Ranitidine was first marketed in 1981; since then many patients have been treated such that much experience has been accumulated on the safety of this histamine H2-receptor antagonist in the treatment of gastroduodenal disease. A wide array of ranitidine-associated side effects has been described, but infrequently. As so much information is now available, the aim of this review is to assess the weight of evidence for a causal link between ranitidine and the reported side effects.
Overall, ranitidine is well tolerated. The incidence of general side effects at less than 2% is very similar to placebo. Headaches, tiredness, dizziness and mild gastrointestinal disturbance (e.g. diarrhoea, constipation and nausea) are among the most frequent complaints, but have very seldom resulted in stopping treatment.
Cardiovascular side effects are extremely rare and unpredictable with the usual doses of oral ranitidine (at most 1 in 1 million patients). They mostly comprise sinusal bradycardia and atrioventricular blockade, especially after rapid intravenous administration, receding after cessation of the drug. Clinical studies, however, have not shown a significant pharmacological effect of ranitidine on the cardiovascular system via H2-receptors, even though individual sensitivities cannot be ruled out in a few isolated reports.
Ranitidine is unlikely to be directly hepatotoxic: a transient change in liver function tests has been noted in only 1 in 100 to 1 in 1000 patients. Several cases of mixed hepatitis have been reported, but very few were fully documented. The incidence of ranitidine-associated acute hepatitis has been estimated to be less than 1 in 100 000 patients.
Neuropsychiatric complications may be less common and clinically quite similar to those reported with cimetidine, i.e. confusion, disorientation, hallucinations, delirium. These side effects have occurred especially in critically ill and multiple-therapy patients, or patients with chronic renal or hepatic failure, so that the direct causal link with ranitidine treatment was often difficult to ascertain. Even though an H2-receptor-mediated effect is an attractive hypothesis (since similar complications were noted with other H2-receptor antagonists), other mechanisms have been suggested to play a role, e.g. cholinergic or histaminic effects. The overall incidence of neuropsychiatric complications is probably markedly less than 1%.
White cell injury (i.e. agranulocytosis) appears to be the most frequent haematological complication, even though case reports are very few and poorly documented. The mechanism is unknown but ranitidine is unlikely to be markedly haematotoxic. Anecdotal reports of thrombocytopenia and anaemia have been published.
In disagreement with a few poorly documented case reports and in contrast to cimetidine, clinical studies have shown that ranitidine has no side effects on endocrine functions, in particular androgenic function or prolactin secretion.
Among other side effects associated with ranitidine treatment, cutaneous effects include nonspecific skin reactions as well as urticaria, contact dermatitis and vasculitis. In contrast to cimetidine, ranitidine failed to enhance the immune responsiveness both in animals and in humans.
Drug interactions with ranitidine have been controversial. Although it can be loosely bound to cytochrome P450 components, there is no conclusive clinical evidence that interactions may occur with many drugs such as oral anticoagulants, anticonvulsants, β-blocking drugs, calcium antagonists, lidocaine (lignocaine), benzodiazepines, tricyclic antidepressants or oral hypoglycaemic drugs. A few clinical case reports suggest that ranitidine may interfere with theophylline, although all human pharmacokinetic studies have been negative.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Abernethy DR, Greenblatt DJ, Eshelman FN, Shader RI. Ranitidine does not impair oxidative or conjugative metabolism: noninteraction with antipyrine, diazepam and lorazepam. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 35: 188–192, 1984.
Adams LJ, Antonow DR, McClain CJ, McAllister R. Effect of ranitidine on bioavailability of nifedipine. Gastroenterology 90: 1320, 1986.
Adebayo GI, Coker HAB. Lack of efficacy of cimetidine and ranitidine as inhibitors of tolbutamide metabolism. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 34: 653–656, 1988.
Aglietta M, Stacchini A, Sanavio F, Piacibello W. H2 receptor antagonists and human granulopoiesis. Experientia 41: 375–376, 1985.
Agura ED, Vila E, Petersen FB, Shields AF, Thomas ED. The use of ranitidine in bone marrow transplantation. Transplantation 46: 53–56, 1988.
Ahonen J, Paimela H, Kauste A, Hayry P, Eklund B, et al. Ranitidine and cimetidine in renal transplantation: a clinical trial. International Journal of Tissue Reaction 5: 373–379, 1983.
Allegri G, Pellegrini K, Dobrilla G. First-degree atrioventricular block in a young doudenal ulcer patient treated with a standard oral dose of ranitidine. Agents and Actions 24: 237–242, 1988.
Amos RJ, Kirk B, Amess JAL, Jones AL, Hinds CJ. Bone marrow hypolasia during intensive care: bone marrow culture studies implicating ranitidine in the suppression of haemopoiesis. Human Toxicology 6: 503–506, 1987.
Aymard JP, Aymard B, Netter P, Bannwarth B, Trechot P, et al. Haematological adverse effects of histamine H2-receptor antagonists. Medical Toxicology 3: 430–448, 1988.
Baciewicz AM, Baciewicz FA. Effect of cimetidine and ranitidine on cardiovascular drugs. American Heart Journal 118, 144–154, 1989
Baciewicz AM, Morgan PJ. Ranitidine-warfarin interaction. Annals of Internal Medicine 112: 76–77, 1990.
Bacigalupo A, Van Lint MT, Peralvo J, Figari GPO, Marmont AM. Ranitidine and hematologic recovery in aplastic anemia. Haematologica 72: 378–379, 1987.
Bader A, Carrigan T, Gopalswamy N, Trubzsch DV. Reversible hematologic suppression during ranitidine treatment. Drug Intelligence and Clinical Pharmacy 23: 508–509, 1989.
Balestrazzi P, Gregori G, Bernasconi S, Giovannelli G. Bradycardia and neurologic disorders associated with ranitidine in a child. American Journal of Diseases of Children 139: 442, 1985.
Bailer D, Huchzermeyer H. Histaminwirkungen am Herzen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung kardialer Nebenwirkungen von H2-Rezeptor-antagonisten. Klinische Wochenshcrift 67: 743–755, 1989.
Barbat J, Warrington SJ. Effects of cimetidine and rantidine on some non-invasive indices of cardiac function. British Journal of Pharmacology 72: 131P, 1981
Barr GD, Piper DW. Possible ranitidine hepatotoxicity. Medical Journal of Australia 2: 421, 1981.
