CNS Drugs

, Volume 26, Issue 6, pp 477–490

Antioxidants as Antidepressants

Fact or Fiction?
  • Giovanni Scapagnini
  • Sergio Davinelli
  • Filippo Drago
  • Antonino De Lorenzo
  • Giovannangelo Oriani
Leading Article

DOI: 10.2165/11633190-000000000-00000

Cite this article as:
Scapagnini, G., Davinelli, S., Drago, F. et al. CNS Drugs (2012) 26: 477. doi:10.2165/11633190-000000000-00000

Abstract

Depression is a medical condition with a complex biological pattern of aetiology, involving genetic and epigenetic factors, along with different environmental stressors. Recent evidence suggests that oxidative stress pro-cesses might play a relevant role in the pathogenic mechanism(s) underlying many major psychiatric disorders, including depression.

Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species have been shown to modulate levels and activity of noradrenaline (norepinephrine), serotonin, dopamine and glutamate, the principal neurotransmitters involved in the neurobiology of depression. Major depression has been associated with lowered concentrations of several endogenous antioxidant compounds, such as vitamin E, zinc and coenzyme Q10, or enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase, and with an impairment of the total antioxidant status. These observations introduce new potential targets for the development of therapeutic interventions based on antioxidant compounds.

The present review focuses on the possible role of oxidative stress processes in the pathogenesis of depression. The therapeutic potential of antioxidant compounds as a co-adjuvant treatment to conventional antidepressants is discussed. For instance, N-acetyl-cysteine has been shown to have a signif-icant benefit on depressive symptoms in a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Additionally, curcumin, the yellow pigment of curry, has been shown to strongly interfere with neuronal redox homeostasis in the CNS and to possess antidepressant activity in various animal models of depression, also thanks to its ability to inhibit monoamine oxidases. There is an urgent need to develop better tolerated and more effective treatments for depressive disorders and several antioxidant treatments appear promising and deserve further study.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giovanni Scapagnini
    • 1
  • Sergio Davinelli
    • 1
  • Filippo Drago
    • 2
  • Antonino De Lorenzo
    • 3
  • Giovannangelo Oriani
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Health SciencesUniversity of MoliseCampobassoItaly
  2. 2.Department of Clinical and Molecular Biomedicine, Section of Pharmacology and BiochemistryUniversity of CataniaCataniaItaly
  3. 3.Department of Neuroscience, Division of Human NutritionUniversity of Rome Tor VergataRomeItaly

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