Skip to main content
Log in

Drug Treatment of Photoaged Skin

  • Review Article
  • Published:
Drugs & Aging Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Although the prevention of skin aging is a holy grail of the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries, this venture may be misplaced. The predominant clin ical and biochemical features of aged skin are mostly attributable to photoaging rather than chronology. For instance chronic sun exposure is the major determi nant of age spots (actinic lentigines) and wrinkles.

Surgical approaches to the treatment of photoaging include face-lift, derm-abrasion, chemical peeling, collagen and botulinum toxin injections, and laser re-surfacing. These approaches all have benefit and improve the clinical features of facial photoaging.

Drug or pharmaceutical prevention and treatment of photoaged skin is still in its infancy. The main pharmaceutical approach to prevention of photoaging lies in the assiduous use of sunscreens. Recent evidence points to the importance of ultra violet A (UVA) radiation as well as ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation in the aetiology of photoaging and thus the need for sunscreens that block both UVB and UVA.

Drug treatment of photoaged skin can be categorised as antioxidants, α-hydroxy acids and topical retinoids. Of these 3 approaches only topical retinoids, particularly tretinoin (all-trans retinoic acid), have a well documented ability to repair photoaged skin at the clinical, histological and molecular level. Further more, the use of topical retinoids may actually prevent photoaging. The current interest in pharmaceutical modulation of the photoaging process has attracted considerable research into the mechanisms of photoaging and cutaneous aging. It is likely that treatment for, or prevention of, the chronological aging process may result from such research.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. Kligman AM. Early destructive effects of sunlight on human skin. JAMA 1969; 210: 2377–80

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Lober DW, Fenske NA. Photoaging and the skin: differentiation and clinical response. Geriatrics 1990; 45: 36–42

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Gilchrest BA. Skin aging and photoaging: an overview. J Am Acad Dermatol 1989; 21: 610–3

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Talwar HS, Griffiths CE, Fisher GJ, et al. Reduced type I and III procollagens in photoaged adult human skin. J Invest Dermatol 1995; 105: 285–90

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Craven NM, Watson REB, Jones CJP, et al. Clinical features of photodamaged human skin are associated with a reduction in Collagen VII. Br J Dermatol 1997; 137: 344–50

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Fisher GJ, Wang ZQ, Datt SC, et al. Pathophysiology of prema ture skin aging induced by ultraviolet light. N Engl J Med 1997; 337: 1419–28

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Lavker RM, Kligman AM. Chronic heliodermatitis: a morpho logic evaluation of chronic actinic dermal damage with em phasis on the role of mast cells. J Invest Dermatol 1988; 90: 325–30

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Roger G, Fuleihan NS. Face lift and adjunctive procedures in the treatment of photodamaged skin. In: Gilchrest B A, editor. Photodamage. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Science, 1995: 259–85

    Google Scholar 

  9. Lowe NJ, Lask G, Griffin ME, et al. Skin resurfacing with the Ultrapulse carbon dioxide laser: observations in 100 patients. Dermatol Surg 1995; 21: 1025–9

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Plastow SR, Lovell CR, Young AR, et al. UVB-induced colla gen damage in the skin of the hairless albino mouse. J Invest Dermatol 1987; 88: 145–8

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Boyd AS, Naylor M, Cameron GS, et al. The effects of chronic sunscreen use on the histologic changes of dermatoheliosis. J Am Acad Dermatol 1995; 33: 941–6

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Kligman LH, Akin FJ, Kligman AM. Prevention of ultraviolet damage of the dermis by sunscreens. J Invest Dermatol 1982; 78: 181–9

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Lowe NJ, Dromgoole SH, Sefton J, et al. Indoor and outdoor efficacy testing of a broad spectrum sunscreen against ultra violet A radiation in psoralen-sensitized subjects. J Am Acad Dermatol 1987; 17: 224–30

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Thompson SC, Jolley D, Marks R. Reduction of solar keratoses by regular sunscreen use. N Engl J Med 1993; 329: 1147–51

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Stern RS, Weinstein MC, Baker SG. Risk reduction for non-melanoma skin cancer with childhood sunscreen use. Arch Dermatol 1986; 122: 537–45

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Ross AC. Cellular metabolism and activation of retinoids: roles of cellular retinoid-binding proteins. FASEB J 1992; 7: 317–27