Baylac-Domengetroy F, Gallimard JF, Allai J, Rousseau G, Barraine R. Troubles de la conduction auriculo-ventriculaire sous ranitidine intra-veineuse. Annales de Médecine Interne 138: 140–141, 1987.
Belaïche J, Zittoun J, Marquet J, Nurit Y, Yvart J. Effet de la ranitidine sur la sécrétion de facteur intrinsèque gastrique et sur l’absorption de la vitamine B12. Gastroentérologie Clinique et Biologique 7: 381–384, 1983.
Bertaccini G, Licchin L, Bonoldi C, Felder H, Dobrilla G. Absence of cholinergic-like activity of ranitidine on human salivary and lacrimal secretions. Italian Journal of Gastroenterology 13: 253–254, 1981.
Bianchi Porro G, Cheli R. Gynaecomastia and ranitidine. Italian Journal of Gastroenterology 16: 56, 1984.
Bianchi Porro G, Petrillo M, Recchia G. The safety of ranitidine. Clinical Trials Journal 22: 441–447, 1985.
Billings RF, Stein MB. Depression associated with ranitidine. American Journal of Psychiatry 143: 915–916, 1986.
Black M. Hepatotoxic and hepatoprotective potential of histamine (H2)-receptor antagonists. American Journal of Medicine 83 (Suppl. 6A): 68–75, 1987.
Black M, Scott WC, Kanter R. Possible ranitidine hepatotoxicity. Annals of Internal Medicine 101: 208–210, 1984.
Boehning W. Effect of cimetidine and ranitidine on plasma theophylline in patients with chronic obstructive airways disease treated with theophylline and corticosteroids. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 38: 43–45, 1990.
Bories P, Michel H, Duclos B, Beraud JJ, Mirouze J. Use of ranitidine without mental confusion in patient with renal failure. Lancet 2: 1071, 1980.
Braito E, Oberlechner R, Camberlato M, Amplatz S, Dobrilla G. Heart rate and blood pressure in non-cardiopathic volunteers receiving acute intravenous loads of H2-antagonists: trial based on Holter-Edwards dynamic electrocardiography. Italian Journal of Gastroenterology 17: 176, 1985.
Bramhall D, Levine M. Possible interaction of ranitidine with phenytoin. Drug Intelligence and Clinical Pharmacy 22: 979–980, 1988.
Brayko CM. Ranitidine. New England Journal of Medicine 310: 1601–1602, 1984.
Bredfeldt JE, Von Huene C. Ranitidine, acetaminophen, and hepatotoxicity. Annals of Internal Medicine 101: 719, 1984.
Breen KJ, Bury R, Desmond PV, Mashford ML, Morphett B, et al. Effects of cimetidine and ranitidine on hepatic drug metabolism. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 31: 297–300, 1982.
Brenner LO. Agranulocytosis and ranitidine. Annals of Internal Medicine 104: 896–897, 1986.
Brockmeyer NH, Breithaupt H, Hattingberg MV, Ohnhaus EE. Metabolism of mexiletine alone and in combination with cimetidine and ranitidine in vivo and in vitro. Proceedings of the BPS, 8–10 April: 246P, 1987
Burkard WP. Histamine H2-receptor binding with 3H-cimetidine in brain. European Journal of Pharmacology 50: 449–450, 1978.
Camarri E, Chirone E, Fanteria G, Zocchi M. Ranitidine induced bradycardia. Lancet 2: 160, 1982.
Caraman PL, Lietter P, Semin-Cosson AM, Panot B, Trechot P, et al. Recurrent parotitis with H2-receptor antagonists. Lancet 2: 1455–1456, 1986.
Cate EW, Rogers JF, Powell JR. Inhibition of tolbutamide elimination by cimetidine but not ranitidine. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 26: 372–327, 1986.
Chenery RJ, Emery S, Norman SJ, Oldham HG. The effect of cimetidine and ranitidine on paracetamol glucuronidation and sulphation in cultured rat hepatocytes. British Journal of Pharmacology 84: 164P, 1985
Cherqui B, Desaint B, Legendre C, Levy VG. Hépatite mortelle chez une patiente traitée par la ranitidine. Gastroentérologie Clinique et Biologique 13: 952–953, 1989.
Chow JSF, Wang RYC, Wong PHC, Chen WWC, Lai CL. Intravenous ranitidine has no hemodynamic effects in subjects with normal lung function and patients with chronic obstructive airway disease. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine 13: 261–263, 1983.
Curry SH, De Vane CL, Wolfe MM. Lack of interaction of ranitidine with amitriptyline. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 32: 317–320, 1987.
Dal Negro R, Pomari C, Zoccatelli O, Trevisan F, Carloni C, et al. Pharmacokinetics of theophylline and the H2-antagonist drugs cimetidine and ranitidine. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Therapy and Toxicology 22: 221–226, 1984.
Dal Negro R, Turco P, Zoccatelli O, Trevisan F, Pomari C. H2-antagonist derangement of the kinetics of sustained-release oral theophylline. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Therapy and Toxicology 23: 329–332, 1985.
Dalton MJ, Powell JR, Messenheimer JA. Ranitidine does not alter single dose carbamazepine pharmacokinetics in healthy adults. Drug Intelligence and Clinical Pharmacy 19: 941–944, 1985.
Davies WA. Mental confusion associated with ranitidine. Medical Journal of Australia 16: 478, 1983.
De Giacomo C, Maggiore G, Scotta MS. Ranitidine and loss of colour vision in a child. Lancet 2: 47, 1984.
Delerue O, Muller JP, Destee A, Warot P. Mania-like episodes associated with ranitidine. American Journal of Psychiatry 145: 271, 1988.
Delitala G, Devilla L, Pende A, Canessa A. Effects of the H2 receptor antagonist ranitidine on anterior pituitary hormone secretion in man. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 22: 207–211, 1982.
Delle Fave G, Annibale B, Puoti M, Forte A, Giordano E, et al. Reversible sustained hypergastrinemia in subjects long term treated with H2 antagonists (H2 A). Gastroenterology 92: 1367, 1987.
Desaint B, Alperine M, Legendre C, Florent C, Levy VG. Hépatite á la ranitidine. Gastroentérologie Clinique et Biologique 9: 746–747, 1985.
Descotes J. Immunotoxicology of drugs and chemicals, 2nd ed., Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, 1988.
Desmonds PV, Mashford ML, Harman PJ, Morphett BJ, Breen KJ, et al. Decreased oral warfarin clearance after ranitidine and cimetidine. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 35: 338–341, 1984.
