Sports Medicine

, Volume 42, Issue 7, pp 607–613 | Cite as

Acute Exercise and Subsequent Nutritional Adaptations

What About Obese Youths?
  • David Thivel
  • John E. Blundell
  • Pascale Duché
  • Béatrice Morio
Review Article

Abstract

The imbalance between energy expenditure and energy intake is the main factor accounting for the progression of obesity. For many years, physical activity has been part of weight-loss programmes to increase energy expenditure. It is now recognized that exercise can also affect appetite and energy consumption. In the context of seeking new obesity treatments, it is of major interest to clarify the impact of physical exercise on energy intake. Many reviews on this topic have been published regarding both lean and overweight adults, and this review focuses on the relationships between acute exercise and the short-term regulation of energy intake in lean and overweight or obese youths. The current literature provides very few data regarding the impact of exercise on subsequent energy intake and perceived and measured appetite in children and adolescents, mainly because of methodological difficulties in the assessment of both energy intake and expenditure. It has been long suggested that energy intake was regulated after exercise in order to compensate for the exercise-induced energy expenditure and then preserve energy balance. This overview underlines that the energy expended during exercise is not the main parameter that influences subsequent energy intake in both lean and overweight/obese children and adolescents, and that factors such as the duration or intensity of exercise may have larger impact. The effects of acute exercise on the following nutritional adaptations (energy intake and appetite feelings) remain inconclusive in lean youths, mainly due to the lack of data and the disparity of the methodologies used. Studies in overweight or obese children and adolescents are confronted with the same difficulties, and the few available data suggest that intensive exercise (>70% maximal oxygen consumption) can induce a reduction in daily energy balance, as a result of its anorexigenic effect in obese adolescents. However, further studies are needed to clarify the impact of acute exercise on subsequent nutritional adaptations and appetite-related hormones in children and adolescents, and to investigate the effect of chronic exercise programmes.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors want to thank the Thermal Institution of Brides les Bains, France, for its contribution to our researches through their 2009 Obesity Research Grant. We also thank Katrina Brakoniecki (New York Nutrition Obesity Research Center, Columbia University, New York City, USA) for her help in the redaction of this paper. Pascale Duché and Béatrice Morio contributed equally to the writing of this article. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.

References

  1. 1.
    King NA, Tremblay A, Blundell JE. Effects of exercise on appetite control: implications for energy balance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1997 Aug; 29 (8): 1076–89PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mayer J, Roy P, Mitra KP. Relation between caloric intake, body weight, and physical work: studies in an industrial male population in West Bengal. Am J Clin Nutr 1956 Mar–Apr; 4 (2): 169–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Blundell JE, King NA. Physical activity and regulation of food intake: current evidence. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999 Nov; 31 (11 Suppl.): S573–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Moore MS. Interactions between physical activity and diet in the regulation of body weight. Proc Nutr Soc 2000 May; 59 (2): 193–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pi-Sunyer FX, Woo R. Effect of exercise on food intake in human subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1985 Nov; 42 (5 Suppl.): 983–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Westerterp KR. Alterations in energy balance with exercise. Am J Clin Nutr 1998 Oct; 68 (4): 970S–4SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    van Baak MA. Physical activity and energy balance. Public Health Nutr 1999 Sep; 2 (3A): 335–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Blundell JE, Stubbs RJ, Hughes DA, et al. Cross talk between physical activity and appetite control: does physical activity stimulate appetite? Proc Nutr Soc 2003 Aug; 62 (3): 651–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Melzer K, Kayser B, Saris WH, et al. Effects of physical activity on food intake. Clin Nutr 2005 Dec; 24 (6): 885–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hagobian TA, Braun B. Physical activity and hormonal regulation of appetite: sex differences and weight control. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2010 Jan; 38 (1): 25–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Martins C, Morgan L, Truby H. A review of the effects of exercise on appetite regulation: an obesity perspective. Int J Obes (Lond) 2008 Sep; 32 (9): 1337–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Moore MS, Dodd CJ, Welsman JR, et al. Short-term appetite and energy intake following imposed exercise in 9- to 10-year-old girls. Appetite 2004 Oct; 43 (2): 127–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dodd CJ, Welsman JR, Armstrong N. Energy intake and appetite following exercise in lean and overweight girls. Appetite 2008 Nov; 51 (3): 482–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bozinovski NC, Bellissimo N, Thomas SG, et al. The effect of duration of exercise at the ventilation threshold on subjective appetite and short-term food intake in 9 to 14 year old boys and girls. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2009; 6: 66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bellissimo N, Thomas SG, Goode RC, et al. Effect of short-duration physical activity and ventilation threshold on subjective appetite and short-term energy intake in boys. Appetite 2007 Nov; 49 (3): 644–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nemet D, Arieli R, Meckel Y, et al. Immediate post-exercise energy intake and macronutrient preferences in normal weight and overweight pre-pubertal children. Int J Pediatr Obes 2010 Dec 4; 5 (3): 221–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rumbold PL, St Clair Gibson A, Allsop S, et al. Energy intake and appetite following netball exercise over 5 days in trained 13–15 year old girls. Appetite 2011 Jun; 56 (3): 621–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Edholm OG, Fletcher JG, Widdowson EM, et al. The energy expenditure and food intake of individual men. Br J Nutr 1955; 9 (3): 286–300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Thivel D, Isacco L, Rousset S, et al. Intensive exercise: a remedy for childhood obesity? Physiol Behav 2011 Oct 30; 102 (2): 132–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Thivel D, Isacco L, Taillardat M, et al. Gender effect on exercise-induced energy intake modification among obese adolescents. Appetite 2011 Jun; 56 (3): 658–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Thivel D, Isacco L, Montaurier C, et al. The 24-h energy intake of obese adolescents is spontaneously reduced after intensive exercise: a randomized controlled trial in calorimetric chambers. PlosOne 2012; 7 (1) e29840Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Flint A, Raben A, Blundell JE, et al. Reproducibility, power and validity of visual analogue scales in assessment of appetite sensations in single test meal studies. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2000 Jan; 24 (1): 38–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hagobian TA, Sharoff CG, Braun B. Effects of short-term exercise and energy surplus on hormones related to regulation of energy balance. Metabolism 2008 Mar; 57 (3): 393–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ueda SY, Yoshikawa T, Katsura Y, et al. Comparable effects of moderate intensity exercise on changes in anorectic gut hormone levels and energy intake to high intensity exercise. J Endocrinol 2009 Dec; 203 (3): 357–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ueda SY, Yoshikawa T, Katsura Y, et al. Changes in gut hormone levels and negative energy balance during aerobic exercise in obese young males. J Endocrinol 2009 Apr; 201 (1): 151–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pomerants T, Tillmann V, Karelson K, et al. Ghrelin response to acute aerobic exercise in boys at different stages of puberty. Horm Metab Res 2006 Nov; 38(11): 752–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sauseng W, Nagel B, Gamillscheg A, et al. Acylated ghrelin increases after controlled short-time exercise in school-aged children. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2011 Dec; 21 (6): e100–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mackelvie KJ, Meneilly GS, Elahi D, et al. Regulation of appetite in lean and obese adolescents after exercise: role of acylated and desacyl ghrelin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007 Feb; 92 (2): 648–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Donnelly JE, Kirk EP, Jacobsen DJ, et al. Effects of 16 mo of verified, supervised aerobic exercise on macronutrient intake in overweight men and women: the Midwest Exercise Trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2003 Nov; 78 (5): 950–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wang X, Nicklas BJ. Acute impact of moderate-intensity and vigorous-intensity exercise bouts on daily physical activity energy expenditure in postmenopausal women. J Obes. Epub 2010 Aug 10Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Morio B, Montaurier C, Pickering G, et al. Effects of 14 weeks of progressive endurance training on energy expenditure in elderly people. Br J Nutr 1998 Dec; 80 (6): 511–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Meijer EP, Westerterp KR, Verstappen FT. Effect of exercise training on total daily physical activity in elderly humans. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1999 Jun; 80 (1): 16–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kriemler S, Hebestreit H, Mikami S, et al. Impact of a single exercise bout on energy expenditure and spontaneous physical activity of obese boys. Pediatr Res 1999 Jul; 46 (1): 40–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Thivel
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • John E. Blundell
    • 4
  • Pascale Duché
    • 3
  • Béatrice Morio
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Unité de Nutrition HumaineClermont Université, Université d’AuvergneClermont-FerrandFrance
  2. 2.INRA, UMR 1019, UNHClermont-FerrandFrance
  3. 3.Laboratory of Exercise PhysiologyBlaise Pascal University and Clermont UniversityAubieresFrance
  4. 4.Institute of Psychological Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and HealthUniversity of LeedsLeedsUK

Personalised recommendations