standard liver function tests may result in a greatly prolonged elimination half-life. In decompensated liver cirrhosis (ascites), both the volume of distribution and serum clearance are increased, but the half-life of elimination is unchanged.

Therapeutic Trials: As ceftriaxone was first synthesised only in 1978, the efficacy of the drug in some therapeutic areas remains to be assessed fully. However, published studies and summaries of clinical experience have documented the efficacy of ceftriaxone (usual dosage, 1 to 3 g/day at 12-hourly intervals) in a wide range of infections caused by Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobic bacteria, and in a few cases anaerobic bacteria. Efficacy has also been demonstrated with a once daily dosage schedule in several types of infection. Ceftriaxone has been used successfully in patients who had failed to respond to other antibiotics, and in urinary tract infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae resistant to usual therapy. Also, ceftriaxone appears to be effective in uncomplicated gonorrhoea due to penicillinase-producing and non-penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Although ceftriaxone alone was effective in some patients with pseudomonal infections, on the basis of present evidence it cannot be recommended as the sole antibiotic for suspected or confirmed pseudomonal infections. The development of resistance and/or superinfection has been reported (e.g. due to Streptococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter and Serratia species, and Bacteroides fragilis) following treatment of infections with ceftriaxone.

In open or controlled studies, generally from 80 to 100% of infecting strains of ceftriaxone-sensitive Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms were eradicated from patients with complicated or uncomplicated urinary tract infections immediately following treatment, P. aeruginosa and Str. faecalis were eliminated less successfully than Enterobacteriaceae. Dosages of 0.25 to 1g administered once daily appear to be equally effective as multiple daily injections in treating urinary tract infections.

Ceftriaxone has been studied in many hospitalised patients with lower respiratory tract infections, usually caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae (although several patients were infected with Enterobacteriaceae). 75 to 100% of patients showed complete resolution or improvement in clinical signs and symptoms and chest radiographs at the end of therapy. Once-daily administration (1 to 2g) with ceftriaxone also appears effective in lower respiratory tract infections.

Bacteriological results were reported for only a few patients with septicaemia/bacteraemia who were treated with ceftriaxone, but ceftriaxone-sensitive Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Serratia marcescens, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter aerogenes and Citrobacter species) were isolated most frequently and all of the isolated strains were eradicated. Combined clinical and bacteriological ‘cure’ (definition varied) was reported in 43 to 91% of patients. However, the cure rate varied with the site of origin of the bacteraemia/septicaemia. Only limited experience has been reported with a once daily dosage schedule in bacteraemia/septicaemia.

Satisfactory clinical responses were obtained in over 88% of patients treated with ceftriaxone (usual dosage 2 g/day as 1 to 2 administrations daily) often in conjunction with surgical procedures for skin, soft tissue, bone or joint infections caused by Gram-positive aerobes (e.g. Staphylococcus aureus), Gram-negative aerobes and in a few cases, anaerobes. Similar cure rates were reported in patients who received ceftriaxone 2g as a once daily injection.

Infants and children with meningitis, due in most cases to Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis or group A or B streptococci, generally had negative cerebrospinal fluid cultures within 24 hours of the initiation of ceftriaxone 25 to 50 mg/kg twice daily (or in a few patients 50 to 100 mg/kg once daily). Encouraging results have also been reported in patients with paediatric ventriculitis.

While encouraging results have been obtained in a few patients with ear, nose and throat, intra-abdominal, obstetric and gynaecological infections and adult meningitis, published experience is limited and thus firm conclusions are not yet possible as to the efficacy of ceftriaxone in these important areas.

In a few small studies, ceftriaxone has been compared with gentamicin, cefazolin, cefuroxime and tobramycin in treating urinary tract infections; amoxycillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, cefotaxime and doxycycline in treating lower respiratory tract infections; and amoxycillin, ampicillin and chloramphenicol in treating meningitis. In uncomplicated gonorrhoea a single intramuscular dose of ceftriaxone (usually 125mg to 500mg) has been compared with spectinomycin, kanamycin, and with probenecid in combination with penicillin, or cefoxitin. In controlled studies of perioperative prophylactic use ceftriaxone was compared with untreated controls, cefazolin and cefuroxime. In those comparative studies ceftriaxone usually appeared to be similar in efficacy to the alternative antibacterials, but most of the trials either did not analyse the results statistically, or included too few patients to distinguish at a statistically significant level any small potential differences between treatments. Thus, a few larger well-designed comparative studies are needed to define more clearly the comparative efficacy of ceftriaxone as related to other antimicrobials, especially the aminoglycosides and other ‘third generation’ cephalosporins.

Side Effects: Ceftriaxone has generally been well tolerated by adults and children following intravenous and intramuscular injection. The most commonly reported adverse effects were diarrhoea, exanthema, rash or pruritus, and reactions at the injection site such as phlebitis and pain on intramuscular injection. Variations in laboratory test results, including transient eosinophilia and elevations of renal and liver function tests, have occurred, but symptomatic drug-related nephrotoxicity or hepatotoxicity have not been reported. Three reports of haematoma or haemorrhage, and 1 report of hypopro-thrombinaemic bleeding (rapidly corrected by vitamin K administration) in a chronic dialysis patient have appeared.

Dosage and Administration: Ceftriaxone can be administered intravenously or intramuscularly. For adults the recommended dosage is 1 to 2g once (or in some countries once or twice) daily, although in some types of infections only limited experience with once daily administration has been reported. In severe infections and in cases in which the pathogens are only moderately sensitive to ceftriaxone, the dosage may be increased, in exceptional cases to 4g or higher daily (dosages larger than 4 g/day should be administered at 12-hourly intervals). The recommended daily dosage in infants and young children is 20 to 80 mg/kg, but in cases of premature birth the daily dosage should not exceed 50 mg/kg.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Acuna, G., Johnson, J., Young, L.S. and Marlin, W.J.: In vitro studies with ceftazidime against acrobic gram-negative bacilli and Bacteroides fragil is group. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 8(Suppl. B): 83–89 (1981).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Alfthan, O. and Renkonen, O.V.: Ceftriaxonc (Rocephin) compared to carbenicillin (Fugacillin) in treatment of complicated urinary tract infections. Abstract of a paper presented at 8th International Congress of Infections and Parasitic Diseases, Stockholm (June 1982).

  3. Angehrn, P.: In vitro and in vivo synergy between ceftriaxone and aminoglycosides against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2: 489–495 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Angehrn, P. and Probst, P.J.: Antibacterial properties of Ro 13-9904. a long-acting new cephalosporin. Chemotherapy 27(Suppl. 1): 9–14 (1981).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Angehrn, P., Probst, P.J., Reiner, R. and Then, R.L.: Ro 13-9904, a long-acting broad-spectrum cephalosporin: In vitro and in vivo studies. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 18: 913–921 (1980).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Anton, P.A., Kemp, J.A., Butler, T. and Jacobs, M.R.: Comparative efficacies of ceftriaxone, moxalactam and ampicillin in experimental Salmonella typhimurium infection. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 22: 312–315 (1982).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Applebaum, P.C., Tamim, J., Pankuch, G.A. and Aber, R.C.: Susceptibility of 324 nonfermentative Gram-negative rods to 6 cephalosporins and azthreonam. Chemotherapy 5: 337–344 (1983).

    Google Scholar 

  8. Aranoff, S.C., Reed, M.D., Murdell, D., O’Brien, C.A. and Blumer, J.L.: Ceftriaxone therapy in serious pediatric infections. Abstract of a paper presented at the 13th International Congress of Chemotherapy, Vienna (August 1983).

  9. Arisawa, M., Ohshima, J. and Maruyama, H.B.: Effect of 3-substitution in oxyiminocephalosporins on the stability to and the inhibition of various β-lactamases. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 30: 3333–3339 (1982b).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Arisawa, M., Ohshima, J. and Maruyama, H.B.: Unusual mode of inhibition of Citrobacter freundii β-lactamases by ceftriaxone. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 23: 317–319 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Arisawa, M., Ohshima, J., Ohsawa, E., Maruyama, H.B., Sekine, Y. and Milsuhashi, S.: Bacteriological comparison of the activities of ceftriaxone, a new long-acting cephalosporin, with those of other new cephalosporins. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 30: 2544–2554 (1982a).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Armengaud, M., Piccoli, S., Massip, P. and Auvergnat, J.Ch.: Ceftriaxon dans le traitement des infections severes. Abstract of a paper presented at the Reunion Interdisciplinaire de Chimiothérapic Antiinfectieuse, Paris (December 1981).

  13. Arvidsson, A., Alván, G., Anvelin, B., Borgå, O. and Nord, C.E.: Ceftriaxone: renal and biliary excretion and effect on colon microflora. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 10: 207–215 (1982).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Ascalonc, V. and Dal Bo, L.: Determination of ceftriaxone. a novel cephalosporin, in plasma, urine and saliva by high performance liquid chromatography on an NH2 bonded-phase column. Journal of Chromatography 273: 357–366 (1983).

    Google Scholar 

  15. Ayers, L.W., Jones, R.N., Barry, A.L., Thornsberry, C., Fuchs, P.C., Gavan, T.L., Gerlach, E.H. and Sommers, H.M., Cefbtetan. a new cephamycin: Comparison of in vitro antimicrobial activity with other cephems. β-lactamase stability, and preliminary recommendations for disk diffusion testing. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 22: 859–877 (1982).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Bang, N.U., Tesler, S.S., Heidenreich, R.O., Marks, C.A. and Mattier, L.E.: Effects of moxalactam on blood coagulation and platelet function. Reviews of Infectious Diseases 4: S546–S554 (1982).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Bassetti, Von D., Ciravegna, B., Navone, C., Serra, G., Marcer, F., Raimo, F. and Cavalieri, S.: Rocephin in the pediatric field. Abstract (no. 385) of a paper presented at the 3rd Mediterranean Congress of Chemotherapy, Dubrovnik (September 1982).