Desmonds PV, Shaw R, Westwood B, Bury RW, Morphett B, et al. Comparison of the effect of cimetidine and ranitidine on hepatic drug metabolism. Australian New Zealand Journal of Medicine 13: 314, 1983.
Dietemann-Molard A, Popin E, Oswald-Mammosser M, Colas Des Francs V, Pauli G. Intoxication à la théophylline par interaction avec la ranitidine à dose élevée. Presse Mèdicale 17: 280, 1988.
Dobbs JH, Muir JG, Smith RN. H2-antagonists and hepatitis. Annals of Internal Medicine 105: 803, 1986.
Dobrilla G, de Petris G, Piazzi L, Chilvoi F, Comerlato M, et al. Is ethanol metabolism affected by oral administration of cimetidine and ranitidine at therapeutic doses? Hepatogastroenterology 31: 35–37, 1984.
Dobrilla G, Felder M, Chilovi F, De Pretis G. Exacerbation of glaucoma associated with both cimetidine and ranitidine. Lancet 1: 1078, 1982.
Donn KH, Powell JR, Rogers JF, Esthelman FN. The influence of H2-receptors antagonists on steady-state concentrations of propranolol and 4-hydroxypropranolol. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 24: 500–508, 1984a.
Donn KH, Powell JR, Rogers JF, Plachetka JR. Lack of effect of histamine H2-receptors antagonists on indocyanine green disposition measured by two methods. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 24: 360–370, 1984b.
Duane PD, Shallcross TM, Heatley RV. Duodenal carcinoid tumour in a patient with rheumatoid-arthritis receiving long term ranitidine treatment. British Medical Journal 300: 124–125, 1990.
Dubois A, Nakache N, Zerbib A, Raffanel C. Aplasie médullaire et ranitidine. Annales de Gastroentérologie et Hépatologie 24: 261, 1988.
Ducluzeau R, Vial T, Pobel D, Descotes J. Effets neuropsychiques de la cimétidine et de la ranitidine: à propos d’un cas. Journal de Toxicologie Clinique et Expérimentale 10: 37–39, 1990.
Dunk AA, Jenkins WJ, Burroughs AK, Walt RP, Osuafor TO, et al. The effect of ranitidine on the plasma clearance and hepatic extraction of indocyanine green in patients with chronic liver disease. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 16: 117–120, 1983.
Eandi M, de Carli GF, Recchia G, Colonna CV. Ranitidine: eight years of post-marketing drug surveillance. Post-Marketing Surveillance 4: 1–8, 1990.
Ehrinpreis MN, Dhar R, Narula A. Cimetidine-induced galactorrhea. American Journal of Gastroenterology 84: 563–565, 1989.
Einarson TR, Turchet EN, Golstein JE, McNay KR. Gout-like arthritis following cimetidine and ranitidine. Drug Intelligence and Clinical Pharmacy 19: 201–202, 1985.
Eisendrath SJ, Ostroff JW. Ranitidine-associated delirium. Psychosomatics 31: 98–99, 1990.
Elliot P, Dundee JW, Collier PS, McClean E. The influence of two H2-receptor antagonists, cimetidine and ranitidine, on the systemic availability of temazepam. British Journal of Anaesthesia 54: 800P–801P, 1986
Elwood RJ, Hidebrand PJ, Dundee JW, Collier PS. Ranitidine influences the uptake of oral midazolam. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 15: 743–745, 1983.
Emery S, Oldham HG, Norman SJ, Chenery RJ. The effect of cimetidine and ranitidine on paracetamol glucuronidation and sulphation in cultured rat hepatocytes. Biochemical Pharmacology 34: 1415–1421, 1985.
Epstein CM. Ranitidine and confusion. Lancet 1: 1071, 1984.
Epstein CM, Klopper J. Ranitidine headache. Headache 25: 392–393, 1985.
Epstein CM, Sawyer WT. Phenytoin interactions with cimetidine and ranitidine: a critical analysis of the literature. Advances in Therapy 5: 245–256, 1988.
Farinati F, Farini R, Leandro G, Di Mario F, Vianello F, et al. Changes in the gastric mucosa after ranitidine treatment of duodenal ulcer. Italian Journal of Gastroenterology 14: 114–115, 1982.
Fee JPH, Dundee JW, Collier PS, McCLean E. Diazepam disposition following cimetidine or ranitidine. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 17: 617P–618P, 1984
Feely J, Guy E. Ranitidine also reduces liver blood flow. Lancet 1: 169, 1982.
Feely J, Guy E. Lack of effect of ranitidine on the disposition of lidocaine. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 15: 378–379, 1983.
Fennelly ME, Earnshaw G, Soni N. Ranitidine-induced mental confusion. Critical Care Medicine 15: 1165–1166, 1987.
Fernandez E, Melewicz CZ. Ranitidine and theophylline. Annals of Internal Medicine 100: 459, 1984.
Filingeri V, Giacomelli R, Famularo G, Rosati R, Nardi S, et al. Evidence of drug interaction between cyclosporin A and H2-receptor antagonists (cimetidine, ranitidine and famotidine) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Drugs Under Experimental and Clinical Research 15: 159–164, 1989.
Fujimura A, Ohashi K, Sudo T, Sakamoto K, Oka T, et al. Effects of H2-receptor antagonists on plasma aldosterone response to angiotensin II in healthy subjects; comparison of cimetidine and ranitidine. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 29: 230–233, 1989.
Gafter U, Zevin D, Komlos L, Livni E, Levi J. Thrombocytopenia associated with hypersensitivity to ranitidine: possible cross-reactivity with cimetidine. American Journal of Gastroenterology 84: 560–562, 1989.
Gardner MJ, Sikorsky GW. Ranitidine and theophylline. Archives of Internal Medicine 102: 559, 1985.
Garemore R. Extrapyramidal reaction to a drug. Journal of Emergency Nursing 11: 65, 1985.
Garg DC, Weidler DJ, Jailad S, Enheiman FN. The effects of ranitidine and cimetidine on hepatic blood flow. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 31: 228, 1982.
Gelwan JS, Schmitz RL, Pellechia C. Ranitidine and leukocytosis. American Journal of Medicine 81: 685–687, 1986.
Gibson PR, Pidcock ME. Immune mediated thrombocytopenia associated with ranitidine therapy. Medical Journal of Australia 145: 661–662, 1986.
