Advertisement

Sports Medicine

, Volume 42, Issue 5, pp 399–413 | Cite as

Skin Manifestations of Athletes Competing in the Summer Olympics

What a Sports Medicine Physician Should Know
  • Jacqueline F. De Luca
  • Brian B. Adams
  • Gil YosipovitchEmail author
Review Article Skin Manifestations of Athletes Competing in the Summer Olympics

Abstract

Olympic athletes are vulnerable to traumatic, environmental and infectious skin manifestations. Although dermatological complaints are frequent among Olympians, there is a scarcity of literature that reviews sports-related dermatoses among Olympic athletes. A comprehensive review of PREMEDLINE and MEDLINE searches of all available literature through to January 2011 was conducted, focusing on sports-related dermatological presentations as well as the key words ‘Olympic athletes’ and ‘skin diseases’. Common skin conditions can be harmful and even prohibitive for competition.

Common aetiologies of dermatological conditions related to sports include: skin infections with dermatophytes such as tinea pedis and tinea corporis, bacteria such as pitted keratolysis, and folliculitis and viruses such as herpes gladiatorum. Frictional dermatoses occur commonly and include athlete’s nodules, jogger’s itch, frictional blisters, callosities and talon noir. Trauma can cause haematomas such as auricular haematomas. Due to long training hours in the sun, many endurance athletes experience high levels of UV radiation and a higher risk for both melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer. Pre-existing dermatoses can also be aggravated with practice and competition; in particular, atopic eczema and physical urticarias.

Infrequent dermatoses are susceptible to misdiagnosis, delay in treatment and needless biopsies. This review highlights the diagnosis and management of sports-related dermatoses by the following general categories of Olympic sport: endurance, resistance, team sport, and performing arts.

Keywords

Endurance Athlete Tinea Pedis Valacyclovir Dermatological Condition Tinea Corporis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

No funding was received to assist in the preparation of this review. The authors have no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this review.