  18. Bassler, M., Blaschke, H., Just, M. and Daschner, F.D.: Effect of ceftriaxone on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus in broth, serum, and in combination with human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Chemotherapy 28: 390–396 (1982).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Bauernfeind, A., Jungwirth, R. and Petermiller, C.: Simultaneous simulation of the serum profiles of two antibiotics and analysis of the combined effect against a culture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Microbiology 28: 334–340 (1982).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. Baumgartner, J.D., Bernard, J.P. and Glauser, M.P.: Treatment of severe gram-negative infections with ceftriaxone; in Periti, P. and Grassi, G.G. (Eds) Current Chemotherapy and Immunotherapy. Proceedings of the 12th International Congress of Chemotherapy, Florence, July 1981, pp. 470–472 (American Society for Microbiology, Washington D.C. 1982).

    Google Scholar 

  21. Baumgartner, J.D. and Glauser, M.P.: Tolerance study of ceftriaxone compared to that of amoxicillin in patients with pneumonia. Proceedings of the 13th International Congress of Chemotherapy, Vienna (Aug, 1983a).

  22. Baumgartner, J.D. and Glauser, M.P.: Single daily dose treatment of severe refractory infections with ceftriaxone. Cost savings and possible parenteral outpatient treatment. Archives of Internal Medicine 143: 1868–1873 (1983b).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Baumgartner, R.: Perioperative prophylaxis with ceftriaxone in patients undergoing knee-joint surgery. Comparative study with cefuroxime. Proceedings of the 13th International Congress of Chemotherapy. Vienna (Aug, 1983).

  24. Beam Jr, T.R., Cochrane, D.W., Raab, T.A. and Mylotte, J.M.: Comparison of ceftriaxone, moxalactam, and penicillin in the treatment of experimental pneumococcal meningitis; in Periti, P. and Grassi, G.G. (Eds) Current Chemotherapy and Immunotherapy. Proceedings of the 12th International Congress of Chemotherapy. Florence, pp. 449–450 (American Society for Microbiology, Washington D.C. 1982).

    Google Scholar 

  25. Beam Jr, T.R., Raab, T.A., Spooner, J., Balderman, S. and Bhayana, J., Prophylactic use of cephalosporins in cardiac surgery. Proceedings of the 13th International Congress of Chemotherapy. Vienna (Aug. 1983).

  26. Belli, L., Marcena, F.M.L., Fernandez, A., Barclay, C.A., Traball, C.A. and Flichman, J.C.: Treatment of acute uncomplicated gonorrhoea with a single dose of ceftriaxone, a third generation cephalosporin. Poster presentation at the 1st Sexually Transmitted Diseases World Congress. San Juan (Nov. 1983).

  27. Bernstein Hahn, L., Barclay, C.A., Casellas, J.M., Iribarren, M.A., Farinati, A. and Traballi, C.A.: Ceftriaxone, a new parenteral cephalosporin: Comparative study with gentamicin in severe urinary tract infections. Drugs under Experimental and Clinical Research 8: 487–492 (1982b).

    Google Scholar 

  28. Bernstein Hahn, L., Barclay, C.A., Iribarren, M.A. and Traballi, C.A.: Ceftriaxone, a new parenteral cephalosporin, in the treatment of urinary tract infections. Chemotherapy 27(Suppl. 1): 75–79 (1981).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. Bernstein Hahn, L., Barclay, C.A., Iribarren, M.A. and Traballi, C.A.: Ceftriaxone, a new parenteral cephalosporin: Comparative study with gentamicin in severe urinary tract infections; in Periti, P. and Grassi, G.G. (Eds) Current Chemotherapy and Immunotherapy. Proceedings of the 12th International Congress of Chemotherapy. Florence, July, 1981 (American Society for Microbiology, Washington D.C. 1982c).

    Google Scholar 

  30. Bernstein Hahn, L., Barclay, C.A., Iribarren, M.A., Traballi, C.A., Casellas, J.M. and Farinati, A.: Comparative efficacy of ceftriaxone and gentamicin in the treatment of severe urinary tract infections. Proceedings of the Interamerican Congress of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Caracas (Oct 1982a).

  31. Beskid, G., Christenson, J.G., Cleeland, R., DeLorenzo, W. and Trown, P.W.: In vivo activity of ceftriaxone (Ro 13-9904), a new broad spectrum semisynthetic cephalosporin. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 20: 159–167 (1981).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. Bint, A.J., Yeoman, P., Kilburn, P., Anderson, R. and Stansfield, E.: The in vitro activity of ceftazidime compared with that of other cephalosporins. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 8(Suppl. B): 47–51 (1981).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. Bittner, M.J., Dworzack, D.L., Preheim, L.C., Tofte, R.W. and Crossley, K.B.: Ceftriaxone therapy of serious bacterial infections in adults. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 23: 261–266 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. Bodey, G.F., Fainstein, V., Garcia, I., Rosenbaum, B. and Wong, Y.: Effect of broad spectrum cephalosporins on the microbial flora of recipients. Journal of Infectious Diseases 148: 892–897 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  35. Boehm, M., Limbach, G., Lang, N. and Krasemann, C.: Ccftriaxon bei gynäkologisch-gcburtschilflichen infektionen; in Gricshabcr, R. (Ed.) Ceftriaxon (Rocephin) ein neues parenterales Cephalosporin. Proceedings of Hahncnklce-Symposium. Sept. 1981. pp. 287–295 (Editiones Roche, Basel 1982).

    Google Scholar 

  36. Bohni, E.: Interpretation of sensitivity testing results of ceftriaxone. Abstract of a paper presented at the 13th International Congress of Chemotherapy, Vienna (Aug. 1983).

  37. Bosch, J., Linâres, L., Pérez, J.L., Murgui, L. and Martin, R.: Ceftriaxone: Estudio comparativo frente a enterobactcrias y neumococos. Abstract (no. 230) of a paper presented at the 9th Congress Nacional de la Sociedad de Microbiologia de Valladolid. Madrid (Sept. 1983).

  38. Bouzas, A., Altieri, R. and Topolanski, R.: Comparative clinical study of ceftriaxone and ampicillin in the treatment of puerperal infections. Presented at 2a Jornada Interzonal Rioplatense de Ginecotocologia, Montevideo (Oct. 1982).

  39. Bradsher, R.W.: Ccftriaxone (Ro 13-9904) therapy of serious infection. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 22: 36–42 (1982).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  40. Bradshcr, R.W. and Ulmer, W.C.: Beta-lactam antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria responsible for neonatal meningitis. Chemotherapy 23: 213–217 (1983).

    Google Scholar 

  41. Bremncr, D.A.: Ceftriaxone — a new broad-spectrum semisynthetic cephalosporin. Chemotherapy 29: 283–288 (1983).

    Google Scholar 

  42. Brooks, G.F. and Barriere, S.L.: Clinical use of the new beta-lactam antimicrobial drugs. Annals of Internal Medicine 98: 530–535 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  43. Brunori, E., Giannotti, A., Scapaticci, A., Mancini, S. and Giampaolo, R.: Valutazione clinica del Ceftriaxone in pediatria. Aggiornamento Pediarrico 34: 561–566 (1983).

    Google Scholar 

  44. Bryan, C.S., Morgan, S.L., Jordan, A.B., Smith, C.W., Sutton, J.P. and Gangemi, J.D.: Ceftriaxone levels in blood and tissue during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 25: 37–39 (1984).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  45. Cadoz, M., Denis, F., Félix, H. and Diop Mar, I.: Treatment of purulent meningitis with a new cephalosporin-Rocephin (Ro 13-9904). Chemotherapy 27(Suppl. 1): 57–61 (1981).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  46. Cadoz, M., Denis, F., Guerma, T., Prince-David, M. and Mar, I.D.: Comparaison bactériologique, pharmacologique et clinique de l’amoxycilline et du ceftriaxone dans 300 méningites purulents. Pathologie Biologie 30: 522–525 (1982).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  47. Cajot, A. and Rcgamy, C.: Concentrations of ceftriaxone in ascites after intravenous administration; comparison with cefotaxim. Abstract of a paper presented at the 13th International Congress of Chemotherapy, Vienna (Aug 1983).

  48. Canani, M.B. and De Vita, C.: Trattamento delle infezioni acute dell’orecchio medio in soggetti de età pediatrica con una nouva cefalosporina: il Rocefin. Aggiornamento Pediatrico 34: 409–414 (1983).

    Google Scholar 

  49. Celletti, C., Montanari, S., Spano, A. and Tronci, M.: Trattamento di infezioni gravi dell’apparato respiratorio con una nouva cefalosporina, il ceftriaxone. Confronto con amoxicillina. Annali Dell-istituto Carlo Forlanini 2: 131–139 (1982).

    Google Scholar 

  50. Chandrasekar, P., Rolston, K., Smith, B.R. and LeFrock, J.L.: Penetration of ceftriaxone into human cerebrospinal fluid. Clinical Research 31: 628A (1983).

    Google Scholar 

  51. Chinante, A.M.S. and Santos, M.I.V.: Ceftriaxone in lower respiratory tract infections. Abstract of a paper presented at the 1st Interamerican Congress of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. Caracas. Oct. 1982. Archivos Venezolanos de Farmacologia y Terapeutica 1: 61 (1982).

    Google Scholar 

  52. Childs, S.J., Wells, W.G. and Mirelman, S.: Comparison of ceftriaxone and cefazolin in the treatment of urinary tract infections. Abstract (no. 375) of a paper presented at 3rd Mediterranean Congress of Chemotherapy. Dubrovnik, Sept. 1982. Chemioterapia 1: Suppl. to No. 4 (1982).

    Google Scholar 

  53. Childs, S.J., Wells, W.G. and Mirelman, S.: Antibiotic prophylaxis for genitourinary surgery in community hospitals. Journal of Urology 130: 305–308 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  54. Clarke, A.M. and Zemcov, J.V.: Ro 13-9904 and GR 20263. two new cephalosporins with broad-spectrum activity: An in vitro comparison with other β-lactam antibiotics. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 7: 515–520 (1981).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  55. Clecland, R., Delorenzo, W., Gulow, L. and Russo, P.: Activity of ceftriaxone (Ro 13-9904) and tobramycin against P. aeruginosa. Abstract (no. 804) of a paper presented at the 21st Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Chicago, Nov. 1981 (American Society for Microbiology, Washington D.C. 1981).

  56. Cohen, D., Appel, G.B., Scully, B. and Neu, H.C.: Pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone in patients with renal failure and in those undergoing hemodialysis. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 24: 529–532 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  57. Congeni, B.: Comparison of ceftriaxone and traditional therapy of bacterial meningitis. Antimicrobual Agents and Chemotherapy 25: 40–44 (1984).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  58. Connor, E., Melick, C. and Yogev, R.: In vitro and in vivo efficacy of ceftriaxone, moxalactam, and chloramphenicol against Haemophilus influenzae type b. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 10: 517–525 (1982).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  59. Coppola, Von L., Faella, F.S., Pempinello, R. and Sardu, A.: Rocephin for the treatment of purulent meningitis. Abstract of a paper presented at the 3rd Mediterranean Congress of Chemotherapy, Dubrovnik (September 1982).

  60. Craft, J.C. and Tan, S.H.: Pharmacokinetics and efficacy of ceftriaxone (Ro 13-9904) in experimental Haemophilus influenzac type b meningitis in the rat; in Periti, P. and Grassi, G.G. (Eds) Current Chemotherapy and Immunotherapy. Proceedings of the 12th International Congress of Chemotherapy, Florence. July 1981 pp. 450–452 (American Society for Microbiology, Washington D.C. 1982).

    Google Scholar 

  61. Dabernat, H.J. and Delmas, C.: Comparative activity of cefotaxime and selected β-lactam antibiotics against Haemophilus influcnzac and aerobic Gram-negative bacilli. Reviews of Infectious Diseases 4 (Suppl.): S401–S405 (1982).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  62. Daschner, F.D., Petersen, E.E., Brändie, J. and Hillemanns, H.C.: Concentrations of ceftriaxone in serum and gynecological tissues. Chemotherapy 29: 153–155 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  63. Delaplane, D., Yogev, R. and Shulman, S.T.: Ceftriaxone therapy of group B streptococcal bacteraemia and meningitis in infant rats. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 11: 69–73 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  64. de Louvois, J., Mulhall, A., and James, J.: An evaluation of ceftriaxone in the treatment of neonates. Abstract (no. 74) of a paper presented at the 23rd Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Las Vegas (Oct 1983).

  65. del Rio, M., Chrane, D., Shelton, S., McCracken Jr, G.H. and Nelson, J.D.: Ceftriaxone versus ampicillin and chloramphenicol for treatment of bacterial meningitis in children. Lancet 1: 1241–1244 (1983).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  66. del Rio, M., McCracken Jr, G.H., Nelson, J.D., Chrane, D. and Shelton, S.: Pharmacokinetics and cerebrospinal fluid bactericidal activity of ccftriaxone in the treatment of pediatric patients with bacterial meningitis. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 22: 622–627 (1982).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  67. Delsignore, R., Baroni, C.M., Crotti, G., Mineo, F., Butturini, U., Ascalone, V. and Cisternino, M.: Absolute bioavailability of ceftriaxonc after intramuscular administration to healthy volunteers. Chemotherapy 29: 157–162 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  68. Denis, A.F. and Adenis, A.J.P.: Etude chez 30 patients du passage de la ceftriaxone dans l’humeur aqueuse et les larmes. Paper presented at the Réunion Interdisciplinaire de chimiothérapie anti-infectueuse. Paris (December 1983).

  69. Denny, L., Eron, L.J., Toy, C., Goldenberg, R.I. and Poretz, D.M.: Ceftriaxone therapy of osteomyelitis. Abstract of a paper presented at the 13th International Congress of Chemotherapy, Vienna (August 1983).

  70. Dibb, W.L., Kiellevold, V.A. and Digranes, A.: Pseudonumas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter Calcoaceticis: In vitro susceptibility of 150 clinical isolates to five β-lactam antibiotics and tobramycin. Microbiology 29: 332–336 (1983).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  71. Digranes, A., Benonisen, E. and Dibb, W.L.: Ceftriaxone: In vitro activity against 410 bacterial isolates compared with cefotaxime. Infection 10: 307–309 (1982).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  72. Dillon, J.R., Pauzé, M., Yeung, H. and Benzanson, G.S.: Comparison of the in vitro activity of Sch 29482 with thirteen other β-lactam antibiotics against Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (including penicillinase-producing strains). Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 9(Suppl. C): 175–180 (1982).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  73. Eickhoff, T.C. and Ehret, J.: Comparative in vitro studies of Ro 13-9904, a new cephalosporin derivative. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 19: 435–442 (1981).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  74. Eichmann, A., Weidmann, G. and Havas, L.: One-dose treatment of acute uncomplicated gonorrhoea of male patients with ceftriaxone Ro 13-9904, a new parenteral cephalosporin. Chemotherapy 27(Suppl. 1): 62–69 (1981).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  75. Epstein, J.S., Hasselquist, S.M. and Simon, G.L.: Efficacy of ceftriaxone in serious bacterial infections. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 21: 402–406 (1982).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  76. Eron, L.J., Hixon, D.L., Park, C.H., Goldenberg, R.I. and Poretz, D.M.: Ceftriaxone therapy in an outpatient setting; in Progress in Therapy of Bacterial Infections. A New Cephalosporin: Ceftriaxone. Proceedings of a Symposium, Bangkok, March 1983. pp. 123–129 (Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam 1983c).

    Google Scholar 

  77. Eron, L.J., Park, C.H., Goldenberg, R.I. and Poretz, D.M.: Ceftriaxonc therapy of serious bacterial infections. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 12: 65–78 (1983a).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  78. Eron, L.J., Park, C.H., Hixon, D.L., Goldenberg, R.I. and Poretz, D.M.: Ceftriaxone therapy of bone and soft tissue infections in hospital and outpatient settings. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 23: 731–737 (1983b).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  79. Eyre, L.B., Bradsher, R.W. and Steele, R.W.: Single dose pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone in neonates, infants and children. Clinical Research 29: 888A (1981).

    Google Scholar 

  80. Fainstein, V., Weaver, S. and Bodey, G.P.: Comparative in vitro study of SQ26. 776. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 21: 294–298 (1982a).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  81. Fainstein, V., Weaver, S. and Bodey, G.P.: In vitro susceptibilities oj Aeromonas hydrophila against new antibiotics. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 22: 513–514 (1982b).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  82. Fass, R.J.: In vitro activity of ceftriaxone (Ro 13-9904), a new cephalosporin, against gram-positive cocci. Current Therapeutic Research 30: 535–539 (1981).

    Google Scholar 

  83. Fass, R.J.: Comparative in vitro activities against Pseudonumas aeruginosa and multidrug-resistant gram-negative enteric bacilli. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 21: 1003–1006 (1982).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  84. Fernandes, C.J., Stevens, D.A., Murray, S.I. and Ackerman, V.P.: An evaluation of recently developed antibiotics. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 12: 577–585 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  85. Fernex, M., Havas, L., Ryff, J.-C. and Clarke, M.R.: Ergebnisse der klinischen prüfung von ceftriaxon; in Grieshaber, R. (Ed.) Ceftriaxon (Rocephin) ein neues parenterales Cephalosporin. Proceedings of Hahnenklee-Symposium, Sept. 1981, pp. 389–415 (Editiones Roche, Basel, 1982).

    Google Scholar 

  86. Findlay, C.D., Brown, R.M., Allcock, J.E., Lowe, P.A. and Wise, R.: A study of the relationship between dose and pharmaco-kinetics of ceftriaxone. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1: 57–62 (1982).

    Google Scholar 

  87. Forsgren, A.: Immunosuppressive effect of cephalosporins and cephalosporin-gentamicin combination. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 8(Suppl. B): 183–186 (1981).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  88. Franco, J.S. and Couto, L.P.: Ceftriaxone in the treatment of osteomyelitis. Abstract of a paper presented at the 13th International Congress of Chemotherapy, Vienna (Sept. 1983).

  89. Fraschini, F., Braga, P.C., Falchi, M., Scaglione, F. and Scarpazza, G.: Scrum and sputum pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone in man. Abstract of a paper presented at the 3rd Mediterranean Congress of Chemotherapy, Dubrovnik. Sept. 1982. Chemioterapia 1: Suppl. to No. 4 (1982).