Giovannini M, Bourliere M, Laugier R, Monges A. Effets neuropsychiatriques de la ranitidine: à propos de 2 cas. Annals de Gastroentérologie et d’Hépatologie 23: 281, 1987.
Goelzer SL, Farin-Rush C, Coursin DB. Ranitidine produces minimal hemodynamic depression in stable intensive care unit patients: a double-blind, prospective study. Critical Care Medicine 16: 8–10, 1988.
Goff DG, Garber HJ, Jenike MA. Partial resolution of ranitidine-associated delirium with physostigmine: case report. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 46: 400–401, 1985.
Goh CL, Ng SK. Allergic contact dermatitis to ranitidine. Contact Dermatitis 11: 252, 1984.
Grainger SI, Ainley CC, Thompson RPH. Do H2-receptor antagonists affect liver blood flow and why? Gut 25: 571 A, 1984
Grange JD. Duodenal erosions during ranitidine treatment. British Medical Journal 293: 823, 1986.
Grant SM, Langtry HD, Brogden RN. Ranitidine: an updated review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic use in peptic ulcer disease and other allied diseases. Drugs 37: 801–870, 1989.
Greenblatt DJ, Kowalsky SF. Benzodiazepine interaction with cimetidine and ranitidine: a critical literature analysis. Advances in Therapy 5: 191–209, 1988.
Greenblatt DJ, Locknisar A, Ochs HR, Harmatz JS, Shader RI. Kinetics of intravenous and oral midazolam: interaction with cimetidine and ranitidine. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 25: 460, 1986.
Greer IA, Fellows K. Anaphylactoid reaction to ranitidine in labour. British Journal of Clinical Practice 44: 78, 1990.
Guay DR, Meatherall RC, Chalmers JL, Grahame GR, Hudson RJ. Ranitidine does not alter pethidine disposition in man. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 20: 55–59, 1985.
Guslandi M, Testoni PA, Masci E. Effect of H2-receptor blockade on gastric mucus composition: a comparative study with ranitidine and famotidine. Journal of International Medical Research 15: 224–226, 1987.
Gwee MCE, Cheah LS. Actions of cimetidine and ranitidine at some cholinergic sites: implications in toxicology and anesthesia. Life Sciences 39: 383–388, 1986.
Haboubi N, Asquith P. Rash mediated by immune complexes associated with ranitidine treatment. British Medical Journal 296: 897, 1988.
Hamborg B, Kittang E, Schjonsby H. The effect of ranitidine on the absorption of food cobalamins. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 20: 756–758, 1985.
Hansen WE, Berti S. Inhibition of cholinesterases by ranitidine. Lancet 1: 235, 1984.
Harmon DC, Shuman R. Ranitidine. New England Journal of Medicine 310: 1604, 1984.
Hart AM. Cardiac arrest associated with ranitidine. British Medical Journal 299: 519, 1989.
Heagerty AM, Castleden CM, Patel L. Failure of ranitidine to interact with propranolol. British Medical Journal 284: 1304, 1982.
Hegarty JE. Ranitidine and hepatotoxicity. Lancet 1: 223, 1985.
Henann N, Carpenter D, Janda S. Famotidine-associated mental confusion in elderly patients. Drug Intelligence and Clinical Pharmacy 22: 967–968, 1988.
Herrera A, Solal-Celigny P, Dresch C, Vallin J, Bernades P. Ranitidine. New England Journal of Medicine 310: 1604–1605, 1984.
Herrmann R, Shaw RG, Fone DJ. Ranitidine-associated recurrent acute pancreatitis. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine 20: 243–244, 1990.
Hiesse C, Cantarovich M, Santelli C, Francais P, Charpentier B, et al. Ranitidine hepatotoxicity in renal transplant patient. Lancet 1: 1280, 1985.
Hine KR, Holmes GKT, Milnes JP, Phillips A, Poynter D, et al. Microscopic examination of gastric biopsies from patients treated with ranitidine. Gastroenterology 82: 1085, 1982.
Hirsch E. Famotidine and ranitidine but not cimetidine cause severe, disabling headache. American Journal of Gastroenterology 84: 202–203, 1989.
Hoensch HP, Hutzel H, Kirch W, Ohnhaus EE. Isolation of human hepatic microsomes and their inhibition by cimetidine and ranitidine. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 29: 199–206, 1985.
Hofman J, Michalska I, Kuczewska B, Chyrek-Borowska S. The influence of cimetidine and ranitidine on basophil histamine release and bronchial reactivity in asthmatic patients. Agents and Actions 20: 317–319, 1987.
Holtzman JL, Gebhard RL, Eckfeldt JH, Mottonen LR, Finley DK, et al. The effects of several weeks of ethanol consumption on ethanol kinetics in normal men and women. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 38: 157–163, 1985.
Hughes DG, Dowling EA, Demeersman RE, Garnett WR, Karnes HT. Cardiovascular effects of H2-receptor antagonists. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 29: 472–477, 1989.
Hughes RD, Reed WD, Sergeant CS. Mental confusion associated with ranitidine. Medical Journal of Australia 2: 12–13, 1983.
Hussey EK, Dukes GE. Do all histamine2-antagonists cause a warfarin drug interaction? Drug Intelligence and Clinical Pharmacy 23: 675–679, 1989.
Iliopoulou A, Kontogiannis D, Tsoutos D, Moulopoulos S. Quinidine-ranitidine adverse reaction. European Heart Journal 7: 360, 1986.
Inman WHW. Zantac. PEM News: August 9–13, 1983.
Jack D, Smith RN, Richards DA. Histamine H2 antagonists and the heart. Lancet 2: 1281, 1982.
Jack D, Thomas M, Skidmore IF. Ranitidine and paracetamol metabolism. Lancet 2: 1067, 1985.
Jackson G, Upward JW. Cimetidine, ranitidine and heart rate. Lancet 2: 266, 1982.
Jackson JE, Bentley JB, Glass SJ, Fukui T, Gandolfi AJ, et al. Effects of histamine-2 receptor blockade on lidocaine kinetics. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 37: 544–548, 1985.
Jansen EC, Brynskov J, Thysssen HH. Influence of ranitidine on postural stability. Lancet 1: 55–56, 1982.
Jarowenko MV, Van Buren CT, Kramer WG, Lorber MI, Flechner SM, et al. Ranitidine, cimetidine and the cyclosporinetreated recipient. Transplantation 42: 311–312, 1986.