References

  1. 1.
    Ljungqvist A, Jenoure PJ, Engebretsen L, et al. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) consensus statement on periodic health evaluation of elite athletes. Clin J Sport Med 2009; 19: 347–65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Carlsen KH, Kowalski ML. Asthma, allergy, the athlete and the Olympics. Allergy 2008; 63: 383–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Derman WE. Profile of medical and injury consultations of Team South Africa during the XXVIIIth Olympiad, Athens 2004. South African J Sports Med 2008; 20: 72–6Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dickens R, Adams BB, Mutasim DF. Sports-related pads. Int J Dermatol 2002; 4: 291–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Uchiyama M, Tsuboi R, Mitsuhashi Y. Athlete’s nodule. J Dermatol 2009; 36: 608–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mailler EA, Adams BB. The wear and tear of 26.2: dermatological injuries reported on marathon day. Br J Sports Med 2004; 38: 498–501PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Redbord KP, Adams BB. Piezogenic pedal papules in a marathon runner. Clin J Sport Med 2006; 16: 81–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Adams BB. Dermatologic disorders of the athlete. Sports Med 2002; 32: 309–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kantor GR, Bergfeld WF. Common and uncommon dermatologic diseases related to sports activities. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 1988; 16: 215–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Auger P, Marquis G, Joly J, et al. Epidemiology of tinea pedis in marathon runners: prevalence of occult athlete’s foot. Mycoses 1993; 36: 35–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tomecki KJ, Mikesell JF. Rower’s rump. J Am Acad Dermatol 1987; 16: 890–1PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Basler RS, Basler GC, Palmer AH, et al. Special skin symptoms seen in swimmers. J Am Acad Dermatol 2000; 43: 299–305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kamihama T, Kimura T, Hosokawa JI, et al. Tinea pedis outbreak in swimming pools in Japan. Public Health 1997; 111: 249–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Giffin CS. Wrestler’s ear: pathophysiology and treatment. Ann Plast Surg 1992; 28: 131–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kirkland EB, Adams BB. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and athletes. J Am Acad Dermatol 2008 Sep; 59 (3): 494–502PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Brzeziński P. Piezogenic pedal papules: a chronic disease of athletes. Polish J Sports Med 2009; 25: 183–8Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Basler RS, Garcia MA. Acing common skin problems in tennis players. Phys Sportsmed 1998; 26: 37–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wright JM, Webner D. Playing field issues in sports medicine. Curr Sports Med Rep 2010; 9 (3): 129–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pickup TL, Adams BB. Prevalence of tinea pedis in professional and college soccer players versus non-athletes. Clin J Sport Med 2007; 17: 52–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Biolcati G, Berlutti G, Bagarone A, et al. Dermatological marks in athletes of artistic and rhythmicgymnastics. Int J Sports Med 2004; 25: 638–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tomi NS, Altmeyer P, Kreuter A. Tacrolimus ointment for ‘jogger’s nipples’. Clin Exp Dermatol 2007; 32: 106–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kohl TD, Lisney M. Tinea gladiatorum: wrestling’s emerging foe. Sports Med 2000; 29: 439–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Doukas DJ, Holmes J, Leonard JA. A nonsurgical approach to painful piezogenic pedal papules. Cutis 2004; 73: 339–40,346PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Tamura BM, Cucé LC, Souza RL, et al. Plantar hyperhidrosis and pitted keratolysis treated with botulinum toxin injection. Dermatol Surg 2004; 30: 1510–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Vlahovic TC, Dunn SP, Kemp K. The use of a clindamycin 1%-benzoyl peroxide 5% topical gel in the treatment of pitted keratolysis: a novel therapy. Adv Skin Wound Care 2009; 22: 564–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Vazquez-Lopez F, Perez-Oliva N. Mupirocine ointment for symptomatic pitted keratolysis. Infection 1996; 24: 55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ramsey ML. Pitted keratolysis: a common infection of active feet. Phys Sportsmed 1996; 24: 51–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Whiting D. The successful treatment of creeping eruption with topical thiabendazole. S Afr Med J 1976; 50: 253–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Person JR. Green hair: treatment with a penicillamine shampoo. Arch Dermatol 1985; 121: 717–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    World Anti-Doping Agency. The World Anti-Doping Code. The 2010 Prohibited List International Standard [online]. Available from URL: http://www.wada-ama.org/rtecontent/document/2010_Prohibited_List_FINAL_EN_Web.pdf [Accessed 2010 Nov 22]
  31. 31.
    Zuberbier T, Münzberger C, Haustein U, et al. Doubleblind crossover study of high-dose cetirizine in cholinergic urticaria. Dermatology 1996; 193: 324–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Global DRO United States [online]. Available from URL: http://www.globaldro.com/us-en/default.aspx [Accessed 2011 Nov 14]
  33. 33.
    Feinberg JH, Toner CB. Successful treatment of disabling cholinergic urticaria. Mil Med 2008 Feb; 173: 217–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hazen PG, Weil ML. Itraconazole in the prevention and management of dermatophytosis in competitive wrestlers. J Am Acad Dermatol 1997 Mar; 36 (3Pt1): 481–2PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kohl TD, Martin DC, Nemeth R, et al. Fluconazole for the prevention and treatment of tinea gladiatorum. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2000; 19: 717–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Anderson BJ. Managing herpes gladiatorum outbreaks in competitive wrestling: the 2007 Minnesota experience. Curr Sports Med Rep 2008 Nov-Dec; 7 (6): 323–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ghosh SK, Bandyopadhyay D. Dermacase. Can you identify this condition? Cutaneous larva migrans. Can Fam Physician 2009 May; 55 (5): 489–491PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Knapik JJ, Reynolds KL, Duplantis KL, et al. Friction blisters. Pathophysiology, prevention and treatment. Sports Med 1995; 20: 136–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gerhardt LC, Strässle V, Lenz A, et al. Influence of epidermal hydration on the friction of human skin against textiles. J R Soc Interface 2008; 5: 1317–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Cohen PR, Eliezri YD, Silvers DN. Athlete’s nodules: treatment by surgical excision. Sports Med 1990; 10: 198–203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Mikhailov P, Berova N, Andreev VC. Physical urticaria and sport. Cutis 1977; 20: 381–4, 389-90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Dice JP. Physical urticaria. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 2004; 24: 225–46,viPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Nichols AW. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis and urticaria. Clin Sports Med 1992; 11: 303–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    MacKnight JM, Mistry DJ. Allergic disorders in the athlete. Clin Sports Med 2005; 24: 507–23,vii-viiiPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Schwartz LB, Delgado L, Craig T, et al. Exercise-induced hypersensitivity syndromes in recreational and competitive athletes: a PRACTALL consensus report (what the general practitioner should know about sports and allergy). Allergy 2008; 63: 953–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Wong E, Eftekhari N, Greaves MW, et al. Beneficial effects of danazol on symptoms and laboratory changes in cholinergic urticaria. Br J Dermatol 1987; 116: 553–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Del Giacco SR, Manconi PE, Del Giacco GS. Allergy and sports. Allergy 2001; 56: 215–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gerth van Wijk R, Roovers MH, Dieges PH. Exercisedependent anaphylaxis. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1991; 135: 2293–5Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Shadick NA, Liang MH, Partridge AJ, et al. The natural history of exercise-induced anaphylaxis: survey results from a 10-year follow-up study. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999; 104: 123–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Wade JP, Liang MH, Sheffer AL. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis: epidemiologic observations. Prog Clin Biol Res 1989; 297: 175–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Volcheck GW, Li JT. Exercise-induced urticaria and anaphylaxis. Mayo Clin Proc 1997; 72 (2): 140–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Lee HB, Ahn IS, Choi JH, et al. A case of wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis. Ann Dermatol 2009; 21: 447–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Romano A, Di Fonso M, Giuffreda F, et al. Diagnostic work-up for food-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. Allergy 1995; 50: 817–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Attye A, Auger P, Joly J. Incidence of occult athlete’s foot in swimmers. Eur J Epidemiol 1990; 6: 244–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Bolaños B. Dermatophyte feet infection among students enrolled in swimming courses at a university pool. Bol Asoc Med P R 1991; 83: 181–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Field LA, Adams BB. Tinea pedis in athletes. Int J Dermatol 2008; 47: 485–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Little M, Pereira P, Carrette T, et al. Jellyfish responsible for Irukandji syndrome. QJM 2006; 99 (6): 425–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Gloster Jr HM, Brodland DG. The epidemiology of skin cancer. Dermatol Surg 1996; 22: 217–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Moehrle M. Ultraviolet exposure in the Ironman triathlon. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001; 33: 1385–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Moehrle M, Heinrich L, Schmid A, et al. Extreme UV exposure of professional cyclists. Dermatology 2000; 201: 44–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Moehrle M, Koehle W, Dietz K, et al. Reduction of minimal erythema dose by sweating. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 2000; 16: 260–2PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Blazek V, Wienert V. The influence of corneal stratum hydratation on the chronological development of acute ultraviolet injury (author’s transl). Strahlentherapie 1981; 157: 280–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Ohlsén L, Skoog T, Sohn SA. The pathogenesis of cauliflower ear: an experimental study in rabbits. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg 1975; 9: 34–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Lee EC, Soliman AM, Kim J. Traumatic auricular hematoma: a case report. J Craniomaxillofac Trauma 1997; 3: 32–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Masterson DW. The ancient Greek origins of sports medicine. Br J Sports Med 1976; 10: 196–202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kordi R, Mansournia A, Nourian RA, et al. Cauliflower ear and skin infections among wrestlers in Tehran. J Sports Sci Med 2007; 6: 39–44Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Jones SE, Mahendran S. Interventions for acute auricular haematoma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004; (vn2): CD004166Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Ghanem T, Rasamny JK, Park SS. Rethinking auricular trauma. Laryngoscope 2005; 115: 1251–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Yotsuyanagi T, Yamashita K, Urushidate S, et al. Surgical correction of cauliflower ear. Br J Plast Surg 2002; 55: 380–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    USA Wrestling. International rule book & guide to wrestling: freestyle, Greco-Roman, women’s wrestling, and beach wrestling. 2010 ed [online]. Available from URL: http://www.themat.com/forms/Rulebook.pdf [Accessed 2010 Oct 25]
  71. 71.
    Kim SH, Kim S, Choi HI, et al. Callus formation is associated with hyperproliferation and incomplete differentiation of keratinocytes, and increased expression of adhesion molecules. Br J Dermatol 2010; 163: 495–501PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Helm TN, Bergfeld WF. Sports dermatology. Clin Dermatol 1998; 16: 159–65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Scott Jr MJ, Scott NI, Scott LM. Dermatologic stigmata in sports: weightlifting. Cutis 1992; 50: 141–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Adams BB. Tinea corporis gladiatorum. J Am Acad Dermatol 2002; 47: 286–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Bassiri-Jahromi S, Khaksar AA. Outbreak of tinea gladiatorum in wrestlers in Tehran (Iran). Indian J Dermatol 2008; 53: 132–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Foster KW, Ghannoum MA, Elewski BE. Epidemiologic surveillance of cutaneous fungal infection in the United States from 1999 to 2002. J Am Acad Dermatol 2004; 50: 748–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Hand JW, Wroble RR. Prevention of tinea corporis in collegiate wrestlers. J Athl Train 1999; 34: 350–2PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Hazen PG, Weil ML. Itraconazole in the prevention and management of dermatophytosis in competitive wrestlers. J Am Acad Dermatol 1997; 36: 481–2PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Holland EJ, Mahanti RL, Belongia EA, et al. Ocular involvement in an outbreak of herpes gladiatorum. Am J Ophthalmol 1992; 114: 680–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Wilhelmus KR. The treatment of herpes simplex virus epithelial keratitis. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 2000; 98: 505–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Becker TM, Kodsi R, Bailey P, et al. Grappling with herpes: herpes gladiatorum. Am J Sports Med 1988; 16: 665–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Strauss RH, Leizman DJ, Lanese RR, et al. Abrasive shirts may contribute to herpes gladiatorum among wrestlers. N Engl J Med 1989; 320: 598–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Anderson BJ. The epidemiology and clinical analysis of several outbreaks of herpes gladiatorum. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2003; 35: 1809–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Adams BB. New strategies for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of herpes simplex in contact sports. Curr Sports Med Rep 2004; 3: 277–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Wald A, Zeh J, Selke S, et al. Virology characteristics of subclinical and symptomatic genital herpes infections. N Engl J Med 1995; 333: 770–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Koelle DM, Wald A. Herpes simplex virus: the importance of asymptomatic shedding. J Antimicrob Chemother 2000; 45 Suppl.T3: 1–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Anderson BJ. The effectiveness of valacyclovir in preventing reactivation of herpes gladiatorum in wrestlers. Clin J Sport Med 1999; 9: 86–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Bacon TH, Levin MJ, Leary JJ, et al. Herpes simplex virus resistance to acyclovir and penciclovir after two decades of antiviral therapy. Clin Microbiol Rev 2003; 16: 114–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Urbina F, León L, Sudy E. Black heel, talon noir or calcaneal petechiae? Australas J Dermatol 2008 Aug; 49: 148–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Zalaudek I, Argenziano G, Soyer HP, et al. Dermoscopy of subcorneal hematoma. Dermatol Surg 2004; 30: 1229–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Wolf IH. Dermoscopic diagnosis of vascular lesions. Clin Dermatol 2002; 20: 273–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Böni R, Dummer R. Compression therapy in painful piezogenic pedal papules. Arch Dermatol 1996; 132: 127–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Woodrow SL, Brereton-Smith G, Handfield-Jones S. Painful piezogenic pedal papules: response to local electroacupuncture. Br J Dermatol 1997; 136: 628–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Lebovits PE, Kouskoukis CE, Weidman AI. Piezogenic pedal papules. Cutis 1982; 29: 276–7,280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Takama H, Tamada Y, Yano K, et al. Pitted keratolysis: clinical manifestations in 53 cases. Br J Dermatol 1997; 137: 282–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Singh G, Naik CL. Pitted keratolysis. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2005; 71: 213–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Nordstrom KM, McGinley KJ, Cappiello L, et al. Pitted keratolysis: the role of Micrococcus sedentarius. Arch Dermatol 1987; 123: 1320–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Woodgyer AJ, Baxter M, Rush-Munro FM, et al. Isolation of Dermatophilus congolensis from two New Zealand cases of pitted keratolysis. Australas J Dermatol 1985; 26: 29–35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Longshaw CM, Wright JD, Farrell AM, et al. Kytococcus sedentarius, the organism associated with pitted keratolysis, produces two keratin-degrading enzymes. J Appl Microbiol 2002; 93: 810–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Shah AS, Kamino H, Prose NS. Painful, plaque-like, pitted keratolysis occurring in childhood. Pediatr Dermatol 1992; 9: 251–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Biolcati G, Alabiso A. Creeping eruption of larva migrans: a case report in a beach volley athlete. Int J Sports Med 1997; 18: 612–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Davies HD, Sakuls P, Keystone JS. Creeping eruption: a review of clinical presentation and management of 60 cases presenting to a tropical disease unit. Arch Dermatol 1993; 129: 588–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Jackson A, Heukelbach J, Calheiros CM, et al. A study in a community in Brazil in which cutaneous larva migrans is endemic. Clin Infect Dis 2006; 43: e13–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Edelglass JW, Douglass MC, Stiefler R, et al. Cutaneous larva migrans in northern climates: a souvenir of your dream vacation. J Am Acad Dermatol 1982; 7: 353–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Van den Enden E, Stevens A, Van Gompel A. Treatment of cutaneous larva migrans. N Engl J Med 1998; 339: 1246–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Ang CC. Images in clinical medicine: cutaneous larva migrans. N Engl J Med 2010; 362: e10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Tlougan BE, Podjasek JO, Adams BB. Aquatic sports dermatoses: part 1. In the water: freshwater dermatoses. Int J Dermatol 2010; 49 (8): 874–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Blanc D, Zultak M, Rochefort A, et al. Green hair: clinical, chemical and epidemiologic study. Apropos of a case. Ann Dermatol Venereol 1988; 115: 807–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Mascaró Jr JM, Ferrando J, Fontarnau R, et al. Green hair. Cutis 1995; 56: 37–40PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis Data Information BV 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jacqueline F. De Luca
    • 1
  • Brian B. Adams
    • 2
    • 3
  • Gil Yosipovitch
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.University of Hawaii Transitional Residency ProgramHonoluluUSA
  2. 2.Department of DermatologyUniversity of CincinnatiCincinnatiUSA
  3. 3.Section of DermatologyVeterans Affairs Medical CenterCincinnatiUSA
  4. 4.Department of DermatologyWake Forest University School of MedicineWinston-SalemUSA

Personalised recommendations