    Google Scholar 

  90. Gainer, R.B., Gainer, S.P. and Houston, B.D.: Ceftriaxone in the prophylaxis of patients undergoing prosthetic hip and knee surgery. Proceedings of the 13th International Congress of Chemotherapy. Vienna (August 1983).

  91. Garcia, I., Fainstein, V., LeBlanc, B. and Bodey, G.P.: In vitro activities of new β-ladam antibiotics against Acinetobacter spp. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 24: 297–299 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  92. Garzonc, P., Lyon, J. and Yu, V.L.: Third generation and investigational cephalosporins: II. Microbiological review and clinical summaries. Drug Intelligence and Clinical Pharmacy 17: 615–622 (1983).

    Google Scholar 

  93. Ghosen, V., Chamali, R., Bar-Moshe, O. and Stenier, P.: Clinical study of Rocephin, a 3rd generation cephalosporin, in various septicaemias. Chemotherapy 27(Suppl. 1): 100–103 (1981).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  94. Giamarellou, H., Avlami, A., Matsakas, V., Kosmidis, J. and Daikos, G.K.: In vitro studies with ceftazidime. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 8(Suppl. B): 73–77 (1981a).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  95. Giamarellou, H., Petrikkos, G., Gakis, J., Tsatsiadis, K., Antsaklis, A. and Daikos, G.K.: Penetration of antibiotics with antianaerobic activity through the amniotic fluid. Abstract of a paper presented at the 13th International Congress of Chemotherapy. Vienna (September 1983).

  96. Giamarellou, H., Poulopoulos, B., Katsabas, A., Petrikkos, G., Papapetropoulou, M. and Daikos, G.K.: Antibacterial activity of Ro 13-9904 and preliminary experience in gonorrhoea and chronic urinary tract infections. Chemotherapy 27(Suppl. 1): 70–74 (1981b).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  97. Giamarcllou, H., Tsagarakis, J., Petrikkos, G., Mavroudis, K. and Daikos, G.K.: Bacteriologic and therapeutic studies with ceftriaxonc (Rocephin). Abstract of a paper presented at the 3rd Mediterranean Congress of Chemotherapy, Dubrovnik, Sept. 1982. Chcmioterapia 1: Suppl. to No. 4 (1982).

    Google Scholar 

  98. Glauscr, M.P. and Bonard, M.: Treatment of experimental ascending Escherichia coli pyelonephritis with ceftriaxone alone and in combination with gentamicin. Chemotherapy 28: 410–416 (1982).

    Google Scholar 

  99. Gnann, J.W. Jr; Goetter, W.E., Elliott, A.M. and Cobbs, C.G.: Ceftriaxone: In vitro studies and clinical evaluations. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 22: 1–9 (1982).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  100. Gordin, F., Wofsy, C.B. and Mills, J.: Once daily ceftriaxone compared with cefazolin for the therapy of skin and soft tissue infections. Abstract (no. 118) of a paper presented at the 23rd Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Las Vegas, Oct. 1983 (American Society for Microbiology, Washington D.C. 1983).

  101. Gould Chadwick, E., Connor, E.M., Shulman, S.T. and Yogev, R.: Efficacy of ceftriaxone in treatment of serious childhood infections. Journal of Pediatrics 103: 141–144 (1983a).

    Google Scholar 

  102. Gould Chadwick, E., Yogev, R., Shulman, S.T., Weinfeld, R.E. and Patel, I.H.: Single dose ceftriaxone pharmacokinetics in pediatric patients with central nervous system infections. Journal of Pediatrics 102: 134–137 (1983b).

    Google Scholar 

  103. Graham, W.C.: A comparative trial of ceftriaxone vs cefamandole in the therapy of pneumonia in elderly men. Abstract (no. 119) of a paper presented at the 23rd Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Las Vegas, Oct. 1983 (American Society for Microbiology, Washington D.C. 1983).

    Google Scholar 

  104. Grangcr, W., Egger, T., Lenzhofer, R., Breyer, S., Diem, E. and Czech, K.: Treatment of hepatic and other intraabdominal abscesses and septicemia with ceftriaxone; in Periti, P. and Grassi, G.G. (Eds) Current Chemotherapy and Immunotherapy. Proceedings of the 12th International Congress of Chemotherapy. Florence. July 1981, pp. 472–474 (American Society for Microbiology, Washington D.C. 1982).

    Google Scholar 

  105. Greenwood, D. and Eley, A.: Activity of a new cephalosporin antibiotic. Ro 13-9904. against dense populations of selected enterobacteria. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 19: 66–71 (1981).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  106. Greenwood, D. and Eley, A.: Comparative antipseudomonal activity of some newer β-lactam agents. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 21: 204–209 (1982).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  107. Guggenbichler, J.P. and Parth, J.: Ceftriaxone in the treatment of bacterial meningitis in children. Proceedings of the 13th International Congress of Chemotherapy. Vienna (Aug. 1983).

  108. Guss, S.P. and Bawdon, R.E.: Effects of subminimum inhibitory concentrations of cephalosporins on Bacteroides fragilis and Bacteroides ruminicola. Abstract (no. 652) of a paper presented at the 22nd Intersciencc Congress of Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Miami Beach, Oct. 1982 (American Society for Microbiology, Washington D.C. 1982).

    Google Scholar 

  109. Gutmann, L., Goldstein, F.W., Kitzis, M.D., Hautefort, B., Darmon, C. and Acar, J.F.: Susceptibility of Nocardia asteroides to 46 antibiotics, including 22 β-lactams. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 23: 248–251 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  110. Gutmann, L. and Williamson, R.: Model system to demonstrate that β-lactamase-associated antibiotic trapping could be a potential means of resistance. Journal of Infectious Diseases 148: 316–321 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  111. Hall, M.J., Westmacott, D. and Wong-Kai-In, P.: Comparative in vitro activity and mode of action of ceftriaxone (Ro 13-9904) a new highly potent cephalosporin. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 8: 193–203 (1981).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  112. Handsfield, H.H. and Murphy, V.L.: Comparative study of ceftriaxone and spectinomycin for treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhoea in men. Lancet 2: 67–70 (1983a).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  113. Handsfield, H.H. and Murphy, V.L.: New β-lactam antibiotics for the treatment of gonorrhoea. Abstract of a paper presented at the 5th International Meeting of the International Society for Sexually Transmitted Disease Research, Seattle (Aug. 1983).

  114. Handsfield, H.H., Murphy, V.L. and Holmes, K.L.: Dose-ranging study of ceftriaxone for uncomplicated gonorrhea in men. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 20: 839–840 (1981).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  115. Hanimann, B. and Morger, R.: Antibiotic prophylaxis and therapy in pediatric urological surgery, comparison of ceftriaxone and cefuroxime. Proceedings of the 13th International Congress of Chemotherapy, Vienna (Aug. 1983).

  116. Harrison, C.J., Welch, D. and Marks, M.I.: Ceftriaxone therapy in pediatric patients. American Journal of Diseases of Children 137: 1048–1051 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  117. Hart, C.A. and Percival, A.: Resistance to cephalosporins among gentamicin-resistant Klebsiellae. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 9: 275–286 (1982).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  118. Hart, C.A. and Percival, A.: Susceptibilities of gentamicin-resistant Gram-negative aerobic bacilli to cefotatan and other β-lactams. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 11(Suppl A): 95–101 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  119. Haubenstock, A., Schmidt, P., Zazgornik, J., Baleke, P. and Kopsa, H.: Hypoprothrombinaemic bleeding associated with ceftriaxone (correspondence). Lancet 1: 1215–1216 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  120. Havas, L., Fernex, M. and Kissling, M.: Literature survey on the clinical efficacy and tolerance of ceftriaxone: An analysis of 3.961 cases; in Progress in Therapy of Bacterial Infections. A New Cephalosporin: Ceftriaxone. Proceedings of a Symposium, Bangkok, March, 1983 pp. 130–145 (Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam 1983).

    Google Scholar 

  121. Hawley, H.B., Kuss, M.E. and McCloskey, R.V.: Ceftriaxone vs cefazolin in the therapy of skin and soft tissue infections. Abstract (no 117) of a paper presented at the 23rd Interscicncc Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Las Vegas (Oct. 1983).

  122. Henning, K. and Grünbcrger, G.: Klinische erfahrungen mit ceftriaxon bei urologischen infektionen; in Grieshaber, R. (Ed.) Ceftriaxon (Rocephin) ein neues parenterales Cephalosporin. Proceedings of Hahncnklee-Symposium, Sept. 1981, pp. 241–249 (Editiones Roche, Basel 1982).

    Google Scholar 

  123. Hernandez, N., Rodriguez, J. and Ramirez-Ronda, C.H.: Effect of mezlocillin and third generation cephalosporins against nosocomial bacterial strains. Abstract (no. 936) of a paper presented at the 22nd Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Miami Beach, Oct. 1982 (American Society for Microbiology, Washington D.C. 1982).

    Google Scholar 

  124. Herzog, C., Ison, C.A. and Easmon, C.S.F.: Antibiotic sensitivity of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. British Journal of Venereal Diseases 59: 289–292 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  125. Hinkle, A.M. and Bodey, G.P.: In vitro evaluation of Ro 13-9904. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 18: 574–578 (1980).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  126. Holazo, A.A., Patel, I.H., Weinfeld, R.E. and Parsonnet, M.: Steady-state intramuscular pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone in man. Abstract of a paper presented at the 33rd National Meeting of the Pharmacology and Toxicology Section of the Academy of Pharmaceutical Sciences, San Diego (Nov. 1982).