    Google Scholar 

  17. Tobin CJ. Retinoids, homeoboxes and growth factors toward molecular models for limb development. Cell 1991; 66: 199–217

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Vahlquist A. Vitamin A in human skin I: detection and identifi cation of retinoids in normal epidermis. J Invest Dermatol 1982; 79: 89–93

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Duell EA, Astrom A, Griffiths CEM, et al. Human skin levels of retinoic acid and cytochrome P-450-derived 4-hydroxyretinoic acid at topical application of retinoic acid in vivo compared to concentrations required to stimulate retinoic acid receptor-mediated transcription in vitro. J Clin Invest 1992; 90: 1269–74

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. Reynolds NJ, Fisher GJ, Griffiths CEM, et al. Retinoic acid metabolites exhibit biological activity in human keratinocytes, mouse melanoma cells and hairless mouse skin in vivo. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1993; 226: 1636–42

    Google Scholar 

  21. Petkovich M, Brand MJ, Krust A, et al. A human retinoic acid receptor which belongs to the family of nuclear receptors. Nature 1987; 330: 444–50

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. Brand N, Petkovich M, Krust A, et al. Identification of a second human retinoic acid receptor. Nature 1988; 332: 850–3

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Krust A, Kastner P, Petkovich M, et al. A third human retinoic acid receptor hRAR-γ. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1989; 86: 5310–4

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. Manglesdorf DJ, Ong ES, Dyck JA, et al. Nuclear receptor that identifies a novel retinoic acid response pathway. Nature 1990; 345: 224–9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Leid M, Kastner P, Lyons R, et al. Purification, cloning and RXR identity of the HeLa cell factor with which RAR or TR heterodimerizes to bind target sequences efficiently. Cell 1992; 68: 377–95

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. Evans RM. The steroid and thyroid hormone receptor family. Science 1988; 240: 889–95

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. Manglesdorf DJ, Evans RM. Vitamin Areceptors: new insights on retinoid control of transcription. In: Morriss-Kay G, editor. Retinoids in normal development and teratogenesis. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992: 27–50

    Google Scholar 

  28. Fisher GJ, Talwar HS, Xiao JH, et al. Immunological identifi cation and functional quantitation of retinoic acid and retinoid X receptor proteins in human skin. J Biol Chem 1994; 269: 20629–35

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. Elder JT, Astrom A, Petterson U, et al. Differential regulation of retinoic acid receptors and binding proteins in human skin. J Invest Dermatol 1992; 98: 673–9

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. Kligman LH, Chen HD, Kligman AM. Topical retinoic acid enhances the repair of ultraviolet damaged dermal connective tissue. Connect Tissue Res 1984; 12: 139–50

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. Griffiths CEM, Wang T, Hamilton TA, et al. A photonumeric scale for the assessment of cutaneous photodamage. Arch Dermatol 1992; 128: 347–51

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. Wijn P, Barkkee AJM, Kuiver JP, et al. The alinear visoceolastic properties of human skin in vivo related to sex and age. In: Marks R, Payne PA, editors. Bioengineering and the skin. Lancaster: MTP Press, 1981: 135–45

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  33. Marks R, Edwards C. The measurement of photodamage. Br J Dermatol 1991; 127Suppl. 41: 7–13

    Google Scholar 

  34. Grove GL, Grove MJ, Leyden JJ. Optical profilometry: an ob jective method for quantification of facial wrinkles. J Am Acad Dermatol 1989; 21: 631–7

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  35. Cordero Jr A. La vitamina A acida en la piel senil. Actualizaciones Terapéuticas Dermatológicas 1983; 6: 49–54

    Google Scholar 

  36. Kligman AM, Grove GL, Hirose R, et al. Topical tretinoin for photoaged skin. J Am Acad Dermatol 1986; 15: 836–59

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. Weiss JS, Ellis CN, Headington JT. Topical tretinoin improves photoaged skin: a double-blind vehicle-controlled study. JAMA 1988; 259: 527–32

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. Leyden JJ, Grove GL, Grove MJ, et al. Treatment of pho todamaged facial skin with topical tretinoin. J Am Acad Dermatol 1986; 21: 638–44

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Lever L, Kumar P, Marks R. Topical retinoic acid for the treat ment of solar damage. Br J Dermatol 1990; 122: 91–8

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  40. Caputo R, Monti M, Motta S, et al. The treatment of visible signs of senescence: the Italian experience. Br J Dermatol 1990; 122Suppl. 35: 97–103