Jensen JC, Gugler R. Relevant inhibition of acetylcholinesterase with H2-receptor antagonists. Zeitschrift für Gastroenterology 22: 109–112, 1984.
Jensen RT, Collen MJ, Pandol SJ, Allende HD, Raufman JP, et al. Cimetidine-induced impotence and breast changes in patients with gastric hypersecretory states. New England Journal of Medicine 308: 883–887, 1983.
Johnson WS, Miller DR. Ranitidine and bradycardia. Annals of Internal Medicine 108: 493, 1988.
Kagevi I, Wahlby L. CSF concentrations of ranitidine. Lancet 1: 164–165, 1985.
Karachalios GN. Ranitidine and hepatitis. Annals of Internal Medicine 103: 634–635, 1985.
Kelly HW. Lack of evidence for reduction of theophylline clearance by ranitidine. American Journal of Medicine 86: 629–630, 1989.
Kelly HW, Powell JR, Donohue JF. Ranitidine at very large doses does not inhibit theophylline elimination. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 39: 577–581, 1986.
Kelly JG, Salem SAM, Kinney CD, Shanks RG, McDevitt DG. Effects of ranitidine on the disposition of metoprolol. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 19: 219–224, 1985.
Kendall MJ, Laugher SJ, Wilkins MR. Ranitidine, cimetidine and metoprolol: a pharmacokinetic interaction study. Gastroenterology 90: 1490, 1986a.
Kendall MJ, Lobo J, Wilkins MR. Ranitidine, cimetidine and nifedipine: a pharmacokinetic interaction study. Gastroenterology 90: 1490, 1986b.
Kenyon CJ, Fraser R, Birnie GG, Connell JMC, Lever AF. Dose related in vitro effects of ranitidine and cimetidine on basal and ACTH-stimulated steroidogenesis. Gut 27: 1143–1146, 1986.
Khera DC, Smith SL, Slabic SF. Ranitidine-induced bradycardia. American Journal of Gastroenterology 83: 332–333, 1988.
Kirch W, Hoensch H, Janisch HD. Interactions and non-interactions with ranitidine. Clinical Pharmacokinetics 9: 493–510, 1984a.
Kirch W, Hutt HJ, Heidemann H, Ramsch K, Janisch HD, et al. Drug interactions with nitrendipine. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 6 (Suppl. 7): S982–S985, 1984b
Kirch W, Milferstädt S, Halabi A, Rocher I, Efthymiopoulos C, et al. Interaction of tertatolol with rifampicin and ranitidine pharmacokinetics and antihypertensive activity. Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy 4: 487–492, 1990.
Kirch W, Ramsch K, Janisch HD, Ohnhaus EE. The influence of two histamine H2-receptor antagonists, cimetidine and ranitidine, on the plasma levels and clinical effect of nifedipine and metoprolol. Archives of Toxicology (Suppl. 7): 256–259, 1984c.
Klotz U, Arvela P, Rosenkranz BZ. Effect of single doses of cimetidine and ranitidine on the steady-state plasma levels of midazolam. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 38: 652–625, 1985.
Klotz U, Reimann IW, Ohnhaus EE. Effect of ranitidine on the steady state pharmacokinetics of diazepam. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 24: 357–360, 1983.
Knigge U, Thuesen B, Dejgaard A, Bennett P, Christiansen PM. Plasma concentrations of pituitary and peripheral hormones during ranitidine treatment for two years in men with duodenal ulcer. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 37: 305–307, 1989.
Knodell RG, Hotlzman JL, Crankshaw DL, Steele NW, Stanley LN. Drug metabolism by rat and human hepatic microsomes in response to receptor antagonists. Gastroenterology 82: 84–88, 1982.
Kohn A, Suriano G, Prantera C, Annibale B, Delle Fave G. Hypergastrinaemia after long-term H2-blocker treatment. Lancet 2: 1466–1467, 1987.
Kowalsky SF. Lidocaine interaction with cimetidine and ranitidine: a critical analysis of the literature. Advances in Therapy 5: 229–244, 1988.
Kubacka R, Antal EJ, Juhl RP. The effects of cimetidine and ranitidine on glyburide pharmacokinetics. Drug Intelligence and Clinical Pharmacy 19: 461, 1985.
Kubacka R, Antal EJ, Juhl RP. The paradoxical effect of cimetidine and ranitidine on glibenclamide pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 23: 743–751, 1987.
Kurowski M, Reim HG. Metabolische Interaktion zwischen Cimetidin, Ranitidin und Amitriptylin/Chlordiazepoxid. Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie 24: 627–634, 1986.
Lalonde RL, North DS, Mattern AL, Kapil RP. Tocainide pharmacokinetics after H2-antagonists. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 41: 241, 1987.
Lane GP, Speed B. Agranulocytosis after ranitidine administration. Medical Journal of Australia 150: 595–596, 1989.
Lanzon-Miller S, Pounder RE, Hamilton MR, Ball S, Cronos NAF, et al. Twenty-four-hour intragastric acidity and plasma gastrin concentration before and during treatment with either ranitidine or omeprazole. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1: 239–251, 1987.
Lauritsen K, Havelund T, Rask-Madsen J, Fenger C. Ranitidine and hepatotoxicity. Lancet 2: 1471, 1984.
La Vecchia C, Negri E, D’Avanzo B, Franceschi S. Histamine-2-receptor antagonists and gastric cancer risk. Lancet 2: 355–357, 1990.
Lehmann AB. Reversible chorea due to ranitidine and cimetidine. Lancet 2: 158, 1988.
Leonard TB, Morgan DG, Dent JG. Ranitidine-acetaminophen interaction: effects on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in Fischer 344 rats. Hepatology 5: 480–487, 1985.
Lewis JH. Hepatic effects of drugs used in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease. American Journal of Gastroenterology 82: 987–1003, 1987.
Liedberg G, Fletcher E, Davies J. Cimetidine, ranitidine and heart rate. Lancet 2: 265, 1982.
List AF, Beaird DH, Kummet T. Ranitidine-induced granulocytopenia: recurrence with cimetidine administration. Annals of Internal Medicine 108: 566–567, 1988.
Lombardo L. Reversible amenorrhoea after ranitidine treatment. Lancet 1: 224, 1982.
Lombardo L. More about ranitidine and hyperprolactinaemia. Lancet 2: 42–43, 1983.
Mani RB, Spellun JS, Frank JH, Laureno R. H2-receptor blockers and mental confusion. Lancet 2: 98, 1984.
Martinez-Abad M, Gomis FD, Ferrer JM, Morales-Olivas FJ. Ranitidine-induced confusion with concomitant morphine. Drug Intelligence and Clinical Pharmacy 22: 914–915, 1988.
Mashford ML, Harman PJ, Morphett BJ, Breen KJ, Desmonds PV. Ranitidine does not affect chlormethiazole or indocyanine green disposition. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 34: 231–233, 1983.
Mavier P, Preaux AM, Delchier JC, Beauchaut M, Dhumeaux D. Comparaison des effets de la cimétidine et de la ranitidine in vivo et in vitro sur le système enzymatique microsomial hépatique chez le rat. Gastroentérologie Clinique et Biologique 7: 244–250, 1983.
McDermott AJ, Insole J, Kaufman B. Acute confusional episodes during treatment with ranitidine. British Medical Journal 294: 1616, 1987.
McEwen J, Moreland TA, McMurdo ME. Influence of pretreatment with 300 mg/day ranitidine, 800 mg/day cimetidine and placebo on the pharmacokinetics of oral theophylline in healthy subjects. Gastroenterology 90: 1542, 1986.
McWalter RS, El Debani AH, Feely J, Stevenson IH. Potentation by ranitidine of the hypoglycaemic response to glipizide in diabetic patients. Proceedings of the BPS, 11–14 September, 121P, 1984
Merrett AC, Marks R, Dudley FJ. Cimetidine-induced erythema annulare centrifugum: no cross sensitivity with ranitidine. British Medical Journal 283: 698, 1981.
Mignon M, Vallot T, Bonfils S. Gynaecomastia and histamine H2-antagonists. Lancet 2: 499, 1982.
Miller JM, Nelson HS. Suppression of immediate skin tests by ranitidine. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 84: 895–899, 1989.
Mills JG, Wood JR. The pharmacology of histamine H2-receptor antagonists. Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology 11 (Suppl. 1): 87–95, 1989.
Mitchard M, Harris A, Mullinger BM. Ranitidine drug interactions — a literature review. Pharmacology and Therapeutics 32: 293–325, 1987.
Mutschler E, Spahn H, Kirch W. The interaction between H2-receptor antagonists and β-adrenoreceptor blockers. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 17: 51S–57S, 1984
Nakatini T. Granulocytopenia associated with ranitidine in a patient with renal transplant. British Medical Journal 295: 333, 1987.
Nicholson AN, Stone BM. The H2-antagonists, cimetidine and ranitidine: studies on performance. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 26: 579–582, 1984.
Nielsen HJ, Moesgaard F, Kehlet H. Ranitidine for prevention of postoperative suppression of delayed hypersensitivity. American Journal of Surgery 157: 291–294, 1989.
O’Reilly RA. Comparative interaction of cimetidine and ranitidine with racemic warfarin in man. Archives of Internal Medicine 144: 989–991, 1984.
Ochs HR, Greenblatt DJ, Mattis R, Weinbrenner J. Interaction of ibuprofen with the H2 receptor antagonists ranitidine and cimetidine. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 38: 648–651, 1985.
Offit K, Sojka DA. Ranitidine. New England Journal of Medicine 310: 1603, 1984.
Oikkonen M, Rosenberg PH, Saarnivaara L. Cimetidine and ranitidine do not affect enflurane metabolism in surgical patients. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 33: 129–131, 1989.
Oldham HG, Norman SJ, Chenery RJ. Primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes: a model for the toxicity of histamine H2-receptor antagonists. Toxicology 36: 215–229, 1986.
Parkin JV, Ackroyd EB, Glickman S, Hobsley M, Lorenz W. Release of histamine by H2-receptor antagonists. Lancet 2: 938–939, 1982.
Pasquali R, Corinaldesi R, Miglioli M, Melchionda N, Capelli M, et al. Effect of prolonged administration of ranitidine on pituitary and thyroid hormones, and their response to specific hypothalamic-releasing factors. Clinical Endocrinology 15: 457–462, 1981.
Patterson JF. Mania associated with intravenous ranitidine therapy. Southern Medical Journal 80: 1467, 1987.
Pearson MW. Thrombocytopenia associated with ranitidine. British Medical Journal 292: 489, 1986.
Peden NR, Boyd EJS, Browning MCK, Saunders JHB, Wormsley KG. Effects of two histamine H2-receptor blocking drugs on basal levels of gonadotrophins, prolactin, testosterone and oestradiol-17β during treatment of duodenal ulcer in male patients. Acta Endocrinologica 96: 564–568, 1981.
Peden NR, Wormsley KG. Alleged impotence with ranitidine. Lancet 2: 798, 1983.
Pedrazzoli S, Petrin P, Pasquali C, Militello C, Sperti C, et al. Ranitidine reverses cimetidine-induced mental confusion in a patient with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Archives of Surgery 118: 256, 1983.
Penston J, Wormsley KG. Adverse reactions and interactions with H2-receptor antagonists. Medical Toxicology 1: 192–216, 1986.
Penston J, Wormsley KG. Efficacy and safety of long-term maintenance therapy of duodenal ulcers. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 24: 1145–1152, 1989.
Perret G, Hugues JN, Louchahi M, Varoquaux O, Modigliani E. Effect of a short-term oral administration of cimetidine and ranitidine on the basal and thyrotropin-releasing hormone-stimulated serum concentrations of prolactin, thyrotropin and thyroid hormones in healthy volunteers: a double-blind crossover study. Pharmacology 32: 101–108, 1986.
Phillips P, Hansky J. Phenytoin toxicity secondary to cimetidine administration. Medical Journal of Australia 141: 602, 1984.
Picardo M, Santucci B. Urticaria from ranitidine. Contact Dermatitis 9: 327, 1983.
Pixley JS, McKintosh FR, Sahr E, Zanjani ED. Mechanism of ranitidine associated anemia. American Journal of the Medical Sciences 297: 369–371, 1989.
Plummer JL, Wanwimolruk S, Jenner MA, de la Hall P, Cousins MJ. Effects of cimetidine and ranitidine on halothane metabolism and hepatotoxicity in an animal model. Drug Metabolism and Disposition 12: 106–110, 1984.
Poulakos JJ, Gertner SB. Studies on the cardiovascular actions of central histamine H1 and H2 receptors. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 250: 500–507, 1989.
Powell JR, Donn KH. Histamine H2-antagonist drug interactions in perspective: mechanistic concepts and clinical implications. American Journal of Medicine 77 (Suppl. 5B): 57–84, 1984.
Powell JR, Rogers JF, Wargin WA, Cross RE, Eshelman FN. Inhibition of theophylline clearance by cimetidine but not ranitidine. Archives of Internal Medicine 144: 484–486, 1984.
Price W, Coli L, Brandstetter RD, Gotz P. Ranitidine-associated hallucinations. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 29: 375–376, 1985.
Proctor JD. Hepatitis associated with ranitidine. Journal of the American Medical Association 251: 1554, 1984.
Reid CDL, Kirk A. Ranitidine fails to suppress the growth in vitro of haemopoietic progenitors from human peripheral blood and bone marrow. Human Toxicology 8: 19–22, 1989.
Reimann IW, Klotz U, Frolich JC. Effects of cimetidine and ranitidine on steady-state propranolol kinetics and dynamics. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 32: 749–757, 1982.
Rendic S, Alebic-Kolbah T, Kajfez F, Ruff HH. Interaction of ranitidine with liver microsomes. Xenobiotica 12: 9–17, 1982.
Rendic S, Ruff HH, Weber P, Kajfez F. Cimetidine and ranitidine: their interaction with human and pig liver microsomes and with purified cytochrome P-450. European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 9: 195–200, 1984.
Ribert A, Balas D, Bastie MJ, Senegas-Balas F, Escourrou J, et al. Long term effects of H2-receptor antagonists (cimetidine and ranitidine) on the human gastric and duodenal mucosa. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 16 (Suppl. 70): 155–174, 1981.
Robson RA, Wing LMH, Miners JO, Lillywhite KJ, Birkett DJ. The effect of ranitidine on the disposition of lignocaine. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 20: 170–173, 1985.
Rodvold KA, Paloucek FP, Jung D, Gallastegui J. Interaction of steady-state procainamide with H2-receptor antagonists cimetidine and ranitidine. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring 9: 378–383, 1987.
Rogers SA, Gale KC, Newton JF, Dent JG, Leonard TB. Inhibition by ranitidine of acetaminophen conjugation and its possible role in ranitidine potentation of acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 245: 887–894, 1988.
Romaguera C, Grimait F, Vilaplana J. Epidemic of occupational contact dermatitis from ranitidine. Contact Dermatitis 18: 177–178, 1988.
Rosse RB. Cimetidine and mental status change. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 47: 99, 1986.
Roy AK, Cuda MP, Levine RA. Induction of theophylline toxicity and inhibition of clearance rates by ranitidine. American Journal of Medicine 85: 525–527, 1988.
Roy AK. Induction of theophylline toxicity and inhibition of clearance rates by ranitidine. American Journal of Medicine 86: 513, 1989.
Ruff F. Interférences médicamenteuses de la théophylline: absence d’interaction théophylline-ranitidine. Nouvelle Presse Médicale 11: 3512, 1982.
Rycroft RJG. Allergic contact dermatitis from a novel diamino intermediate, 5-[(2-aminoethyl)thiomethyl]-N,N-dimethyl-2-furanmethanamine, in laboratory synthesis. Contact Dermatitis 9: 456–458, 1983.
Sachs G, Kowalsky SF. Acetaminophen interaction with cimetidine and ranitidine: a critical analysis of the literature. Advances in Therapy 5: 257–272, 1988.
Sancho JM, Robles RG, Mcheno E. Interference by ranitidine with aldosterone secretion in vivo. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 27: 495, 1984.
Sax MJ. Analysis of possible drug interactions between cimetidine (and ranitidine) and β-blockers. Advances in Therapy 5: 210–228, 1988.
Sax MJ, Sawyer WT. Warfarin interactions with cimetidine and ranitidine: a critical analysis of the literature. Advances in Therapy 5: 153–167, 1988.
Scavone JM, Greenblatt DJ, Matlis R, Harmatz JS. Interaction of oxaprozin with acetaminophen, cimetidine, and ranitidine. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 31: 371–374, 1986.
Scobie IN, Saunders J, Barnes GD, Hoad J, Wheeler MJ, et al. A comparative study of the effects of ranitidine and cimetidine on carbohydrate tolerance, growth hormone secretion and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in man. Current Medical Research and Opinion 10: 285–290, 1986.
Seggev JS, Barzilay M, Schey G. No evidence for interaction between ranitidine and theophylline. Archives of Internal Medicine 147: 179–180, 1987.
Seitz HK, Bösche J, Czygan P, Veith S, Simon B, et al. Increased blood ethanol levels following cimetidine but not ranitidine. Lancet 1: 760, 1983.
Serlin MJ, Sibeon RG, Breckenridge AM. Lack of effect of ranitidine on warfarin action. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 12: 791–794, 1981.
Shah RR. Symptomatic bradycardia in association with H2-receptor antagonists. Lancet 2: 1108, 1982.
Shields LI, Files JA, Doll DC, Greenberg BR. Ranitidine and agranulocytosis. Annals of Internal Medicine 104: 128, 1986.
Shimp LA, Smith MA, Wahr DW. Ranitidine-induced chest pain. Drug Intelligence and Clinical Pharmacy 23: 224–226, 1989.
Silverstone PH. Ranitidine and confusion. Lancet 1: 1071, 1984.
Simon B, Muller P, Dammann HG. Safety profile of ranitidine. In Riley & Salmon (Eds) Ranitidine: proceedings of an International Symposium held in the context of the Seventh World Congress of Gastroenterology, pp. 181–189, Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, 1982
Sirgo MA. Rocci ML, Ferguson RK, Eshelman FN, Vlasses PH. Effects of cimetidine and ranitidine on the conversion of prednisone to prednisolone. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 37: 534–538, 1985.
Skinner MH, Lenert L, Blaschke TF. Theophylline toxicity subsequent to ranitidine administration: a possible drug-drug interaction. American Journal of Medicine 86: 129–132, 1989.
Smith CL, Bardgett DM, Hunter JM. Haemodynamic effects of the IV administration of cimetidine or ranitidine in the critically ill patient. British Journal of Anaesthesia 59: 1397–1402, 1987a.
Smith RN, Elsdon-Dew RW. Alleged impotence with ranitidine. Lancet 2: 798, 1983.
Smith SR, Kendall MJ. Ranitidine versus cimetidine. A comparison of their potential to cause clinically important drug interactions. Clinical Pharmacokinetics 15: 44–56, 1988.
Smith SR, Kendall MJ, Lobo J, Beerahee A, Jack DB, et al. Ranitidine and cimetidine: drug interactions with single dose and steady-state nifedipine administration. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 23: 311–315, 1987b.
Somogyi A, Bochner F. Dose and concentration dependent effect of ranitidine on procainamide disposition and renal clearance in man. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 18: 175–181, 1984.
Sonnenblick M, Yinnon A. Mental confusion as a side effect of ranitidine. American Journal of Psychiatry 143: 257, 1986.
Souza Lima MA. Hepatitis associated with ranitidine. Annals of Internal Medicine 101: 207–208, 1984.
Souza Lima MA. Ranitidine and hepatic injury. Annals of Internal Medicine 105: 140, 1986.
Spahn H, Mutschler E, Kirch W, Ohnhaus EE, Janisch HD. Influence of ranitidine on plasma metoprolol and atenolol concentrations. British Medical Journal 286: 1546–1547, 1983.
Speeg KV, Christian DC, Mitchell MC. Ranitidine and acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. Annals of Internal Medicine 100: 315–316, 1984.
Speeg KV, Maldonado AL. Acetaminophen hepatotoxicity: lack of potentiation by ranitidine. Gastroenterology 90: 1770, 1986.
Spina E, Koike Y. Differential effects of cimetidine and ranitidine on imipramine demethylation and desmethylimipramine hydroxylation by human liver microsomes. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 30: 239–242, 1986.
Spurling NW, Selway SAM, Poynter D. An evaluation of the safety of ranitidine during seven years daily oral administration to beagle dogs. Human Toxicology 8: 23–32, 1989.
Spychal RT, Wickham NWR. Thrombocytopenia associated with ranitidine. British Medical Journal 291: 1687, 1985.
Staiger C, Simon B, Walter E, Kather H. Influence of ranitidine on antipyrine pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 25: 894, 1980.
Sullivan KM, Small RE, Rock WL, Cox SR, Willis HE. Effects of cimetidine or ranitidine on the pharmacokinetics of flurbiprofen. Clinical Pharmacy 5: 586–589, 1986.
Sutherland DL, Remillard AJ, Haight KR, Brown MA, Old L. The influence of cimetidine versus ranitidine on doxepin pharmacokinetics. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 32: 159–164, 1987.
Swedish Adverse Drug Reactions Advisory Committee. Ranitidine and arthralgia. Bulletin 55: 2, 1990
Tanner LA, Arrowsmith JB. Bradycardia and H2 antagonists. Annals of Internal Medicine 109: 434, 1988.
Texereau P, Ancelin P, Briaud M, Moussie D. Un cas d’agranulocytose aiguë chez un malade traité par ranitidine. Gastroentérologie Clinique et Biologique 11: 829–830, 1987.
Theofilopoulos N, Szabadi E, Bradshaw CM. Comparison of the effects of ranitidine, cimetidine and thioridazine on psychomotor functions in healthy volunteers. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 18: 135–144, 1984.
Tomasko MA, Luskin AT. Recurrent parotitis with H2-receptor antagonists in a patient with Sjögren’s syndrome. American Journal of Medicine 85: 271, 1988.
Toon S, Davidson EM, Garstang FM, Batra H, Bowes RJ, et al. The racemic metoprolol H2-antagonist interaction. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 43: 283–289, 1988.
Toon S, Hopkins KJ, Garstang FM, Rowland M. Comparative effects of ranitidine and cimetidine on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin in man. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 32: 165–172, 1987.
Tosi S, Cagnoli M. Painful gynaecomastia with ranitidine. Lancet 2: 160, 1982.
Viana L. Probable case of impotence due to ranitidine. Lancet 2: 635, 1983.
Walt RP, LaBrooy SJ, Avgerinos A, Oehr T, Riley A, et al. Investigations on the penetration of ranitidine into the cerebro-spinal fluid and a comparison of the effects of ranitidine and cimetidine on male sex hormones. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 69 (Suppl. 16): 19–24, 1981.
Wang C, Wong KL, Lam KC, Lai CL. Ranitidine does not affect gonadal function in man. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 16: 430–432, 1983.
Wanwimolruk S, Sunbhanich M, Pongmarutai M, Patamasucon P. Effects of cimetidine and ranitidine on the pharmacokinetics of quinine. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 22: 346–350, 1986.
Watts RW, Hetzel DJ, Bochner F, Hallpike JF, Hann CS, et al. Lack of interaction between ranitidine and phenytoin. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 15: 499–500, 1983.
Webster LK, Jones DB, Smallwood RA. Influence of cimetidine and ranitidine on ethanol pharmacokinetics. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine 15: 359–360, 1985.
Webster LK, Mihaly GW, Jones DB, Smallwood RA, Phillips JA, et al. Effect of cimetidine and ranitidine on carbamazepine and sodium valproate pharmacokinetics. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 27: 341–343, 1984.
Wells BG, Pieper JA, Self TH, Stewart CF, Waldon SL, et al. The effect of ranitidine and cimetidine on imipramine disposition. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 31: 285–290, 1986.
Wilson CM, Robinson FP, Thompson EM, Dundee JW, Elliot P. Effect of pretreatment with ranitidine on the hypnotic action of single doses of midazolam, temazepam and zopiclone: a clinical study. British Journal of Anaesthesia 58: 483–486, 1986.
Winship LC, McKenney JM, Wright J, Wodd JH, Goodman RP. The effect of ranitidine and cimetidine on single-dose diltiazem pharmacokinetics. Pharmacotherapy 5: 16–19, 1985.
Woodworth GE, Sears DH, Grove TM, Ruff RH, Kosek PS, et al. The effect of cimetidine and ranitidine on the duration of action of succinylcholine. Anesthesia and Analgesia 68: 295–297, 1989.
Zazgornik J, Schindler J, Gremmel F, Balcke P, Kopsa H, et al. Ranitidine does not influence the blood cyclosporin levels in renal transplant patients. Kidney International 28: 401, 1985.
Zimmerman TW, Schenker S. A comparative evaluation of cimetidine and ranitidine. Rational Drug Therapy 19: 1–7, 1985.
About this article
Cite this article
Vial, T., Goubier, C., Bergeret, A. et al. Side Effects of Ranitidine. Drug-Safety 6, 94–117 (1991). https://doi.org/10.2165/00002018-199106020-00002
- Clinical Pharmacology