  127. Iravani, A. and Richard, G.A.: Single-dose ceftriaxone (Ro 13-9904) vs seven-day trimethoprim/sulfamethoxizole in treatment of acute urinary tract infections. Abstract (no. 521) of a paper presented at the 23rd Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Las Vegas, Oct. 1983 (American Society for Microbiology, Washington D.C. 1983).

    Google Scholar 

  128. Jacobs, M.R., Kelly, F. and Speck, W.T.: Susceptibility of group B streptococci to 16 β-lactam antibiotics, including new penicillin and cephalosporin derivatives. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 22: 897–900 (1982).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  129. James, R.: Relative substrate affinity index values: A method for identification of beta-lactamase enzymes and prediction of successful beta-lactam therapy. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 17: 791–798 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  130. Jarlier, V., Bismuth, R. and Grosset, J.: Céfotaxime, moxalactam et ceftriaxone: Comparison de l’activité in vitro sur des souches hospitalières d’entérobactéries appartenant aux quatre principaux phénotypes de sensibilité aux bêta-lactamines. Pathologie Biologie 31: 336–342 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  131. Jauregui, L.E., Bischoff, M.C. and Hageage, G.J.: Combined in-patient-outpatient therapy of serious infections with a single daily dose of ceftriaxone; in Progress in Therapy of Bacterial Infections. A New Cephalosporin: Ceftriaxone. Proceedings of a Symposium. Bangkok, March 1983, pp. 104–122 (Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam 1983).

    Google Scholar 

  132. Johnson, R.C., Bey, R.F. and Wolgamot, S.J.: Comparison of the activities of ceftriaxone and penicillin G against experimentally induced syphilis in rabbits. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 21: 984–989 (1982).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  133. Jones, R.N. and Wilson, H.W.: Comparative beta-lactamase hydrolysis of and inhibition by 7-aminothiazolyl alpha-methoxyimino cephalosporins. Infection 10: 303–306 (1982).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  134. Judson, F.N., Ehret, J.M. and Root, C.L.: Comparative study of ceftriaxone and aqueous procaine penicillin G in the treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea in women. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 23: 218–220 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  135. Just, H.M., Beckert, A., Bassler, M. and Daschner, F.D.: Combination effect of ceftriaxone with four aminoglycosides on nonfermenting gram-negative bacteria. Chemotherapy 28: 397–401 (1982).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  136. Kafetzis, D.A., Brater, D.C., Fanourgakis, J.E., Voyatzis, J. and Georgakopoulos, P.: Ceftriaxone distribution between maternal blood and fetal blood and tissues at parturition and between blood and milk postpartum. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 23: 870–873 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  137. Kafetzis, D.A., Vavalea, S. and Papadatos, C.J.: Clinical and kinetic study of ceftriaxone in pediatric patients. Abstract (no. 380) of a paper presented at the 3rd Mediterranean Congress of Chemotherapy. Dubrovnik, Sept. 1982. Chemioterapia 1: Suppl. to No. 4 (1982).

    Google Scholar 

  138. Kanellakopoulou, K., Tsagarakis, J., Giamarellou, H., Papathassiou, B., Veldekis, D. and Daikos, G.K.: Pharmacokinetic studies with ceftriaxone (Rocephin). Abstract of a paper presented at the 3rd Mediterranean Congress of Chemotherapy, Dubrovnik, Sept. 1982. Chemioterapia 1: Suppl. to No. 4 (1982).

    Google Scholar 

  139. Keenholtz, S.L., Jacobus, N.V., Tally, F.P. and Gorbach, S.L.: In vitro activity of ceftazidime and ceftriaxone. Clinical Therapeutics 5: 603–616 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  140. Keller, R. and Humair, L.: Treatment of severe lower respiratory tract infections with ceftriaxone (Ro 13-9904). A pilot study. Chemotherapy 27(Suppl. 1): 93–99 (1981).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  141. Kcllum, J.M., Gargano, S., Curtis, L.E., Talcof, C.B., Weiner, B., McCoobery, M., Mayzell, K. and Gorbach, S.L.: Single-dose ceftriaxone prophylaxis versus multidose cefazolin prophylaxis in high risk biliary tract surgery. Proceedings of the 13th International Congress of Chemotherapy, Vienna (Aug. 1983).

  142. Khan, M.Y., Siddiqui, Y. and Gruninger, R.P.: Comparative in vitro activity of selected new β-lactam antimicrobials against Neisseria gonorrhoeae. British Journal of Venereal Diseases 58: 228–230 (1982).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  143. Knothe, H. and Dette, G.A.: In vitro activity of ceftazidime against clinically important pathogens. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 8(Suppl. B): 33–41 (1981).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  144. Kovatch, A.L., Schuit, K.E. and Moskovitz, B.L.: Ceftriaxone therapy of serious bacterial infections in children. Current Therapeutic Research 34: 946–954 (1983).

    Google Scholar 

  145. Kowalsky, S., Echols, R. and Parker, M.: Ceftriaxone pharmacokinetics in subjects with renal insufficiency. Abstract (no. 502) of a paper presented at the 22nd Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Miami Beach, Oct. 1982 (American Society for Microbiology, Washington D.C. 1982).

    Google Scholar 

  146. Lafaix, C., Beuclcr, A., Soussy, C.J. and Dublanchet, A.: Evaluation clinique de la ceftriaxone. Pathologie Biologie 30: 349–352 (1982).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  147. Laferriere, C., Marks, M.I. and Welch, D.F.: Influence of inoculum size on the in vitro activity of new β-lactam antibiotics against Haemophilus influenzae. Clinical Research 29: 889A (1981).

    Google Scholar 

  148. Lassus, A., Renkonen, O.V., Salo, O., Kanerva, L., Juvakoski, T. and Lauharanta, J.: One-dose treatment of acute uncomplicated gonorrhoea in male patients with ceftriaxone (Rocephin). 4th International Meeting of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Heidelberg (Oct. 1981).

  149. Latif, R. and Dajani, A.S.: Ceftriaxone diffusion into cerebrospinal fluid of children with meningitis. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 23: 46–48 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  150. Lentini., M., Castiello, G., Scorza, C. and Calvosa, F.: Comparative non-blind trial of ceftriaxone and gentamicin in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections. Journal of International Medical Research 10: 166–178 (1982).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  151. Le Van Thoi, J., Koumare, B., Lhoste, F., Soussy, C.J. and Duval, J.: Pharmacocinétique de la ceftriaxone chez l’homme. Pathologie Biologie 30: 345–347 (1982).

    Google Scholar 

  152. Licbowitz, L.D., Ballard, R.C. and Koornhof, H.J.: In vitro susceptibility and cross-resistance of South African isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to 14 antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 22: 598–603 (1982).

    Google Scholar 

  153. Livermore, D.M., Williams, R.J. and Williams, J.D.: Comparison of the β-lactamase stability in the in vitro activity of cefoperazone, cefotaxime, cefsulodin, ceflazidime, moxalactam and ceftriaxone against Pseudomonas acruginosa. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 8: 323–331 (1981a).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  154. Livermore, D.M., Williams, R.J. and Williams, J.D.: In vitro activity of ceftazidime against Pseudomonas acruginosa: and its stability to pseudomonal β-lactamases. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 8(Suppl. B): 163–167 (1981b).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  155. Lutz, B., Mogabgab, W.J., Pauling, B., Holmes, B. and Beville, R.: Ceftriaxone compared to penicillin for the treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea in females. Abstract (no. 468) of a paper presented at the 22nd Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Miami Beach, Oct. 1982 (American Society for Microbiology, Washington D.C. 1982).

    Google Scholar 

  156. Machka, K. and Dietz, R.: Comparative synergistic activity of ceftriaxone-piperacillin vs ceftriaxone-netilmicin. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2: 496–500 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  157. Macias-Hernandez, O., Esparza-Ahumada, S., Andrade-Perez, J.S., Rodriguez-Chagollan, J.J., Hernandez-Bugarin, O. and Rodriguez-Noriega, E.: Ceftriaxone (Ro 13-9904) in the therapy of bacteremias. Abstract (no. 506) of a paper presented at the 22nd Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Miami Beach, Oct. 1982 (American Society for Microbiology, Washington D.C. 1982).

  158. Macias-Hernandez, O., Quintero, N.P., Campa-Uribe, G., Perez-Ruvalcaba, J.A., Hernandez-Bugarin, O., Rodriguez-Chagollan, J.J., Andrade-Perez, J.S. and Rodriguez-Noriega, E.: Ceftriaxone in the treatment of typhoid fever: A dose finding study. Abstract (no. 1005) of a paper presented at the 23rd Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Las Vegas (Oct. 1983).

  159. Makris, A.T. and Smialowicz, C.R.: Comparative efficacy of ceftriaxone (Ro 13-9904) and cefamandole nafate in the parenteral therapy of bacterial pneumonias. Abstract of a paper presented at the 13th International Congress of Chemotherapy, Vienna (Aug. 1983).

  160. Marchou, B., Van Tho, T. and Armengaud, M.: Diffusion of ceftriaxone (Ro 13-9904/001) in the cerebrospinal fluid. Chemotherapy 27(Suppl. 1): 37–41 (1981).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  161. Martin, E.: Once daily administration of ceftriaxone in the treatment of meningitis and other serious infections in children. European Journal of Microbiology 2: 509–515 (1983).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  162. Maskell, J.P., Nasu, M. and Williams, J.D.: Cephalosporim-resistance in the Bacteroides Fragilis group and the effect of clavulonic acid. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 13: 23–30 (1984).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  163. Maslow, M.J., Levine, J.F., Pollock, A.A., Simberkoff, M.S. and Rahal Jr, J.J.: Efficacy of a twelve-hourly ceftriaxone regimen in the treatment of serious bacterial infections. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 22: 103–107 (1982).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  164. McCracken Jr, G.H., Nelson, J.D. and Grimm, L.: Pharmacokinetics and bacteriological efficacy of cefoperazone, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone and moxalactam in experimental Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae meningitis. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 21: 262–267 (1982).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  165. McCracken Jr, G.H., Siegel, J.D., Threlkeld, N. and Thomas, M.: Ceftriaxone pharmacokinetics in newborn infants. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 23: 341–343 (1983).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  166. McNamara, B.T., Meyer, R.D. and Pasiecznik, K.A.: In vitro susceptibility of cephalothin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to amikacin and selected new β-lactam agents. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 21: 753–757 (1982a).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  167. McNamara, P.J., Gibaldi, M. and Stoeckel, K.: Volume of distribution terms for a drug (ceftriaxone) exhibiting concentration dependent protein binding, I. Theoretical considerations. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 25: 399–405 (1983a).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  168. McNamara, P.J., Gibaldi, M. and Stoeckel, K.: Volume of distribution terms for a drug (ceftriaxone) exhibiting concentration-dependent protein binding. II. Physiological significance. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 25: 407–412 (1983b).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  169. McNamara, P.J., Stoeckel, K. and Ziegler, W.H.: Pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone following intravenous administration of a 3g dose. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 22: 71–75 (1982b).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  170. Meyer, J.M.: Comparative study of cefuroxime (Zinacef) and ceftriaxone (Rocephin) in perioperative prophylaxis in orthopedic surgery. Proceedings of the 13th International Congress of Chemotherapy, Vienna (Aug. 1983).

  171. Mogabgab, W.J., Haddad, R.J., Longenecker, S.L., Buchanan, T.C., Johnston, R., Macey, T.I., Bernard, T. and Floyd, I.: Thirdgeneration beta-lactam antibiotics for treatment of orthopedic infections. Clinical Therapeutics 5: 21–43 (1982).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  172. Mondorf, A.W., Scherberich, J.E., Hess, H. and Schoeppe, W.: Differences in renal tolerance of aminoglycosides and their combination with cephalosporins and cephalosporins with loop diuretics: in Periti, P. and Grassi, G.G. (Eds) Current Chemotherapy and Immunotherapy, Proceedings of the 12th International Congress of Chemotherapy, Florence, July 1981, pp. 837–839 (American Society for Microbiology, Washington D.C. 1982).

    Google Scholar 

  173. Montanari, S., Spano, A., Matzeu, M. and Lucchesi, M.: Treatment of severe respiratory tract infections with a new cephalosporin, ceftriaxone: Comparison with cefotaxime. Abstract (no. 378) of a paper presented at the 3rd Mediterranean Congress of Chemotherapy, Dubrovnik, Sept. 1982. Chemioterapia 1: Suppl. to No. 4 (1982).

    Google Scholar 

  174. Muytjens, H.L. and van der Ros-van de Repe, J.: Comparative activities of 13 β-lactam antibiotics. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 21: 925–934 (1982).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  175. Naessens, A., Pierard, D., Roels, P. and Lauwers, S.: Evaluation de la ceflriaxone (Ro 13-9904) dans le traitement des septicémies à bacilles gram négatifs. Pathologie Biologie 31: 362–365 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  176. Nagler, J. and Mertens, A.: Ceftriaxone (Ro 13-9904), a new third-generation cephalosporin for parenteral use in hospitalized patients with sepsis; in Periti, P. and Grassi, G.G. (Eds) Current Chemotherapy and Immunotherapy. Proceedings of the 12th International Congress of Chemotherapy, Florence, July 1981, pp. 462–463 (American Society for Microbiology, Washington D.C. 1982).

    Google Scholar 

  177. Narciso, P., De Mori, P., Gianuzzi, R., Tocci, G. and Visco, G.: Ceftriaxon vs ampicillin therapy for purulent meningitis in adults. Drugs and Experimental Clinical Research 9: 717–719 (1983).

    Google Scholar 

  178. Nasu, M., Maskell, J.P., Williams, R.J. and Williams, J.D.: In vitro activity of MK0787 (N-formimidoyl thienamycin) and other beta-lactam compounds against Bacteroides spp. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 20: 433–436 (1981).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  179. Neu, H.C., Meropolol, N.J. and Fu, K.P.: Antibacterial activity of ceftriaxone (Ro 13-9904) and a β-lactamase stable cephalosporin. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 19: 414–423 (1981).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  180. Neu, H.C.: New beta-lactamase-stable cephalosporins. Annals of Internal Medicine 97: 408–419 (1982a).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  181. Neu, H.C.: In vitro activity, human pharmacology, and clinical effectiveness of new β-lactam antibiotics. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology 22: 599–642 (1982b).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  182. Norrby, R.: Current status of pseudomonas infections and antibiotics. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 29: 81–86 (1981).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  183. Nsanze, H., Dylewski, J., Magwa, N., D’Costa, L.J., McNicol, P. and Ronald, A.: Ceftriaxone: In vitro studies of Haemophilus ducreyi and clinical studies of its use in chancroid. Abstract (no. 383) of a paper presented at the 3rd Mediterranean Congress of Chemotherapy, Dubrovnik, Sept. 1982. Chemioterapia li Suppl. to No. 4 (1982).

    Google Scholar 

  184. Owens, N.J., Nightingale, C.H., Quintiliani, R. and Hicking-botham, J.M.: Ceftriaxone penetration pharmacokinetics in serum, bile and gall bladder wall. Abstract (no. 583) of a paper presented at the 22nd Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Miami Beach, Oct. 1982 (American Society for Microbiology, Washington D.C. 1982).

  185. Patel, I.H., Chen, S., Parsonnet, M., Hackman, M.R., Brooks, M.A., Konikoff, J. and Kaplan, S.A.: Pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone in humans. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 20: 634–641 (1981).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  186. Patcl, I.H., Weinfeld, R.E., Konikoff, J. and Parsonnet, M.: Pharmacokinetics and tolerance of ceftriaxone in humans after single-dose intramuscular administration in water and lidocaine diluents. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 21: 957–962 (1982).

    Google Scholar 

  187. Pempinello, R., Guadagnino, V., Sardu, A., Sica, L., Miniero, M. and Coppolla, M.C.: II Preparato Ro 13-9904 (ceftriaxone) nel trattamento delie meningiti purulente. 12th Congresso Nazionale Associazione Medici Ospedalieri Infettivologi, Tirrcnia (June 1982).

  188. Pcsavento, G. and Genzi, M.: Traitement des infections O.R.L. avec ceftriaxone. Etude comparative avec gentamicine. Paper presented at the 3rd Mediterranean Congress of Chemotherapy. Dubrovnik (Sept. 1982).

  189. Petersen, E.E., Daschner, F.D., Pelz, K., Birmelin, G. and Hillemanns, H.G.: Antibiotika-prophylaxe bei hysterektomie. Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde 43: 492–497 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  190. Phillips, I., Warren, C., Taylor, E., Timewell, R. and Eykyn, S.: Antimicrobial susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria in a London teaching hospital. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 8(Suppl. D): 17–26 (1981).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  191. Pichler, H., Valasek, W., Kiessling, G., Jeschko, E. and Rotter, M.: Comparative clinical trial of ceftriaxone and doxycycline in patients with pneumonia; in Periti, P. and Grassi, G.G. (Eds) Current Chemotherapy and Immunotherapy. Proceedings of the 12th International Congress of Chemotherapy, Florence. July 1981, pp. 460–462 (American Society for Microbiology, Washington D.C. 1982).

    Google Scholar 

  192. Pickup, M.E., Bird, H.A., Lowe, J.R., Lees, L. and Wright, V.: Pharmacokinetic and tolerance study of Ro 13-9904, a new cephalosporin antibiotic. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 12: 111–115 (1981).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  193. Pollock, A.A., Tee, P.E., Patel, I.H., Spicehandler, J., Simberkoff, M.S. and Rahal Jr, J.J.: Pharmacokinetic characteristics of intravenous ceftriaxone in normal adults. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 22: 816–823 (1982).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  194. Pollock, H.M., Holt, J. and Murray, C.: Comparison of susceptibilities of anaerobic bacteria to cefmenoxime, ceftriaxone, and other antimicrobial compounds. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 23: 780–783 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  195. Prado, V., Zuleta, A. and Basauri, L.: Ceftriaxone (Ro-139904) in the treatment of ventriculitis of infancy. Abstract of a paper presented at the International Society for Paediatric Neurosurgery Scientific Program, Philadelphia (Sept. 1982).

  196. Prince, A.S. and Neu, H.C.: Activities of new beta-lactam antibiotics against isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from patients with cystic fibrosis. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 20: 545–546 (1981).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  197. Probst, P.J.: Effect of ceftriaxone (Ro 13-9904) and cefotaxime on experimental rat pyelonephritis; in Periti, P. and Grassi, G.G. (Eds) Current Chemotherapy and Immunotherapy. Proceedings of the 12th International Congress of Chemotherapy, Florence, July 1981. pp. 447–448 (American Society for Microbiology, Washington D.C. 1982).

    Google Scholar 

  198. Rajan, V.S., Sng, E.H., Thirumoorthy, T. and Goh, C.L.: Ceftriaxonc in the treatment of ordinary and penicillinase-producing strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. British Journal of Infectious Diseases 58: 314–316 (1982).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  199. Rapin, M.: La ceftriaxone (Ro 13-9904) dans le traitement des états septiques graves en réanimation. Abstract (no. 377) of a paper presented at the 3rd Mediterranean Congress of Chemotherapy, Dubrovnik, Sept. 1982. Chemioterapia 1: Suppl. to No. 4 (1982).

    Google Scholar 

  200. Reed, M., Rekate, H., Murdell, D., Myers, C. and Blumer, J.: Single dose plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone in children. American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 33: 246 (1983).

    Google Scholar 

  201. Reiner, R., Weiss, U., Brombacher, U., Lanz, P., Montavon, M., Furlenmeier, A., Angehrn, P. and Probst, P.J.: Ro 13-9904, a novel potent and long-acting parenteral cephalosporin. Journal of Antibiotics 33: 783–786 (1980).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  202. Rey, J.L., Konarjevski, Madras; Ousseini, A. and Felix, H.: Ceftriaxone en pathologie infectieuse majeure africaine-resultats obtenus au C.H. De Niamey. Abstract of a paper presented at the Réunion Interdisciplinaire de Chimiothérapie Antiinfectieuse. Paris (Dec. 1981).

  203. Rimland, D. and Baldwin, V.: Comparative trial of ceftriaxone and cefamandole in the therapy of community-acquired pneumonia. Abstract (no. 116) of a paper presented at the 23rd Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Las Vegas (Oct.1983).

  204. Rissing, J.P., Weinstein, R.S., Buxton, T.B., Hutson, M.S. and Shocklcy, R.K.: Experimental staphylococcal osteomyelitis in rats. Histopathology and therapeutic efficacy of oxacillin on ceftriaxone. Clinical Research 30: 853A (1982).

    Google Scholar 

  205. Rolfe, R.D. and Finegold, S.M.: Comparative in vitro activity of ceftriaxone against anaerobic bacteria. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 22: 338–341 (1982).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  206. Rothwell, D.L., Bremner, D.A. and Taylor, K.M.: Treatment of complicated urinary tract infections with the long acting cephalosporin, ceftriaxone. New Zealand Medical Journal 96: 392–394 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  207. Rubinstein, E., Pritsch, M., Mark, Z. and Spicehandler, J.: Efficacy of ceftriaxone and gentamicin in an abscess model. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1: 272–277 (1982).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  208. Salvador, P., Smith, R.G., Weinfeld, R.E., Ellis, D.H. and Bodey, G.P.: Clinical pharmacology of ceftriaxone in patients with neoplastic disease. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 23: 583–588 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  209. Saul, T., Wittmann, D.H., Fock, R., Laufs, R.: Serum, bone and tissue fluid concentrations of ceftriaxone. Abstract of a paper presented at the 13th International Congress of Chemotherapy. Vienna (Aug. 1983).

  210. Schaad, U.B. and McCracken Jr, G.H.: Pharmacologic basis for antimicrobial therapy of neonatal meningitis. Helvetica Paediatrica Acta 36: 19–30 (1981).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  211. Schaad, U.B., McCracken Jr, G.H., Loock, C.A. and Thomas, M.L.: Pharmacokinetics and bacteriologic efficacy of moxalactam, cefotaxime, cefoperazone and rocephin in experimental bacterial meningitis. Journal of Infectious Diseases 143: 156–163 (1981).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  212. Schaad, U.B. and Stoeckel, K.: Single-dose pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone in infants and young children. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 21: 248–253 (1982).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  213. Schaad, U.B. and Stoeckel, K.: Single-dose pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone in newborn infants. Abstract of a paper presented at the 17th International Congress of Pediatrics, Manila (Nov. 1983).

  214. Scribner, R.K., Wedro, B.C., Weber, A.H. and Marks, M.I.: Activities of eight new β-lactam antibiotics and seven antibiotic combinations against Neisseria meningitidis. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 21: 678–680 (1982).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  215. Scully, B.E., Jules, K. and Neu, H.C.: In vitro activity and β-lactamase stability of cefodizime, an aminothiazolyl iminomethoxy cephalosporin. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 23: 907–913 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  216. Scully, B. and Neu, H.C.: Human pharmacology of ceftriaxone. Abstract (no. 805) of a paper presented at the 21st Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Chicago, Nov. 1981 (American Society for Microbiology, Washington D.C. 1981).

    Google Scholar 

  217. Scully, B. and Neu, H.C.: Use of ceftriaxone in serious infections. Abstract (no. 505) of a paper presented at the 22nd Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Miami Beach, Oct. 1982 (American Society for Microbiology, Washington D.C. 1982).

    Google Scholar 

  218. Seiler, W.O., Böhni, E. and Stähelin, H.B.: Ceftriaxon in der Behandlung der akuten exazerbation der chronischen katheterzystitis; in Grieshaber, R. (Ed.) Ceftriaxon (Rocephin) ein neues parenterales Cephalosporin. Proceedings of Hahnenklee-Symposium, Sept. 1981, pp. 255–274 (Editiones Roche, Basel, 1982).

    Google Scholar 

  219. Seiler, W., Stähelin, H.B. and Böhni, E.: Clinical and bacteriological results in urinary tract infections with single dose Ro 13-9904 (Rochephin). Chemotherapy 27(Suppl. 1): 80–92 (1981).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  220. Seyscn, U.: Klinische prüfung von ceftriaxon bei patienten mit atemwegserkrankungun; in Grieshaber, R. (Ed.) Ceftriaxon (Rocephin) ein neues parenterales cephalosporin. Proceedings of the Hahnenklee-symposium, Sept. 1981, pp. 341–350 (Editiones Roche, Basel, 1982).

    Google Scholar 

  221. Shannon, K., King, A., Warren, C. and Phillips, I.: In vitro antibacterial activity and susceptibility of the cephalosporin Ro 13-9904 to beta-lactamases. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 18: 292–298 (1980).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  222. Shelton, S., Nelson, J.D. and McCracken Jr, G.H.: In vitro susceptibility of gram-negative bacilli from pediatric patients to moxalactam, cefotaxime, Ro 13-9904, and other cephalosporins. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 18: 476–479 (1980).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  223. Shlaes, D.M., Currie, C.A., Rotter, G., Eanes, M. and Floyd, R.: Epidemiology of gentamicin-resistant Gram-negative bacillary colonization in a spinal cord injury unit. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 18: 227–235 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  224. Siboulet, A., Bonbot, J.M., Catalan, F. and Siboulet, A.: Chlamydia trachomatis urcthro-genital infections in France. Paper presented at the 1st Sexually Transmitted Diseases World Congress, Puerto Rico (Nov. 1981).

  225. Siboulet, A., Bonbot, J.M., Catalan, F. and Siboulet, A.: Aspects actuels des infections uretrogenitales gonococciques et non gonococciques. Role de la ceftriaxone (rocephin). 3rd Mediterranean Congress of Chemotherapy, Dubrovnik, Sept. 1982. Chemioterapia 1: Suppl. to No. 4 (1982).

    Google Scholar 

  226. Siegel, J., Steck, B. and Chrane, D.: Effect of ceftriaxone on gut flora. Abstract (no. 171) of a paper presented at the 23rd Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Las Vegas, Oct. 1983 (American Society for Microbiology, Washington D.C. 1983).

    Google Scholar 

  227. Sng, E.H., Yeo, K.L., Lim, A.L. and Rajan, V.S.: Susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated in Singapore to ceftriaxone, ccfotaxime, gentamicin and cotrimoxazole. Annals of the Academy of Medicine 12: 70–73 (1983).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  228. Soriano, F. and Vega, J.: Susceptibility of Yersinia to eleven antimicrobials. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 10: 543–547 (1982).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  229. Spicehandler, J.: Pharmacology of new cephalosporins with unusually long half-lives; in Neu, H.C. (Ed.) New Beta-Lactam Antibiotics: A Review from Chemistry to Clinical Efficacy of the New Cephalosporins. Proceedings of the Cephalosporins Symposium of the American College of Clinical Pharmacology, Philadelphia (1982).

    Google Scholar 

  230. Spitzy, K.H.: Ceftriaxon bei intraabdomineller abszedierung; in Grieshaber, R. (Ed.) Ceftriaxon (Rocephin) ein neues parenterales Cephalosporin. Proceedings of the Hahnenklee-Symposium, Sept. 1981 pp. 331–336 (Editiones Roche, Basel. 1982).

    Google Scholar 

  231. Steele, R.W. and Bradsher, R.W.: Comparison of ceftriaxone with standard therapy for bacterial meningitis. Journal of Pediatrics 103: 138–141 (1983a).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  232. Steele, R.W. and Bradsher, R.W.: Ceftriaxone for the treatment of serious infections. American Journal of Diseases of Children 137: 1044–1047 (1983b).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  233. Steele, R.W., Eyre, L.B., Bradsher, R.W., Weinfeld, R.E., Patel, I.H. and Spicehandler, J.: Pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone in pediatric patients with meningitis. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 23: 191–194 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  234. Stoeckel, K.: Pharmacokinetics of Rocephin, a highly active new cephalosporin with an exceptionally long biological half-life. Chemotherapy 27(Suppl. 1): 42–46 (1981).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  235. Stoeckel, K., Hoppe-Seyler, G., Blumberg, A. and Türk, H.: Singledose pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone in patients with renal disease and in patients with liver disease. Abstract of a paper presented at the 8th International Congress of Infections and Parasitic Diseases, Stockholm (June 1982a).

  236. Stoeckel, K., McNamara, P.J., Brandt, R., Plozza-Nottebrock, H. and Ziegler, W.H.: Effects of concentration dependent plasma protein binding on ceftriaxone kinetics. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 29: 650–656 (1981).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  237. Stoeckel, K., McNamara, P.J., Brandt, R. and Ziegler, W.H.: Influence of protein binding on pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone: in Periti, P. and Grassi, G.G. (Eds) Current Chemotherapy and Immunotherapy. Proceedings of the 12th International Congress of Chemotherapy, Florence, July 1981, pp. 454–455 (American Society for Microbiology, Washington D.C. 1982b).

    Google Scholar 

  238. Stoeckel, K., McNamara, P.J., Hoppe-Seyler, G., Blumberg, A. and Keller, E.: Single-dose ceftriaxone kinetics in functionally anephric patients. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 33: 633–641 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  239. Stratton, R., Scroggin Jr. C., Karstens, A., Martin, P.L., Marmer, D.J. and Stcele, R.W.: Coefficacy of cephalosporins and human neutrophils in microbial killing. Clinical Research 29: 889A (1981).

    Google Scholar 

  240. Sumarmo: Ceftriaxone in the treatment of bacterial meningitis in children; in Progress in Therapy of Bacterial Infections. A New Cephalosporin: Ceftriaxone. Proceedings of a Symposium, Bangkok, March 1983 (Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam 1983).

    Google Scholar 

  241. Tan, J.S., Kelly, T. and File Jr, T.M.: Perioperative use of ceftriaxone in biliary surgery. Proceedings of the 13th International Congress of Chemotherapy, Vienna (Aug. 1983).

  242. Tanphaichitra, D., Busayanon, A., Sukathat, O. and Chaiprasittigul, P.: Augmentin, cefotaxime, and Rocephin in genitourinary and hepatobiliary infections by β-lactamase-producing bacteria; in Periti, P. and Grassi, G.G. (Eds) Current Chemotherapy and Immunotherapy. Proceedings of the 12th International Congress of Chemotherapy, Florence, July 1981, pp. 782–783 (American Society for Microbiology, Washington D.C. 1982).

    Google Scholar 

  243. Taufer, M., Zangger, J., Baumgartner, G., Forenbacher, H. and Austria, G.: Ceftriaxone in obstructive and non-obstructive infections of the lower urinary tract. Abstract (no. 376) of a paper presented at the 3rd Mediterranean Congress of Chemotherapy, Dubrovnik, Sept. 1982. Chemioterapia 1: Suppl. to No. 4 (1982).

    Google Scholar 

  244. Teelmann, K., Schärer, K. and Udaka, K.: Experimentelle toxikologie von ceftriaxon (Ro 13-9904, Rocephin); in Grieshaber, R. (Ed.) Ceftriaxon (Rocephin) ein neues parenterales Cephalosporin. Proceedings of Hahnenklee-Symposium, Sept. 1981, pp. 91–111 (Editiones Roche, Basel, 1982).

    Google Scholar 

  245. Teow-Yee Ti; Fortin, L., Kreeft, J.H., East, D.S., Ogilvie, R.I. and Somerville, P.J.: Kinetic disposition of intravenous ceftriaxone in normal subjects and patients with renal failure on hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 25: 83–87 (1984).

    Google Scholar 

  246. Thabaut, A. and Durosoir, J.L.: Activity of the combinations new betalactam antibiotics-aminoglycosides on Pseudomonas aerutginosa. Abstract of a paper presented at the 8th International Congress of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Stockholm (June 1982).

  247. Thabaut, A., Durosoir, J.L. and Saliou, P.: Comparison of the in vitro activities of ceftazidime and new cephalosporins against 107 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 249 strains of cefazolin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 8(Suppl. B): 123–125 (1981a).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  248. Thabaut, A., Durosoir, J.L. and Saliou, P.: Comparative in vitro activity of 8 cephalosporins on 109 strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and 60 strains of Neisseria meningitidis. Chemotherapy 27(Suppl. 1): 19–24 (1981b).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  249. Then, R.L.: Properties of Ro 13-9904 as a substrate and inhibitor of β-lactamases. Chemotherapy 27(Suppl. I): 25–31 (1981).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  250. Then, R.L. and Angehrn, P.: Trapping of nonhydrolyzable cephalosporins by cephalosporinases in Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a possible resistance mechanism. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 21: 711–717 (1982).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  251. Then, R.L., Glauser, M.P., Angehrn, P. and Arisawa, M.: Cephalosporin resistance in strains of Klebsiella oxytoca isolated during antibiotic therapy. Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie Mikrobiologie und Hygiene 254: 469–479 (1983).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  252. Theron, E.J. and Nel, C.J.C.: Treatment of septic burns with a third generation cephalosporin (Ceftriaxon). South African Medical Journal 64: 816–817 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  253. Trautmann, K.H. and Haefelfinger, P.: Determination of the cephalosporin Ro 13-9904 in plasma, urine, and bile by means of ion-pair reversed phase chromatography. Journal of High Resolution Chromatography and Chromatography Communications 4: 54–59 (1981).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  254. Vangdal, M., Bergan, T., Michalsen, H. and Salveson, A.: Pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone in cystic fibrosis; in Periti, P. and Grassi, G.G. (Eds) Current Chemotherapy and Immunotherapy. Proceedings of the 12th International Congress of Chemotherapy. Florence, July 1981, pp. 468–470 (American Society for Microbiology, Washington D.C. 1982).

    Google Scholar 

  255. Van Gelderen, C.J.: Comparative trial of ceftriaxone and a penicillin/chloramphenicol combination in gynaecological infections complicated by peritonitis. Abstract of a paper presented at the symposium ‘Ceftrioxone: a long-acting cephalosporin agent for serious infections’, Montreux, Switzerland (Aug. 1983).

  256. von Graevenitz, A. and Bucher, C.: Effect of N-formimidoyl thienamycin, ceftazidime, cefotiam, ceftriaxone and cefotaxime on non-fermentative gram-negative rods, Aeromonas, Plesiomonas and Enterobacter agglomerans. Infection 10: 293–298 (1982).

    Google Scholar 

  257. Verbist, L. and Verhaegen, J.: In vitro activity of Ro 13-9904, a new β-lactamase stable cephalosporin. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 19: 222–225 (1981).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  258. Watanakunakorn, C.: In vitro activity of ceftriaxone alone and in combination with gentamicin, tobramycin, and amikacin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 24: 305–306 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  259. Wise, R., Gillett, A.P., Andrews, J.M. and Bedford, K.A.: Ro 13-9904: A cephalosporin with a high degree of activity and broad antibacterial activity: An in vitro comparative study. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 6: 595–600 (1980).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  260. Wright, N. and Wise, R.: Ceftriaxone pharmacokinetics in subjects with varying degrees of renal dysfunction; in Periti, P. and Grassi, G.G. (Eds) Current Chemotherapy and Immunotherapy. Proceedings of the 12th International Congress of Chemotherapy. Florence, July 1981, pp. 464–465 (American Society for Microbiology, Washington D.C. 1982).

    Google Scholar 

  261. Wright, R.B., Makover, S.D. and Telep, E.: Affinity for penicillin binding proteins and effect on cell wall synthesis. Journal of Antibiotics 34: 590–595 (1981).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  262. Yoshikawa, T.T., Shibata, S.A., Herbert, P. and Oill, P.A.: In vitro activity of Ro 13-9904, cefuroxime, cefoxitin, and ampicillin against Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 18: 355–356 (1980).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  263. Zajdowicz, T.R., Sanches, P.L., Berg, S.W., Kerbs, S.B.J., Newquist, R.L. and Harrison, W.O.: Comparison of ceftriaxone with cefoxitin in the treatment of penicillin-resistant gonococcal urethritis. British Journal of Venereal Diseases 59: 176–178 (1983).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to D. M. Richards.

Additional information

Various sections of the manuscript reviewed by: L.P. Balant, Pharmacologie Clinique, Zyma SA 1260, Nyon, Switzerland; J.D. Baumgartner, Department of Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland; D.G. Brater, Department of Pharmacology and Internal Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at Dallas, Dallas, Texas, USA; S.J. Childs, Southeastern Research Foundation, Alabaster, Alabama, USA; L.J. Eron, Infectious Diseases Physicians, Inc., Fairfax, Virginia, USA; H. Giamanellou, Department of Internal Medicine, Athens University School of Medicine, Athens, Greece; H.H. Handsfield, Sexually Transmitted Diseases Control Program, Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, Washington, USA; W.M.M. Kirby, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, USA; R. W. Lacey, Department of Microbiology, The University of Leeds, Leeds, UK; H.C. Neu, Division of Infectious Diseases, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, N.Y., USA; D.S. Reeves, Division of Pathology, Southmead General Hospital, Westbury-on-Trym, Bristol, UK; Y. Sekine, Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Gunma University, Showa-machi, Maebashi, Japan; L. Verbist, Academisch Ziekenhuis, Sint-Rafaël, Leuven, Belgium; L. Weinstein, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; R. Wise, Department of Medical Microbiology, Dudley Road Hospital, Birmingham, UK.

‘Rocephin’ (Hoffmann La Roche).

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Richards, D.M., Heel, R.C., Brogden, R.N. et al. Ceftriaxone. Drugs 27, 469–527 (1984). https://doi.org/10.2165/00003495-198427060-00001

Download citation

Keywords

  • Cephalosporin
  • Ceftriaxone
  • Cefotaxime
  • Lower Respiratory Tract Infection
  • Cefoperazone