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. Weinstein GD, Nigra TP, Pochi PE, et al. Topical tretinoin for treatment of photodamaged skin. Arch Dermatol 1991; 127: 659–65

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  42. Olsen EA, Katz I, Levine N, et al. Tretinoin emollient cream: a new therapy for photodamaged skin. J Am Acad Dermatol 1992; 26: 215–24

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  43. Griffiths CEM, Kang S, Ellis CN, et al. Two concentrations of topical tretinoin (retinoic acid) cause similar improvement of photoaging but different degrees of irritation. Arch Dermatol 1995; 131: 1037–44

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  44. Ellis CN, Weiss JJ, Hamilton TA, et al. Sustained improvement with prolonged topical tretinoin (retinoic acid) for photoaged skin. J Am Acad Dermatol 1990; 23: 629–37

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  45. Olsen EA, Katz HI, Levine N, et al. Tretinoin emollient cream for photodamaged skin: results of 48-week, multicenter, double-blind studies. J Am Acad Dermatol 1997; 37: 217–26

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  46. Olsen EA, Katz HI, Levine N, et al. Sustained improvement in photodamaged skin with reduced tretinoin emollient cream treatment regimen: effect of once-weekly and three-times-weekly applications. J Am Acad Dermatol 1997; 37: 227–30

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  47. Bhawan J, Gonzalez-Serva A, Nehal K, et al. Effects of tretinoin on photodamaged skin: a histologic study. Arch Dermatol 1991; 127: 666–72

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  48. Rafal ES, Griffiths CEM, Ditre CM, et al. Topical tretinoin (retinoic acid) treatment for liver spots associated with photodamage. N Engl J Med 1992; 326: 368–74

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  49. Griffiths CEM, Goldfarb MT, Finkel LJ, et al. Topical tretinoin (retinoic acid) treatment of hyperpigmented lesions associ ated with photoaging in Chinese and Japanese patients. J Am Acad Dermatol 1994; 30: 76–84

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  50. Kotrajarus R, Kligman AM. The effect of topical tretinoin on photodamaged facial skin: the Thai experience. Br J Dermatol 1993; 129: 302–9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Goh SJ. The treatment of visible signs of senescence: the Asian experience. Br J Dermatol 1990; 122Suppl. 35: 105–9

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  52. Armstrong RB, Lesiewicz J, Harvey G, et al. Clinical panel assessment of photodamaged skin treated with isotretinoin using photographs. Arch Dermatol 1992; 128: 352–6

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  53. Sendargorta E, Lesiewicz J, Arnstrong RB. Topical isotetinoin for photodamaged skin. J Am Acad Dermatol 1992; 27: S15–8

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Griffiths CEM, Finkel LT, Tranfaglia MG, et al. An in vivo experimental model for topical retinoid effects on human skin. Br J Dermatol 1993; 129: 389–94

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  55. Fisher GJ, Tavakkol A, Griffiths CEM, et al. Differential mod ulation of transforming growth factor β1 expression and mucin deposition by retinoic acid and sodium lauryl sulfate in human skin. J Invest Dermatol 1992; 98: 102–8

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  56. Griffiths CEM, Dabelsteen E, Voorhees JJ. Topical retinoic acid changes the epidermal cell surface glycosylation pattern to wards that of a mucosal epithelium. Br J Dermatol 1996; 134: 431–6

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  57. Rosenthal DS, Griffiths CEM, Yuspa SH, et al. Acute or chronic topical retinoic acid treatment of human skin in vivo alters the expression of epidermal transglutaminase, loricrin, involucrin, filaggrin and keratins 6 and 13 and not keratins 1, 10 and 14. J Invest Dermatol 1992; 98: 343–50

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  58. Griffiths CEM, Russman AN, Majmudar G, et al. Restoration of collagen formation in photodamaged human skin by tretinoin (retinoic acid). N Engl J Med 1993; 329: 530–5

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  59. Woodley DT, Zelickson AS, Briggaman RA, et al. Treatment of photoaged skin with topical tretinoin increases epidermal-dermal anchoring fibrils: a preliminary report. JAMA 1990; 263: 3057–9

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  60. Fisher GJ, Datta SC, Talwar HS, et al. Molecular basis of sun-induced premature skin ageing and retinoid antagonism. Nature 1996; 379: 335–9

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  61. Varani J, Perone P, Griffiths CEM, et al. All-trans retinoic acid (RA) stimulates events in organ-cultured human skin that un derlie repair: adult skin from sun-protected and sun-exposed sites responds in identical manner to RA while neonatal fore skin responds differently. J Clin Invest 1994; 94: 1747–56

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  62. Kligman AM, Dogadkinn D, Lavker RM. Effects of tretinoin on non-sun-exposed protected skin of the elderly. J Am Acad Dermatol 1993; 29: 25–33

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  63. Katz ML, Robinson WG. Nutritional influences on autoxidation, lipofuscion accumulation and aging. In: Johnson, JE. Free radicals, aging and degenerative diseases. New York: Alan R Liss, Inc., 1986

    Google Scholar 

  64. de Rios G, Chan JT, Black HS, et al. Systemic protection by antioxidants against UVL-induced erythema. J Invest Derma tol 1978; 70: 123–5

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Trevithick JR, Xiong H, Lee S, et al. Topical tocopherol acetate reduces post-UVB, sunburn-associated erythema, edema and sun sensitivity in hairless mice. Arch Biochem Biophys 1992; 296: 575–82

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  66. Bissett DL, Chatterjee R, Hannon DP. Photoprotective effect of superoxide-scavenging antioxidants against ultraviolet radia tion-induced chronic skin damage in the hairless mouse. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 1990; 7: 56–62

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  67. Bissett DL, Majeti S, Fu J-JL, et al. Protective effect of topically applied conjugated hexadienes against ultraviolet radiation induced chronic skin damage in the hairless mouse. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 1990; 7: 63–7

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  68. McVean M, Liebler DC. Inhibition of UVB induced DNA photodamage in mouse epidermis by topically applied alpha-tocopherol. Carcinogenesis 1997; 18: 1617–22

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  69. Jurkiewicz BA, Bissett DL, Beuttner GR. Effect of topically applied tocopherol on ultraviolet radiation-mediated free rad ical damage in skin. J Invest Dermatol 1995; 104: 484–8

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  70. Werninghaus K, Megdani M, Bhawan J, et al. Evaluation of the photoprotective effect of oral vitamin E supplementation. Arch Dermatol 1994; 130: 1257–61

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  71. Miska P, Cesarini JP, Poelman MC. Antioxidants and UV ag gressions in the human epidermis [abstract]. J Invest Dermatol 1990; 94: 400

    Google Scholar 

  72. Darr D, Combs S, Dunston S, et al. Topical vitamin C protects porcine skin from ultraviolet radiation-induced damage. Br J Dermatol 1992; 127: 247–53

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  73. Bendich A, Olson JA. Biological actions of carotenoids. FASEB J 1989; 3: 1927–32

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  74. Mathews-Roth MM. Carotenoids quench evolution of excited species in epidermis exposed to UVB (290–320nm) light. Photochem Photobiol 1986; 43: 91–3

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  75. Greenberg ER, Baron JA, Stukel TA, et al. A clinical trial of β-carotene to prevent basal cell and squamous cell cancers of the skin. N Engl J Med 1990; 323: 789–95

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  76. Kligman LH, Mathews-Roth MM. Dietary β-carotene and 13-cis-retinoic acid are not effective in preventing some features of UVB-induced dermal damage in hairless mice. Photochem Photobiol 1990; 51: 733–5

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  77. Mathews-Roth MM, Pathak MA, Parish J, et al. A clinical trial of the effects of oral beta-carotene on the responses of human skin to solar radiation. J Invest Dermatol 1972; 59: 349–52

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  78. Garmyn M, Ribaya-Mercado J, Russell RM, et al. Effect of β-carotene supplementation on the human sunburn reactive. Exp Dermatol 1995; 4: 104–11

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  79. Biesalski HK, Hemmes C, Hopfenmuller W, et al. Effects of controlled exposure of sunlight on plasma and skin levels of β-carotene. Free Radic Res 1996; 24: 215–24

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  80. Gollnick HPM, Hopfenmuller W, Hemmes C, et al. Systemic beta carotene plus topical UV-sunscreen are an optimal pro tection against harmful effects of natural UV-sunlight: results of the Berlin-Eilath study. Eur J Dermatol 1996; 6: 200–5

    Google Scholar 

  81. Wolf C, Steiner A, Honigsmann H. Do oral carotenoids protect human skin against ultraviolet erythema, psoralen phototoxicity and ultraviolet induced DNA damage? J Invest Dermatol 1988; 88: 55–7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  82. Black HS, Chan JT, Brown GE. Effects of dietary constituents on ultraviolet light-mediated carcinogenesis. Cancer Res 1978; 38: 1384–7

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  83. LaRuche G, Cesarini JP. Protective effects of oral selenium plus copper associated with vitamin complex on sunburn cell for mation in human skin. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Pho tomed 1991; 8: 232–5

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  84. Rhodes LE, O’Farrell S, Jackson MJ, et al. Dietary fish-oil sup plementation in humans reduces UVB-erythemal sensitivity but increases epidermal lipid peroxidation. J Invest Dermatol 1994; 103: 151–4

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  85. Van Scott EJ, Yu RJ. Control of keratinization with alpha hydroxyacids and related compounds I: topical treatment of ichthyotic disorders. Arch Dermatol 1974; 100: 586–90

    Google Scholar 

  86. Van Scott EJ, Yu RJ. Alpha hydroxyacids: therapeutic poten tials. Can J Dermatol 1989; 1: 108–112

    Google Scholar 

  87. Ridge JM, Siegle RJ, Zuckerman J. Use of α-hydroxyacids in the therapy for ‘photoaged’ skin [letter]. J Am Acad Dermatol 1990; 23: 932

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  88. Stiller MJ, Bartolone J, Stern R, et al. Topical 8% glycolic acid and 8% L-lactic acid creams for the treatment of photo-damaged skin. Arch Dermatol 1996; 132: 631–6

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  89. Ditre CM, Griffin TD, Murphy GF, et al. Effects of α-hydroxy acids on photoaged skin: a pilot clinical, histologic and ultrastructural study. J Am Acad Dermatol 1996; 34: 187–95

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  90. Smith WP. Epidermal and dermal effects of topical lactic acid. J Am Acad Dermatol 1996; 35: 388–91

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  91. Lavker RM, Kaidbey K, Leyden JJ. Effects of topical ammo nium lactate on cutaneous atrophy from a potent topical corticosteroid. J Am Acad Dermatol 1992; 26: 535–44

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  92. Griffin TD, Murphy GF, Sueki H, et al. Increased factor XIIIa transglutaminase expression in dermal dendrocytes after treatment with alpha-hydroxy acids; potential physiologic significance. J Am Acad Dermal 1996; 34: 196–203

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  93. Pierard GE, Nikkels-Tassoudji N, Arrese JE, et al. Dermo-epidermal stimulation elicited by a β-lipohydroxyacid: a comparison with salicylic acid and all-trans retinoic acid. Dermatology 1997; 194: 398–401

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  94. Dunn LB, Damesyn M, Moore AA, et al. Does oestrogen pre vent skin aging? Arch Dermatol 1997; 133: 339–42

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  95. Pierard GE, Letawe C, Dowlati A, et al. Effect of hormone replacement therapy for menopause on the mechanical prop erties of the skin. J Am Geriatr Soc 1995; 43: 662–5

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  96. Callens A, Vaillant L, Lecomte P, et al. Does hormonal skin aging exist? A study of the influence of different hormone therapy regimes on the skin of postmenopausal women using non-invasive measurement techniques. Dermatology 1996; 193: 289–94

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  97. Vaillant L, Callens A. Hormone replacement treatment and skin aging. Therapie 1996; 51: 67–70

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  98. Ashcroft GS, Dodsworth J, van Boxtel E, et al. Estrogen accel erates cutaneous wound healing associated with an increase in TGF-β 1 levels. Nat Med 1997; 3: 1209–15

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  99. Creidi P, Faivre B, Agache P, et al. Effect of a conjugated oes trogen (Premarin) cream on ageing facial skin: a comparative study with a placebo cream. Maturitas 1994; 19: 211–23

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  100. Schmidt JB, Binder M, Demschik G, et al. Treatment of skin aging with topical estrogens. Int J Dermatol 1996; 35: 669–74

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Christopher E. M. Griffiths.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Griffiths, C.E.M. Drug Treatment of Photoaged Skin. Drugs & Aging 14, 289–301 (1999). https://doi.org/10.2165/00002512-199914040-00004

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.2165/00002512-199914040-00004

Keywords

Navigation