Drug Safety

, Volume 34, Issue 10, pp 821–837

Drug-Induced Photosensitivity

Culprit Drugs, Management and Prevention
  • Aaron M. Drucker
  • Cheryl F. Rosen
Review Article


Photo-induced drug eruptions are cutaneous adverse events due to exposure to a drug and either ultraviolet or visible radiation. Based on their pathogenesis, they can be classified as phototoxic or photoallergic drug eruptions, although in many cases it is not possible to determine whether a particular eruption is due to a phototoxic or photoallergic mechanism.

In this review, the diagnosis, prevention and management of drug-induced photosensitivity are discussed. Diagnosis is based primarily on the history of drug intake and the clinical appearance of the eruption, primarily affecting sun-exposed areas of the skin. Phototesting and photopatch testing can be useful adjuncts in making a diagnosis. The mainstay of management is prevention, including informing patients of the possibility of increased sun sensitivity and the use of sun protective measures. However, once the eruption has occurred, it may be necessary to discontinue the culprit medication and treat the eruption with a potent topical corticosteroid. Drugs that have been implicated in causing photosensitive eruptions are reviewed. Tetracycline, doxycycline, nalidixic acid, voriconazole, amiodarone, hydrochlorothiazide, naproxen, piroxicam, chlorpromazine and thioridazine are among the most commonly implicated medications. We review the medical literature regarding evidence for the culpability of each drug, including the results of phototesting, photopatch testing and rechallenge testing.


  1. 1.
    Selvaag E. Clinical drug photosensitivity: a retrospective analysis of reports to the Norwegian Adverse Drug Reactions Committee from the years 1970–1994. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 1997 Feb–Apr; 13(1–2): 21–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Willis I, Kligman AM. The mechanism of photoallergic contact dermatitis. J Invest Dermatol 1968 Nov; 51(5): 378–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bolognia J, Jorizzo JL, Rapini RP. Dermatology. 2nd ed. St Louis (MO), London: Mosby Elsevier, 2008Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Spielmann H, Balls M, Brand M, et al. EEC/COLIPA project on in vitro phototoxicity testing: first results obtained with a Balb/c 3T3 cell phototoxicity assay. Toxicol In Vitro 1994 Aug; 8(4): 793–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Traynor NJ, Barratt MD, Lovell WW, et al. Comparison of an in vitro cellular phototoxicity model against controlled clinical trials of fluoroquinolone skin phototoxicity. Toxicol In Vitro 2000 Jun; 14(3): 275–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    DeLeo VA, Suarez SM, Maso MJ. Photoallergic contact dermatitis: results of photopatch testing in New York, 1985 to 1990. Arch Dermatol 1992 Nov; 128(11): 1513–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kerr A, Shareef M, Dawe R, et al. Photopatch testing negative in systemic quinine phototoxicity. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 2010 Jun; 26(3): 151–2PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Moore DE. Drug-induced cutaneous photosensitivity: incidence, mechanism, prevention and management. Drug Saf 2002;25(5):345–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tanaka N, Kawada A, Ohnishi Y, et al. Photosensitivity due to doxycycline hydrochloride with an unusual flare. Contact Dermatitis 1997 Aug; 37(2): 93–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ramsay CA, Obreshkova E. Photosensitivity from nalidixic acid. Br J Dermatol 1974 Nov; 91(5): 523–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ferguson J, Johnson BE. Ciprofloxacin-induced photosensitivity: in vitro and in vivo studies. Br J Dermatol 1990 Jul; 123(1): 9–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tokura Y, Iwamoto Y, Mizutani K, et al. Sparfloxacin phototoxicity: potential photoaugmentation by ultraviolet A and B sources. Arch Dermatol Res 1996; 288(1): 45–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Scheife RT, Cramer WR, Decker EL. Photosensitizing potential of ofloxacin. Int J Dermatol 1993 Jun; 32(6): 413–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lee AY, Jung SY. Two patients with isoniazid-induced photosensitive lichenoid eruptions confirmed by photopatch test. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 1998 Apr; 14(2): 77–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Katiyar SK, Bihari S, Prakash S. Pyrazinamide-induced phototoxicity: a case report and review of literature. Indian J Dermatol 2010; 55(1): 113–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Borgia F, Vaccaro M, Guarneri F, et al. Photodistributed telangiectasia following use of cefotaxime. Br J Dermatol 2000 Sep; 143(3): 674–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Stockel S, Meurer M, Wozel G. Dapsone-induced photodermatitis in a patient with linear IgA dermatosis. Eur J Dermatol 2001 Jan–Feb; 11(1): 50–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    De D, Dogra S, Kaur I. Dapsone induced acute photosensitivity dermatitis; a case report and review of literature. Lepr Rev 2007 Dec; 78(4): 401–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kar BR. Dapsone-induced photosensitivity: a rare clinical presentation. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 2008 Oct; 24(5): 270–1PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chandler MJ. Recurrence of phototoxic skin eruption due to trimethoprim [letter]. J Infect Dis 1986 May; 153(5): 1001PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Alvarez-Fernandez JG, Castano-Suarez E, Cornejo-Navarro P, et al. Photosensitivity induced by oral itraconazole. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2000 Nov; 14(6): 501–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lang Jr PG. Quinidine-induced photodermatitis confirmed by photopatch testing. J Am Acad Dermatol 1983 Jul; 9(1): 124–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Armstrong RB, Leach EE, Whitman G, et al. Quinidine photosensitivity. Arch Dermatol 1985 Apr; 121(4): 525–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ljunggren B, Hindsen M, Isaksson M. Systemic quinine photosensitivity with photoepicutaneous cross-reactivity to quinidine. Contact Dermatitis 1992 Jan; 26(1): 1–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ferguson J, Addo HA, Johnson BE, et al. Quinine-induced photosensitivity: clinical and experimental studies. Br J Dermatol 1987 Nov; 117(5): 631–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lisi P, Assalve D, Hansel K. Phototoxic and photoallergic dermatitis caused by hydroxychloroquine. Contact Dermatitis 2004 Apr; 50(4): 255–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Treudler R, Husak R, Raisova M, et al. Efavirenz-induced photoallergic dermatitis in HIV. AIDS 2001 May 25; 15(8): 1085–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Yoshimoto E, Konishi M, Takahashi K, et al. The first case of efavirenz-induced photosensitivity in a Japanese patient with HIV infection. Intern Med 2004 Jul; 43(7): 630–1PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bergner T, Przybilla B. Photosensitization caused by ibuprofen. J Am Acad Dermatol 1992 Jan; 26(1): 114–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    White IR. Photopatch test in a hydrochlorothiazide drug eruption [letter]. Contact Dermatitis 1983 May; 9(3): 237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Addo HA, Ferguson J, Frain-Bell W. Thiazide-induced photosensitivity: a study of 33 subjects. Br J Dermatol 1987 Jun; 116(6): 749–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Heydenreich G, Pindborg T, Schmidt H. Bullous dermatosis among patients with chronic renal failure of high dose frusemide. Acta Med Scand 1977; 202(1–2): 61–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Fernandez de Corres L, Bernaola G, Fernandez E, et al. Photodermatitis from triamterene. Contact Dermatitis 1987 Aug; 17(2): 114–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wagner SN, Welke F, Goos M. Occupational UVA-induced allergic photodermatitis in a welder due to hydrochlorothiazide and ramipril. Contact Dermatitis 2000 Oct; 43(4): 245–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Rodriguez Granados MT, Abalde T, Garcia Doval I, et al. Systemic photosensitivity to quinapril. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2004 May; 18(3): 389–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Collins P, Ferguson J. Photodistributed nifedipine-induced facial telangiectasia. Br J Dermatol 1993 Nov; 129(5): 630–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Zenarola P, Gatti S, Lomuto M. Photodermatitis due to nifedipine: report of 2cases. Dermatologica 1991; 182(3): 196–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Scherschun L, Lee MW, Lim HW. Diltiazem-associated photodistributed hyperpigmentation: a review of 4 cases. Arch Dermatol 2001 Feb; 137(2): 179–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Seggev JS, Lagstein Z. Photosensitivity skin reactions to calcium channel blockers. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1996 Mar; 97(3): 852–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Miyauchi H, Horiki S, Horio T. Clinical and experimental photosensitivity reaction to tilisolol hydrochloride. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 1994 Dec; 10(6): 255–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Mota AV, Vasconcelos C, Correia TM, et al. Rilmenidineinduced photosensitivity reaction. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 1998 Jun–Aug; 14(3-4): 132–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Vaillant L, Le Marchand D, Grognard C, et al. Photosensitivity to methyldopa. Arch Dermatol 1988 Mar; 124(3): 326–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Zachary CB, Slater DN, Holt DW, et al. The pathogenesis of amiodarone-induced pigmentation and photosensitivity. Br J Dermatol 1984 Apr; 110(4): 451–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ferguson J, Addo HA, Jones S, et al. A study of cutaneous photosensitivity induced by amiodarone. Br J Dermatol 1985 Nov; 113(5): 537–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Matsuo I, Ozawa A, Niizuma K, et al. Lichenoid dermatitis due to chlorpromazine phototoxicity. Dermatologica 1979; 159(1): 46–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Raffle EJ, MacLeod TM, Hutchinson F, et al. Chlorpromazine photosensitivity [letter]. Arch Dermatol 1975 Oct; 111(10): 1364–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rohrborn W, Brauninger W. Thioridazine photoallergy [letter]. Contact Dermatitis 1987 Oct; 17(4): 241PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bourrain JL, Paillet C, Woodward C, et al. Diagnosis of photosensitivity to flupenthixol by photoprick testing. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 1997 Aug; 13(4): 159–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ljunggren B, Bojs G. A case of photosensitivity and contact allergy to systemic tricyclic drugs, with unusual features. Contact Dermatitis 1991 Apr; 24(4): 259–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Vilaplana J, Botey E, Lecha M, et al. Photosensitivity induced by paroxetine. Contact Dermatitis 2002 Aug; 47(2): 118–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Doffoel-Hantz V, Boulitrop-Morvan C, Sparsa A, et al. Photosensitivity associated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Clin Exp Dermatol 2009 Dec; 34(8): e763–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Gillet-Terver MN, Modiano P, Trechot P, et al. Fluvoxamine photosensitivity [letter]. Australas J Dermatol 1996 Feb; 37(1): 62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Vaccaro M, Borgia F, Barbuzza O, et al. Photodistributed eruptive telangiectasia: an uncommon adverse drug reaction to venlafaxine. Br J Dermatol 2007 Oct; 157(4): 822–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Watanabe Y, Kawada A, Ohnishi Y, et al. Photosensitivity due to alprazolam with positive oral photochallenge test after 17 days administration. J Am Acad Dermatol 1999 May; 40 (5 Pt 2): 832–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Luton EF, Finchum RN. Photosensitivity reaction to chlordiazepoxide. Arch Dermatol 1965 Apr; 91(4): 362–3Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Rodriguez-Pazos L, Sanchez-Aguilar D, Rodriguez-Granados MT, et al. Erythema multiforme photoinduced by statins. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 2010 Aug; 26(4): 216–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Granados MT, de la Torre C, Cruces MJ, et al. Chronic actinic dermatitis due to simvastatin. Contact Dermatitis 1998 May; 38(5): 294–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Marguery MC, Chouini-Lalanne N, Drugeon C, et al. UVB phototoxic effects induced by atorvastatin. Arch Dermatol 2006 Aug; 142(8): 1082–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Machet L, Vaillant L, Jan V, et al. Fenofibrate-induced photosensitivity: value of photopatch testing. J Am Acad Dermatol 1997 Nov; 37 (5 Pt 1): 808–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Horio T, Murai T, Ikai K. Photosensitivity due to a fluorouracil derivative. Arch Dermatol 1978 Oct; 114(10): 1498–500PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Usuki A, Funasaka Y, Oka M, et al. Tegafur-induced photosensitivity: evaluation of provocation by UVB irradiation. Int J Dermatol 1997 Aug; 36(8): 604–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Horio T, Yokoyama M. Tegaful photosensitivity: lichenoid and eczematous types. Photodermatol 1986 Jun; 3(3): 192–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Martin-Lazaro J, Bujan JG, Arrondo AP, et al. Is photopatch testing useful in the investigation of photosensitivity due to flutamide? Contact Dermatitis 2004 May; 50(5): 325–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Yokote R, Tokura Y, Igarashi N, et al. Photosensitive drug eruption induced by flutamide. Eur J Dermatol 1998 Sep; 8(6): 427–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Yung CW, Winston EM, Lorincz AL. Dacarbazineinduced photosensitivity reaction. J Am Acad Dermatol 1981 May; 4(5): 541–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Breza TS, Halprin KM, Taylor JR. Photosensitivity reaction to vinblastine. Arch Dermatol 1975 Sep; 111(9): 1168–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Balabanova MB. Photoprovoked erythematobullous eruption from farmorubicin. Contact Dermatitis 1994 May; 30(5): 303–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Ferguson J, Johnson BE. Retinoid associated phototoxicity and photosensitivity. Pharmacol Ther 1989; 40(1): 123–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Seishima M, Shibuya Y, Kato G, et al. Photoleukomelanoderma possibly caused by etretinate in a patient with psoriasis. Acta Derm Venereol 2010; 90(1): 85–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Gomez-Bernal S, Loureiro M, Rodriguez-Granados MT, et al. Systemic photosensitivity due to a contraceptive patch. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 2010 Aug; 26(4): 213–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Cooper SM, George S. Photosensitivity reaction associated with use of the combined oral contraceptive. Br J Dermatol 2001 Mar; 144(3): 641–2PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Kondo S, Kagaya M, Yamada Y, et al. UVB photosensitivity due to ranitidine. Dermatology 2000; 201(1): 71–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Horio T. Allergic and photoallergic dermatitis from diphenhydramine. Arch Dermatol 1976 Aug; 112(8): 1124–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kim TH, Kang JS, Lee HS, et al. Two cases of mequitazineinduced photosensitivity reactions. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 1995 Aug; 11(4): 170–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kurumaji Y, Shono M. Drug-induced solar urticaria due to repirinast. Dermatology 1994; 188(2): 117–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Yasuda S, Mizuno N, Kawabe Y, et al. Photosensitive lichenoid reaction accompanied by nonphotosensitive subacute prurigo caused by carbamazepine. Photodermatol 1988 Oct; 5(5): 206–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Sun CC. Photosensitivity due to glyburide. Photodermatol 1988 Feb; 5(1): 42–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Dogra S, Kanwar AJ. Clopidogrel bisulphate-induced photosensitive lichenoid eruption: first report. Br J Dermatol 2003 Mar; 148(3): 609–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Kestel Jr JL. Photo-onycholysis from minocycline: side effects of minocycline therapy. Cutis 1981 Jul; 28(1): 53–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Ibsen HH, Lasthein Andersen B. Photo-onycholysis due to tetracycline-hydrochloride. Acta Derm Venereol 1983; 63(6): 555–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Epstein JH, Seibert JS. Porphyria-like cutaneous changes induced by tetracycline hydrochloride photosensitization. Arch Dermatol 1976 May; 112(5): 661–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Yap LM, Foley PA, Crouch RB, et al. Drug-induced solar urticaria due to tetracycline. Australas J Dermatol 2000 Aug; 41(3): 181–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Henderson CA, Cunliffe WJ. Unusual side-effects in patients receiving doxycycline. J Dermatolog Treat 1989 Jan 1989; 1(2): 95–6Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Layton AM, Cunliffe WJ. Phototoxic eruptions due to doxycycline: a dose-related phenomenon. Clin Exp Dermatol 1993 Sep; 18(5): 425–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Yong CK, Prendiville J, Peacock DL, et al. An unusual presentation of doxycycline-induced photosensitivity. Pediatrics 2000 Jul; 106(1): E13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Burry JN. Persistent phototoxicity due to nalidixic acid [letter]. Arch Dermatol 1974 Feb; 109(2): 263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Birkett DA, Garretts M, Stevenson CJ. Phototoxic bullous eruptions due to nalidixic acid. Br J Dermatol 1969 May; 81(5): 342–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Mehlhorn AJ, Brown DA. Safety concerns with fluoroquinolones. Ann Pharmacother 2007 Nov; 41(11): 1859–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Urbina F, Barrios M, Sudy E. Photolocalized purpura during ciprofloxacin therapy. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 2006 Apr; 22(2): 111–2PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Burdge DR, Nakielna EM, Rabin HR. Photosensitivity associated with ciprofloxacin use in adult patients with cystic fibrosis [letter]. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1995 Mar; 39(3): 793PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Jensen T, Pedersen SS, Nielsen CH, et al. The efficacy and safety of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin in chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis. J Antimicrob Chemother 1987 Oct; 20(4): 585–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Hamanaka H, Mizutani H, Shimizu M. Sparfloxacininduced photosensitivity and the occurrence of a lichenoid tissue reaction after prolonged exposure. J Am Acad Dermatol 1998 Jun; 38 (6Pt 1): 945–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Mahajan VK, Sharma NL. Photo-onycholysis due to sparfloxacin. Australas J Dermatol 2005 May; 46(2): 104–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Dawe RS, Ibbotson SH, Sanderson JB, et al. A randomized controlled trial (volunteer study) of sitafloxacin, enoxacin, levofloxacin and sparfloxacin phototoxicity. Br J Dermatol 2003 Dec; 149(6): 1232–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Liu HH. Safety profile of the fluoroquinolones: focus on levofloxacin. Drug Saf 2010 May 1; 33(5): 353–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Man I, Murphy J, Ferguson J. Fluoroquinolone phototoxicity: a comparison of moxifloxacin and lomefloxacin in normal volunteers. J Antimicrob Chemother 1999 May; 43 Suppl. B: 77–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Van Bambeke F, Tulkens PM. Safety profile of the respiratory fluoroquinolone moxifloxacin: comparison with other fluoroquinolones and other antibacterial classes. Drug Saf 2009; 32(5): 359–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Baran R, Brun P. Photoonycholysis induced by the fluoroquinolones pefloxacine and ofloxacine: report on 2 cases. Dermatologica 1986; 173(4): 185–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Vinks SA, Heijerman HG, de Jonge P, et al. Photosensitivity due to ambulatory intravenous ceftazidime in cystic fibrosis patient. Lancet 1993 May 8; 341(8854): 1221–2PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Dhanapaul S. DDS-induced photosensitivity with reference to six case reports. Lepr Rev 1989 Jun; 60(2): 147–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Fumey SM. Dapsone-induced photodermatitis in a patient with leprosy. Z Hautkr 1988 Jan 18; 63(1): 53–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Joseph MS. Photodermatitis provoked by dapsone: a case report. Lepr Rev 1987 Dec; 58(4): 425–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Tolland JP, McKeown PP, Corbett JR. Voriconazoleinduced pseudoporphyria. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 2007 Feb; 23(1): 29–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Rubenstein M, Levy ML, Metry D. Voriconazole-induced retinoid-like photosensitivity in children. Pediatr Dermatol 2004 Nov–Dec; 21(6): 675–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Racette AJ, Roenigk Jr HH, Hansen R, et al. Photoaging and phototoxicity from long-term voriconazole treatment in a 15-year-old girl. J Am Acad Dermatol 2005 May; 52 (5 Suppl. 1): S81–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Kwong WT, Hsu S. Pseudoporphyria associated with voriconazole. J Drugs Dermatol 2007 Oct; 6(10): 1042–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Frisch S, Askari SK, Beaty SR, et al. X-linked chronic granulomatous disease with voriconazole-induced photosensitivity/ photoaging reaction. J Drugs Dermatol 2010 May; 9(5): 562–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Frick MA, Soler-Palacin P, Nalda AM, et al. Photosensitivity in immunocompromised patients receiving long-term therapy with oral voriconazole. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2010 May; 29(5): 480–1PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Patel AR, Turner ML, Baird K, et al. Voriconazoleinduced phototoxicity masquerading as chronic graftversus-host disease of the skin in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant recipients. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2009 Mar; 15(3): 370–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Miller DD, Cowen EW, Nguyen JC, et al. Melanoma associated with long-term voriconazole therapy: a new manifestation of chronic photosensitivity. Arch Dermatol 2010 Mar; 146(3): 300–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    McCarthy KL, Playford EG, Looke DF, et al. Severe photosensitivity causing multifocal squamous cell carcinomas secondary to prolonged voriconazole therapy. Clin Infect Dis 2007 Mar 1; 44(5): e55–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Cowen EW, Nguyen JC, Miller DD, et al. Chronic phototoxicity and aggressive squamous cell carcinoma of the skin in children and adults during treatment with voriconazole. J Am Acad Dermatol 2010 Jan; 62(1): 31–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Stern RS, Nichols KT, Vakeva LH. Malignant melanoma in patients treated for psoriasis with methoxsalen (psoralen) and ultraviolet A radiation (PUVA). The PUVA Follow-Up Study. N Engl J Med 1997 Apr 10; 336(15): 1041–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Stern RS, Lunder EJ. Risk of squamous cell carcinoma and methoxsalen (psoralen) and UV-A radiation (PUVA): a meta-analysis. Arch Dermatol 1998 Dec; 134(12): 1582–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Mohamed KN. Severe photodermatitis during ketoconazole therapy [letter]. Clin Exp Dermatol 1988 Jan; 13(1): 54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Vassileva SG, Mateev G, Parish LC. Antimicrobial photosensitive reactions. Arch Intern Med 1998 Oct; 158(18): 1993–2000PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Dawson TA. Quinine lichenoid photosensitivity. Clin Exp Dermatol 1986 Nov; 11(6): 670–1PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Guzzo C, Kaidbey K. Persistent light reactivity from systemic quinine. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 1990 Aug; 7(4): 166–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Ljunggren B, Sjovall P. Systemic quinine photosensitivity. Arch Dermatol 1986 Aug; 122(8): 909–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Meyrick Thomas RH, Munro DD. Lichen planus in a photosensitive distribution due to quinine. Clin Exp Dermatol 1986 Jan; 11(1): 97–101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Tan SV, Berth-Jones J, Burns DA. Lichen planus and photo-onycholysis induced by quinine [letter]. Clin Exp Dermatol 1989 Jul; 14(4): 335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Singh G, Fries JF, Williams CA, et al. Toxicity profiles of disease modifying antirheumatic drugs in rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 1991 Feb; 18(2): 188–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Newell A, Avila C, Rodgers ME. Photosensitivity reaction of efavirenz [letter]. Sex Transm Infect 2000 Jun; 76(3): 221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Pappert A, Grossman M, DeLeo V. Photosensitivity as the presenting illness in four patients with human immunodeficiency viral infection. Arch Dermatol 1994 May; 130(5): 618–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Stern RS, Bigby M. An expanded profile of cutaneous reactions to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: reports to a specialty-based system for spontaneous reporting of adverse reactions to drugs. JAMA 1984 Sep 21; 252(11): 1433–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Levy ML, Barron KS, Eichenfield A, et al. Naproxeninduced pseudoporphyria: a distinctive photodermatitis. J Pediatr 1990 Oct; 117(4): 660–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Chishiki M, Kawada A, Fujioka A, et al. Photosensitivity due to ampiroxicam. Dermatology 1997; 195(4): 409–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Ingrish G, Rietschel RL. Oxaprozin-induced pseudoporphyria. Arch Dermatol 1996 Dec; 132(12): 1519–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Cron RQ, Finkel TH. Nabumetone induced pseudoporphyria in childhood. J Rheumatol 2000 Jul; 27(7): 1817–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Krischer J, Scolari F, Kondo-Oestreicher M, et al. Pseudoporphyria induced by nabumetone. J Am Acad Dermatol 1999 Mar; 40(3): 492–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Cummins R, Wagner-Weiner L, Paller A. Pseudoporphyria induced by celecoxib in a patient with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 2000 Dec; 27(12): 2938–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Yazici AC, Baz K, Ikizoglu G, et al. Celecoxib-induced photoallergic drug eruption. Int J Dermatol 2004 Jun; 43(6): 459–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Al-Khenaizan S, Schechter JF, Sasseville D. Pseudoporphyria induced by propionic acid derivatives. J Cutan Med Surg 1999 Jan; 3(3): 162–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Johnston GA. Thiazide-induced lichenoid photosensitivity. Clin Exp Dermatol 2002 Nov; 27(8): 670–2PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Robinson HN, Morison WL, Hood AF. Thiazide diuretic therapy and chronic photosensitivity. Arch Dermatol 1985 Apr; 121(4): 522–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Burry JN, Lawrence JR. Phototoxic blisters from high frusemide dosage. Br J Dermatol 1976 May; 94(5): 495–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Rutherford T, Sinclair R. Photo-onycholysis due to indapamide. Australas J Dermatol 2007 Feb; 48(1): 35–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Kanwar AJ, Dhar S, Ghosh S. Photosensitive lichenoid eruption due to enalapril [letter]. Dermatology 1993; 187(1): 80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Frye CB, Pettigrew TJ. Angioedema and photosensitive rash induced by valsartan. Pharmacotherapy 1998 Jul–Aug; 18(4): 866–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Grabczynska SA, Cowley N. Amlodipine inducedphotosensitivity presenting as telangiectasia. Br J Dermatol 2000 Jun; 142(6): 1255–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Basarab T, Yu R, Jones RR. Calcium antagonist-induced photo-exposed telangiectasia. Br J Dermatol 1997 Jun; 136(6): 974–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Boyer M, Katta R, Markus R. Diltiazem-induced photodistributed hyperpigmentation. Dermatol Online J 2003 Dec; 9(5): 10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Harris L, McKenna WJ, Rowland E, et al. Side effects of long-term amiodarone therapy. Circulation 1983 Jan; 67(1): 45–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Chalmers RJ, Muston HL, Srinivas V, et al. High incidence of amiodarone-induced photosensitivity in North-West England [short report]. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1982 Jul 31; 285(6338): 341Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Rappersberger K, Honigsmann H, Ortel B, et al. Photosensitivity and hyperpigmentation in amiodarone-treated patients: incidence, time course, and recovery. J Invest Dermatol 1989 Aug; 93(2): 201–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Bongard V, Marc D, Philippe V, et al. Incidence rate of adverse drug reactions during long-term follow-up of patients newly treated with amiodarone. Am J Ther 2006 Jul–Aug; 13(4): 315–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Yones SS, O’Donoghue NB, Palmer RA, et al. Persistent severe amiodarone-induced photosensitivity. Clin Exp Dermatol 2005 Sep; 30(5): 500–2PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Trimble JW, Mendelson DS, Fetter BF, et al. Cutaneous pigmentation secondary to amiodarone therapy. Arch Dermatol 1983 Nov; 1149(11): 914–8Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Wolf R, Dorfman B, Krakowski A. Quinidine-induced lichenoid and eczematous photodermatitis. Dermatologica 1987; 174(6): 285–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Bruce S, Wolf Jr JE. Quinidine-induced photosensitive livedo reticularis-like eruption. J Am Acad Dermatol 1985 Feb; 12 (2 Pt 1): 332–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Satanove A, McIntosh JS. Phototoxic reactions induced by high doses of chlorpromazine and thioridazine. JAMA 1967 Apr 17; 200(3): 209–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Epstein JH, Brunsting LA, Petersen MC, et al. A study of photosensitivity occurring with chlorpromazine therapy. J Invest Dermatol 1957 May; 28(5): 329–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Gielen K, Goossens A. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from drugs in healthcare workers. Contact Dermatitis 2001 Nov; 45(5): 273–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Lovell CR, Cronin E, Rhodes EL. Photocontact urticaria from chlorpromazine. Contact Dermatitis 1986 May; 14(5): 290–1PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Gregoriou S, Karagiorga T, Stratigos A, et al. Photoonycholysis caused by olanzapine and aripiprazole. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2008 Apr; 28(2): 219–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Howanitz E, Pardo M, Losonczy M. Photosensitivity to clozapine [letter]. J Clin Psychiatry 1995 Dec; 56(12): 589PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Sicari MC, Lebwohl M, Baral J, et al. Photoinduced dermal pigmentation in patients taking tricyclic antidepressants: histology, electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. J Am Acad Dermatol 1999 Feb; 40 (2 Pt 2): 290–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Walter-Ryan WG, Kern III EE, Shirriff JR, et al. Persistent photoaggravated cutaneous eruption induced by imipramine. JAMA 1985 Jul 19; 254(3): 357–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Ram-Wolf C, Mahe E, Saiag P. Escitalopram photoinduced erythroderma. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2008 Aug; 22(8): 1015–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Gaufberg E, Ellison JM. Photosensitivity reaction to fluoxetine [letter]. J Clin Psychiatry 1995 Oct; 56(10): 486PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Lin NC, Chou JY, Chen H, et al. Sertraline-induced photoallergic reaction. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2009 Feb; 29(1): 95–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Inaloz HS, Kirtak N, Herken H, et al. Citalopram-induced photopigmentation. J Dermatol 2001 Dec; 28(12): 742–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Case JD, Yusk JW, Callen JP. Photosensitive reaction to phenelzine: a case report. Photodermatol 1988 Apr; 5(2): 101–2PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Kanwar AJ, Gupta R, Das Mehta S, et al. Photosensitivity due to alprazolam [letter]. Dermatologica 1990; 181(1): 75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Holme SA, Pearse AD, Anstey AV. Chronic actinic dermatitis secondary to simvastatin. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 2002 Dec; 18(6): 313–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Gardeazabal J, Gonzalez M, Izu R, et al. Phenofibrateinduced lichenoid photodermatitis. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 1993 Aug; 9(4): 156–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Leenutaphong V, Manuskiatti W. Fenofibrate-induced photosensitivity. J Am Acad Dermatol 1996 Nov; 35 (5 Pt 1): 775–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Chang CH, Chang JW, Hui CY, et al. Severe photosensitivity reaction to vandetanib. J Clin Oncol 2009 Sep 20; 27(27): e114–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Rousselot P, Larghero J, Raffoux E, et al. Photosensitization in chronic myelogenous leukaemia patients treated with imatinib mesylate. Br J Haematol 2003 Mar; 120(6): 1091–2PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Falkson G, Schulz EJ. Skin changes in patients treated with 5-fluorouracil. Br J Dermatol 1962 Jun; 74: 229–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Hague JS, Ilchyshyn A. Lichenoid photosensitive eruption due to capecitabine chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer. Clin Exp Dermatol 2007 Jan; 32(1): 102–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Willey A, Glusac EJ, Bolognia JL. Photoeruption in a patient treated with capecitabine (Xeloda) for metastatic breast cancer [letter]. J Am Acad Dermatol 2002 Sep; 47(3): 453PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Tsoussis S, Vourliotaki I, Ekonomidou F, et al. Capecitabine as an alternative in a case of fluorouracil-induced photodermatitis. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 2006 Mar; 18(2): 158–9Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Cohen PR. Photodistributed erythema multiforme: paclitaxel-related, photosensitive conditions in patients with cancer. J Drugs Dermatol 2009 Jan; 8(1): 61–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Hussain S, Anderson DN, Salvatti ME, et al. Onycholysis as a complication of systemic chemotherapy: report of five cases associated with prolonged weekly paclitaxel therapy and review of the literature. Cancer 2000 May 15; 88(10): 2367–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Leon-Mateos A, Zulaica A, Caeiro JL, et al. Photo-induced granulomatous eruption by hydroxyurea. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2007 Nov; 21(10): 1428–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Buesa JM, Gracia M, Valle M, et al. Phase I trial of intermittent high-dose dacarbazine. Cancer Treat Rep 1984 Mar; 68(3): 499–504PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Serrano G, Aliaga A, Febrer I, et al. Dacarbazine-induced photosensitivity. Photodermatol 1989 Jun; 6(3): 140–1PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Leroy D, Dompmartin A, Szczurko C. Flutamide photosensitivity. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 1996 Oct; 12(5): 216–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Shah N, Zambidis ET. False-photosensitivity and transient hemiparesis following high-dose intravenous and intrathecal methotrexate for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2009 Jul; 53(1): 103–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Kharfan Dabaja MA, Morgensztern D, Markoe AM, et al. Radiation recall dermatitis induced by methotrexate in a patient with Hodgkin’s disease. Am J Clin Oncol 2000 Oct; 23(5): 531–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Hird AE, Wilson J, Symons S, et al. Radiation recall dermatitis: case report and review of the literature. Curr Oncol 2008 Jan; 15(1): 53–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Wong RC, Gilbert M, Woo TY, et al. Photosensitivity and isotretinoin therapy. J Am Acad Dermatol 1986 Jun; 14(6): 1095–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Balagula Y, Newman SB, Lacouture ME. Photodermatosis associated with eculizumab (Soliris): a novel monoclonal antibody directed against the complement protein C 5. Am J Hematol 2010 May; 85(5): 392–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Rivarola de Gutierrez E, Abaca H. Photodistributed lichenoid drug eruption with rhabdomyolysis occurring during leflunomide therapy. Dermatology 2004; 208(3): 232–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Horiuchi Y, Shimakura S. Mesalazine and photosensitivity. Am J Gastroenterol 1999 Nov; 94(11): 3386–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Lowe NJ, Fakouhi TD, Stern RS, et al. Photoreactions with a fluoroquinolone antimicrobial: evening versus morning dosing. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1994 Nov; 56(5): 587–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Collins P, Ferguson J. Narrow-band UVB (TL-01) phototherapy: an effective preventative treatment for the photodermatoses. Br J Dermatol 1995 Jun; 132(6): 956–63PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis Data Information BV 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aaron M. Drucker
    • 1
  • Cheryl F. Rosen
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of DermatologyUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Division of DermatologyToronto Western HospitalTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations