Clinical Pharmacokinetics

, Volume 48, Issue 3, pp 143–157 | Cite as

Sex Differences in Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

  • Offie P. SoldinEmail author
  • Donald R. Mattison
Review Article


Significant differences that exist between the sexes affect the prevalence, incidence and severity of a broad range of diseases and conditions. Men and women also differ in their response to drug treatment. It is therefore essential to understand these reactions in order to appropriately conduct risk assessment and to design safe and effective treatments. Even from that modest perspective, how and when we use drugs can result in unwanted and unexpected outcomes. This review summarizes the sex-based differences that impact on pharmacokinetics, and includes a general comparison of clinical pharmacology as it applies to men, women and pregnant women. Sex-related or pregnancy-induced changes in drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination, when significant, may guide changes in dosage regimen or therapeutic monitoring to increase its effectiveness or reduce potential toxicity. Given those parameters, and our knowledge of sex differences, we can derive essentially all factors necessary for therapeutic optimization.

Since this is a rapidly evolving area, it is essential for the practitioner to review drug prescribing information and recent literature in order to fully understand the impact of these differences on clinical therapeutics.


Renal Blood Flow Basal Metabolic Rate Total Body Water Eletriptan Rocuronium Bromide 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors have no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this review. Dr Soldin is partially supported by a Clinical Investigator Award from the Flight Attendant Medical Research Institute (FAMRI; Miami, FL, USA) and grant no. 5U10HD047890-S from the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Obstetrics-Fetal Pharmacology Research Unit (OPRU) Network (Rockville, MD, USA) and the Office of Research on Women’s Health (Bethesda, MD, USA).

The authors wish to thank Drs Anne Zajicek and Alexander Vinks for reading the manuscript critically, and Mr Daniel O’Mara for helping with manuscript preparation.


  1. 1.
    Hardman JG, Limbird LE, Gilman AG. Goodman & Gilman’s the pharmacological basis of therapeutics. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Messing K, Mager Stellman J. Sex, gender and women’s occupational health: the importance of considering mechanism. Environ Res 2006 Jun; 101(2): 149–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zahm SH, Blair A, Weisenburger DD. Sex differences in the risk of multiple myeloma associated with agriculture. Br J Ind Med 1992 Nov; 49(11): 815–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ogden CL, Fryar CD, Carroll MD, et al. Mean body weight, height, and body mass index, United States 1960–2002: advance data from vital and health statistics; no. 347. Hyattsville (MD): National Center for Health Statistics, 2004 Oct 27 [online]. Available from URL: [Accessed 2008 Dec 4]
  5. 5.
    Wizemann TM, Pardue ML, editors. Exploring the biological contributions to human health: does sex matter? Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2001 [online]. Available from URL: [Accessed 2009 Feb 12]
  6. 6.
    Marrocco A, Stewart DE. We’ve come a long way, maybe: recruitment of women and analysis of results by sex in clinical research. J Womens Health Gend Based Med 2001 Mar; 10(2): 175–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Office of Research on Women’s Health and NIH Support for Research on Women’s Health Issues. Report of the Advisory Committee on Research on Women’s Health; fiscal years 2005 & 2006 [online]. Available from URL: [Accessed 2008 Dec 4]
  8. 8.
    US General Accounting Office (GAO). Drug safety: most drugs withdrawn in recent years had greater health risks for women. Washington, DC: GAO, 2001 Jan 19 [online]. Available from URL: [Accessed 2008 Dec 4]
  9. 9.
    Byrne J. Infertility and premature menopause in childhood cancer survivors. Med Pediatr Oncol 1999 Jul; 33(1): 24–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gorski JC, Vannaprasaht S, Hamman MA, et al. The effect of age, sex, and rifampin administration on intestinal and hepatic cytochrome P450 3A activity. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2003 Sep; 74(3): 275–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Vukovich RA, Brannick LJ, Sugerman AA, et al. Sex differences in the intramuscular absorption and bioavailability of cephradine. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1975 Aug; 18(2): 215–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gandhi M, Aweeka F, Greenblatt RM, et al. Sex differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 2004; 44: 499–523PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lindahl K, Stahle L, Bruchfeld A, et al. High-dose ribavirin in combination with standard dose peginterferon for treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 2005 Feb; 41(2): 275–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Parlesak A, Billinger MH, Bode C, et al. Gastric alcohol dehydrogenase activity in man: influence of gender, age, alcohol consumption and smoking in a Caucasian population. Alcohol Alcohol 2002 Jul–Aug; 37(4): 388–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Baraona E, Abittan CS, Dohmen K, et al. Gender differences in pharmacokinetics of alcohol. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2001 Apr; 25(4): 502–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Muller C. Liver, alcohol and gender. Wien Med Wochenschr 2006 Oct; 156(19–20): 523–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nanji AA, Jokelainen K, Fotouhinia M, et al. Increased severity of alcoholic liver injury in female rats: role of oxidative stress, endotoxin, and chemokines. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2001 Dec; 281(6): G1348–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sumida KD, Hill JM, Matveyenko AV. Sex differences in hepatic gluconeogenic capacity after chronic alcohol consumption. Clin Med Res 2007 Oct; 5(3): 193–202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Thurman RG. Sex-related liver injury due to alcohol involves activation of Kupffer cells by endotoxin. Can J Gastroenterol 2000 Nov; 14 Suppl. D: 129D–35DPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ikejima K, Enomoto N, Iimuro Y, et al. Estrogen increases sensitivity of hepatic Kupffer cells to endotoxin. Am J Physiol 1998 Apr; 274(4 Pt 1): G669–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Englund G, Rorsman F, Ronnblom A, et al. Regional levels of drug transporters along the human intestinal tract: co-expression of ABC and SLC transporters and comparison with Caco-2 cells. Eur J Pharm Sci 2006 Nov; 29(3–4): 269–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tamai I, Saheki A, Saitoh R, et al. Nonlinear intestinal absorption of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonist caused by absorptive and secretory transporters. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1997 Oct; 283(1): 108–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jovanovic H, Lundberg J, Karlsson P, et al. Sex differences in the serotonin 1A receptor and serotonin transporter binding in the human brain measured by PET. Neuroimage 2008 Feb 1; 39(3): 1408–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Salena BJ, Hunt RH. The stomach and duodenum. In: Thompson AB, Shaffer EA, editors. First principles of gastroenterology: the basis of disease and an approach to management. 2nd ed. Mississauga: Canadian Association of Gastroenterology/Astra Pharma, 1994: 135–81Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Stephen AM, Wiggins HS, Englyst HN, et al. The effect of age, sex and level of intake of dietary fibre from wheat on large-bowel function in thirty healthy subjects. Br J Nutr 1986 Sep; 56(2): 349–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Butera L, Feinfeld DA, Bhargava M. Sex differences in the subunits of glutathione-S-transferase isoenzyme from rat and human kidney. Enzyme 1990; 43(4): 175–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Jacobs A. Sex differences in iron absorption. Proc Nutr Soc 1976; 35(2): 159–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Arthur MJ, Lee A, Wright R. Sex differences in the metabolism of ethanol and acetaldehyde in normal subjects. Clin Sci (Lond) 1984; 67(4): 397–401Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sowinski KM, Abel SR, Clark WR, et al. Effect of gender on the pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin. Pharmacotherapy 1999 Apr; 19(4): 442–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Williams LR, Leggett RW. Reference values for resting blood flow to organs of man. Clin Phys Physiol Meas 1989 Aug; 10(3): 187–217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Succari M, Foglietti MJ, Percheron F. Microheterogeneity of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein: variation during the menstrual cycle in healthy women, and profile in women receiving estrogen-progestogen treatment. Clin Chim Acta 1990 Mar 15; 187(3): 235–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wiegratz I, Kutschera E, Lee JH, et al. Effect of four different oral contraceptives on various sex hormones and serum-binding globulins. Contraception 2003 Jan; 67(1): 25–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Vigersky RA, Kono S, Sauer M, et al. Relative binding of testosterone and estradiol to testosterone-estradiol-binding globulin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1979; 49: 899–904PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Roberts RK, Desmond PV, Wilkinson GR, et al. Disposition of chlordiazepoxide: sex differences and effects of oral contraceptives. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1979 Jun; 25(6): 826–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lee JN, Chen SS, Richens A, et al. Serum protein binding of diazepam in maternal and foetal serum during pregnancy. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1982 Oct; 14(4): 551–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Routledge PA, Stargel WW, Kitchell BB, et al. Sex-related differences in the plasma protein binding of lignocaine and diazepam. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1981 Mar; 11(3): 245–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Yacobi A, Stoll RG, DiSanto AR, et al. Intersubject variation of warfarin binding to protein in serum of normal subjects. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 1976 Aug; 14(4): 743–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Yacobi A, Lampman T, Levy G. Frequency distribution of free warfarin and free phenytoin fraction values in serum of healthy human adults. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1977 Mar; 21(3): 283–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hvidberg EF, Dam M. Clinical pharmacokinetics of anticonvulsants. Clin Pharmacokinet 1976; 1(3): 161–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Richens A. Clinical pharmacokinetics of phenytoin. Clin Pharmacokinet 1979 May–Jun; 4(3): 153–69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Young CM, Tensuan RS. Estimating the lean body mass of young women: use of skeletal measurements. J Am Diet Assoc 1963 Jan; 42: 46–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hytten FE. Weight gain in pregnancy: 30 year of research. S Afr Med J 1981 Jul 4; 60(1): 15–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Houghton IT, Aun CS, Oh TE. Vecuronium: an anthropometric comparison. Anaesthesia 1992 Sep; 47(9): 741–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Xue FS, Tong SY, Liao X, et al. Dose-response and time course of effect of rocuronium in male and female anesthetized patients. Anesth Analg 1997 Sep; 85(3): 667–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ochs HR, Greenblatt DJ, Divoll M, et al. Diazepam kinetics in relation to age and sex. Pharmacology 1981; 23(1): 24–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI). ILSI Risk Science Institute Working Group on Physiological Parameters Report. Washington, DC: ILSI, 1994Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Cooper SF, Drolet D, Dugal R. Comparative bioavailability of two oral formulations of flurazepam in human subjects. Biopharm Drug Dispos 1984 Apr–Jun; 5(2): 127–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Greenblatt DJ, Shader RI, Franke K, et al. Kinetics of intravenous chlordiazepoxide: sex differences in drug distribution. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1977 Dec; 22(6): 893–903PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Aarons L, Hopkins K, Rowland M, et al. Route of administration and sex differences in the pharmacokinetics of aspirin, administered as its lysine salt. Pharm Res 1989 Aug; 6(8): 660–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Campbell NR, Hull RD, Brant R, et al. Different effects of heparin in males and females. Clin Invest Med 1998 Apr; 21(2): 71–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Trnavska Z, Trnavsky K. Sex differences in the pharmacokinetics of salicylates. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1983; 25(5): 679–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Lane HY, Chang YC, Chang WH, et al. Effects of gender and age on plasma levels of clozapine and its metabolites: analyzed by critical statistics. J Clin Psychiatry 1999 Jan; 60(1): 36–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Jokubaitis LA. Development and pharmacology of fluvastatin. Br J Clin Pract Suppl. 1996 Jan; 77A: 11–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hooper WD, Qing MS. The influence of age and gender on the stereoselective metabolism and pharmacokinetics of mephobarbital in humans. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1990 Dec; 48(6): 633–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Bock KW, Schrenk D, Forster A, et al. The influence of environmental and genetic factors on CYP2D6, CYP1A2 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases in man using sparteine, caffeine, and paracetamol as probes. Pharmacogenetics 1994 Aug; 4(4): 209–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Lucas D, Menez C, Girre C, et al. Cytochrome P450 2E1 genotype and chlorzoxazone metabolism in healthy and alcoholic Caucasian subjects. Pharmacogenetics 1995 Oct; 5(5): 298–304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hunt CM, Westerkam WR, Stave GM. Effect of age and gender on the activity of human hepatic CYP3A. Biochem Pharmacol 1992 Jul 22; 44(2): 275–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Miners JO, Robson RA, Birkett DJ. Gender and oral contraceptive steroids as determinants of drug glucuronidation: effects on clofibric acid elimination. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1984 Aug; 18(2): 240–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Aksoy IA, Sochorova V, Weinshilboum RM. Human liver dehydroepian-drosterone sulfotransferase: nature and extent of individual variation. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1993 Nov; 54(5): 498–506PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Relling MV, Lin JS, Ayers GD, et al. Racial and gender differences in N-acetyltransferase, xanthine oxidase, and CYP1A2 activities. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1992 Dec; 52(6): 643–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Boudikova B, Szumlanski C, Maidak B, et al. Human liver catechol-O-methyltransferase pharmacogenetics. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1990 Oct; 48(4): 381–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Custodio JM, Wu CY, Benet LZ. Predicting drug disposition, absorption/elimination/transporter interplay and the role of food on drug absorption. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2008 Mar 17; 60(6): 717–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Anderson GD. Sex differences in drug metabolism: cytochrome P-450 and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase. J Gend Specif Med 2002 Jan–Feb; 5(1): 25–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Aichhorn W, Whitworth AB, Weiss EM, et al. Differences between men and women in side effects of second-generation antipsychotics [in German]. Nervenarzt 2007 Jan; 78(1): 45–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Choi S, DiSilvio B, Unangst J, et al. Effect of chronic infusion of olanzapine and clozapine on food intake and body weight gain in male and female rats. Life Sci 2007 Sep 1; 81(12): 1024–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Furukawa T, Kurokawa J. Regulation of cardiac ion channels via non-genomic action of sex steroid hormones: implication for the gender difference in cardiac arrhythmias. Pharmacol Ther 2007 Jul; 115(1): 106–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ljunggren H. Studies on body composition; with special reference to the composition of obesity tissue and non-obesity tissue. Acta Endocrinol Suppl (Copenh) 1957; 25 Suppl. 33: 1–58Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Cunningham JJ. Body composition and resting metabolic rate: the myth of feminine metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr 1982 Oct; 36(4): 721–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Mattison DR, Thomford PJ. The mechanisms of action of reproductive toxicants. Toxicol Pathol 1989; 17(2): 364–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Gaudry SE, Sitar DS, Smyth DD, et al. Gender and age as factors in the inhibition of renal clearance of amantadine by quinine and quinidine. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1993 Jul; 54(1): 23–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Berg UB. Differences in decline in GFR with age between males and females: reference data on clearances of inulin and PAH in potential kidney donors. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2006 Sep; 21(9): 2577–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Hytten FE, Chemberlain G. Clinical physiology in obstetrics. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1980Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Silvaggio T, Mattison DR. Setting occupational health standards: toxicokinetic differences among and between men and women. J Occup Med 1994 Aug; 36(8): 849–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Davison JM, Dunlop W. Renal hemodynamics and tubular function normal human pregnancy. Kidney Int 1980 Aug; 18(2): 152–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Dean M, Stock B, Patterson RJ, et al. Serum protein binding of drugs during and after pregnancy in humans. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1980 Aug; 28(2): 253–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    DeCherney AH, Nathan L, Goodwin TM, et al., editors. Current diagnosis & treatment: obstetrics & gynecology. 10th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2006Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Leblhuber F, Neubauer C, Peichl M, et al. Age and sex differences of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and cortisol (CRT) plasma levels in normal controls and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1993; 111(1): 23–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Tanaka K, Shimizu N, Imura H, et al. Human corticotropin-releasing hormone (hCRH) test: sex and age differences in plasma ACTH and cortisol responses and their reproducibility in healthy adults. Endocr J 1993 Oct; 40(5): 571–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Vierhapper H, Nowotny P, Waldhausl W. Sex-specific differences in cortisol production rates in humans. Metabolism 1998 Aug; 47(8): 974–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Rathore SS, Wang Y, Krumholz HM. Sex-based differences in the effect of digoxin for the treatment of heart failure. N Engl J Med 2002 Oct 31; 347(18): 1403–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Ostrom NK. Women with asthma: a review of potential variables and preferred medical management. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2006 May; 96(5): 655–65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Miller AA, De Silva TM, Jackman KA, et al. Effect of gender and sex hormones on vascular oxidative stress. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2007 Oct; 34(10): 1037–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Kharasch ED, Mautz D, Senn T, et al. Menstrual cycle variability in midazolam pharmacokinetics. J Clin Pharmacol 1999 Mar; 39(3): 275–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Shah AK, Laboy-Goral L, Scott N, et al. Pharmacokinetics and safety of oral eletriptan during different phases of the menstrual cycle in healthy volunteers. J Clin Pharmacol 2001 Dec; 41(12): 1339–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Loebstein R, Lalkin A, Koren G. Pharmacokinetic changes during pregnancy and their clinical relevance. Clin Pharmacokinet 1997 Nov; 33(5): 328–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Mattison DR, Blann E, Malek A. Physiological alterations during pregnancy: impact on toxicokinetics. Fundam Appl Toxicol 1991 Feb; 16(2): 215–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Harris RZ, Tsunoda SM, Mroczkowski P, et al. The effects of menopause and hormone replacement therapies on prednisolone and erythromycin pharmacokinetics. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1996 Apr; 59(4): 429–35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Umeh OC, Currier JS. Sex differences in pharmacokinetics and toxicity of antiretroviral therapy. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 2006 Apr; 2(2): 273–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Dubois D, Petitcolas J, Temperville B, et al. Treatment of hypertension in pregnancy with beta-adrenoceptor antagonists. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1982; 13(Suppl. 2): 375S–8SPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Badger TM, Hidestrand M, Shankar K, et al. The effects of pregnancy on ethanol clearance. Life Sci 2005 Sep 9; 77(17): 2111–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Ho PC, Triggs EJ, Bourne DW, et al. The effects of age and sex on the disposition of acetylsalicylic acid and its metabolites. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1985 May; 19(5): 675–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Hebert MF, Carr DB, Anderson GD, et al. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of atenolol during pregnancy and postpartum. J Clin Pharmacol 2005 Jan; 45(1): 25–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Cho N, Ito T, Saito T. Clinical studies on cefazolin in the field of obstetrics and gynecology. Chemotherapy (Tokyo) 1970; 18: 377–82Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Mattison D, Zajicek A. Gaps in knowledge in treating pregnant women. Gend Med 2006 Sep; 3(3): 169–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Philipson A, Stiernstedt G, Ehrnebo M. Comparison of the pharmacokinetics of cephradine and cefazolin in pregnant and non-pregnant women. Clin Pharmacokinet 1987 Feb; 12(2): 136–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Overholser BR, Kays MB, Forrest A, et al. Sex-related differences in the pharmacokinetics of oral ciprofloxacin. J Clin Pharmacol 2004 Sep; 44(9): 1012–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Tang YL, Mao P, Li FM, et al. Gender, age, smoking behaviour and plasma clozapine concentrations in 193 Chinese inpatients with schizophrenia. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2007 Jul; 64(1): 49–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Luxford AM, Kellaway GS. Pharmacokinetics of digoxin in pregnancy. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1983; 25(1): 117–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Philipson A, Sabath LD, Charles D. Erythromycin and clindamycin absorption and elimination in pregnant women. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1976 Jan; 19(1): 68–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Woodhead JC, Drulis JM, Nelson SE, et al. Gender-related differences in iron absorption by preadolescent children. Ped Res 1991; 29: 435–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Reigner BG, Welker HA. Factors influencing elimination and distribution of fleroxacin: metaanalysis of individual data from 10 pharmacokinetic studies. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1996 Mar; 40(3): 575–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Schou M, Amdisen A. Lithium in pregnancy. Lancet 1970 Jun 27; 1(7661): 1391PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Nosten F, Karbwang J, White NJ, et al. Mefloquine antimalarial prophylaxis in pregnancy: dose finding and pharmacokinetic study. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1990 Jul; 30(1): 79–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Lew KH, Ludwig EA, Milad MA, et al. Gender-based effects on methyl-prednisolone pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1993 Oct; 54(4): 402–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Hogstedt S, Lindberg B, Rane A. Increased oral clearance of metoprolol in pregnancy. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1983; 24(2): 217–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Carcas AJ, Guerra P, Frias J, et al. Gender differences in the disposition of metronidazole. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2001 May; 39(5): 213–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Kanto J, Sjovall S, Erkkola R, et al. Placental transfer and maternal midazolam kinetics. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1983 Jun; 33(6): 786–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Mesnil F, Mentre F, Dubruc C, et al. Population pharmacokinetic analysis of mizolastine and validation from sparse data on patients using the non-parametric maximum likelihood method. J Pharmacokinet Biopharm 1998 Apr; 26(2): 133–161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Molinaro M, Villani P, Regazzi MB, et al. Pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin in elderly patients and in healthy young subjects. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1992; 43(1): 105–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Callaghan JT, Bergstrom RF, Ptak LR, et al. Olanzapine: pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile. Clin Pharmacokinet 1999 Sep; 37(3): 177–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Konieczna L, Chmielewska A, Lamparczyk H. Influence of sex on the pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin. Chemotherapy 2006; 52(3): 111–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Meyer MC, Straughn AB, Mhatre RM, et al. Variability in the bioavailability of phenytoin capsules in males and females. Pharm Res 2001 Mar; 18(3): 394–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Meffin PJ, Brooks PM, Sallustio BC. Alterations in prednisolone disposition as a result of time of administration, gender and dose. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1984 Apr; 17(4): 395–404PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Smith MT, Livingstone I, Eadie MJ, et al. Chronic propranolol administration during pregnancy: maternal pharmacokinetics. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1983; 25(4): 481–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    El-Eraky H, Thomas SH. Effects of sex on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of quinidine. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2003 Aug; 56(2): 198–204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Adamus M, Gabrhelik T, Marek O. Influence of gender on the course of neuromuscular block following a single bolus dose of cisatracurium or rocuronium. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2008 Jul; 25(7): 589–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Pleym H, Spigset O, Kharasch ED, et al. Gender differences in drug effects: implications for anesthesiologists. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2003 Mar; 47(3): 241–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Hartter S, Wetzel H, Hammes E, et al. Nonlinear pharmacokinetics of fluvoxamine and gender differences. Ther Drug Monit 1998 Aug; 20(4): 446–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Kaplan SA, Weinfeld RE, Abruzzo CW, et al. Pharmacokinetic profile of sulfisoxazole following intravenous, intramuscular, and oral administration to man. J Pharm Sci 1972; 61(5): 773–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Loi CM, Parker BM, Cusack BJ, et al. Aging and drug interactions: III. Individual and combined effects of cimetidine and cimetidine and ciprofloxacin on theophylline metabolism in healthy male and female non-smokers. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1997 Feb; 280(2): 627–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Perucca E, Ruprah M, Richens A. Altered drug binding to serum proteins in pregnant women: therapeutic relevance. J R Soc Med 1981 Jun; 74(6): 422–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Nomura T. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of vecuronium bromide. J Anesth 1992 Jan; 6(1): 28–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Krecic-Shepard ME, Barnas CR, Slimko J, et al. Gender-specific effects on verapamil pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in humans. J Clin Pharmacol 2000 Mar; 40(3): 219–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Krecic-Shepard ME, Barnas CR, Slimko J, et al. Faster clearance of sustained release verapamil in men versus women: continuing observations on sex-specific differences after oral administration of verapamil. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2000 Sep; 68(3): 286–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis Data Information BV 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departments of Medicine, Oncology and Physiology, Center for the Study of Sex DifferencesGeorgetown University Medical CenterUSA
  2. 2.Obstetrics Pharmacology Research Unit (OPRU) Network, National Institute of Child Health and Human DevelopmentNational Institutes of HealthRockvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations