Sports Medicine

, Volume 41, Issue 8, pp 641–671 | Cite as

The Pleasure and Displeasure People Feel When they Exercise at Different Intensities

Decennial Update and Progress towards a Tripartite Rationale for Exercise Intensity Prescription
  • Panteleimon Ekkekakis
  • Gaynor Parfitt
  • Steven J. Petruzzello
Review Article

Abstract

The public health problem of physical inactivity has proven resistant to research efforts aimed at elucidating its causes and interventions designed to alter its course. Thus, in most industrialized countries, the majority of the population is physically inactive or inadequately active. Most theoretical models of exercise behaviour assume that the decision to engage in exercise is based on cognitive factors (e.g. weighing pros and cons, appraising personal capabilities, evaluating sources of support). Another, still-under-appreciated, possibility is that these decisions are influenced by affective variables, such as whether previous exercise experiences were associated with pleasure or displeasure. This review examines 33 articles published from 1999 to 2009 on the relationship between exercise intensity and affective responses. Unlike 31 studies that were published until 1998 and were examined in a 1999 review, these more recent studies have provided evidence of a relation between the intensity of exercise and affective responses. Pleasure is reduced mainly above the ventilatory or lactate threshold or the onset of blood lactate accumulation. There are pleasant changes at sub-threshold intensities for most individuals, large inter-individual variability close to the ventilatory or lactate threshold and homogeneously negative changes at supra-threshold intensities. When the intensity is self-selected, rather than imposed, it appears to foster greater tolerance to higher intensity levels. The evidence of a doseresponse relation between exercise intensity and affect sets the stage for a reconsideration of the rationale behind current guidelines for exercise intensity prescription. Besides effectiveness and safety, it is becoming increasingly clear that the guidelines should take into account whether a certain level of exercise intensity would be likely to cause increases or decreases in pleasure.

References

  1. 1.
    Morris JN. Exercise in the prevention of coronary heart disease: today’s best buy in public health. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1994; 26: 807–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Miles L. Physical activity and health. Nutr Bull 2007; 32: 314–63Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pedersen BK, Saltin B. Evidence for prescribing exercise as therapy in chronic disease. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2006; 16 Suppl.1: 3–63Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Warburton DER, Katzmarzyk PT, Rhodes RE, et al. Evidence-informed physical activity guidelines for Canadianadults. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2007; 32: S16–68Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dishman RK. The problem of exercise adherence: fighting sloth in nations with market economies. Quest 2001; 53: 279–94Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bauman A, Armstrong T, Davies J, et al. Trends in physical activity participation and the impact of integrated campaignsamong Australian adults, 1997-99. Aust N Z JPublic Health 2003; 27: 76–9Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Brownson RC, Boehmer TK, Luke DA. Declining rates of physical activity in the United States: what are the contributors? Annu Rev Public Health 2005; 26: 421–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Craig CL, Russell SJ, Cameron C, et al. Twenty-year trend in physical activity among Canadian adults. Can J Public Health 2004; 95: 59–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Merom D, Phongsavan P, Chey T, et al. Long-term changes in leisure-time walking, moderate and vigorous exercise:were they influenced by the national physical activityguidelines? J Sci Med Sport 2006; 9: 199–208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Stamatakis E, Ekelund U, Wareham NJ. Temporal trends in physical activity in England: the Health Survey for England, 1991 to 2004. Prev Med 2007; 45: 416–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Blair SN. Physical inactivity: the biggest public health problem of the 21st century. Br J Sports Med 2009; 43: 1–2PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    United Kingdom Department of Health, Physical Activity, Health Improvement and Prevention. At least five a week:evidence on the impact of physical activity and its relationshipto health, a report from the Chief Medical Officer, 2004 [online]. Available from URL: http://www.dh.gov.uk [Accessed2011 Jun 16]Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dishman RK, Buckworth J. Increasing physical activity: a quantitative synthesis. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1996; 28: 706–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Marcus BH, Williams DM, Dubbert PM, et al. Physical activity intervention studies: what we know and what weneed to know. Circulation 2006; 114: 2739–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Newsom JT, McFarland BH, Kaplan MS, et al. The health consciousness myth: implications of the near independenceof major health behaviors in the North Americanpopulation. Soc Sci Med 2005; 60: 433–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dishman RK, Sallis JF, Orenstein DR. The determinants of physical activity and exercise. Public Health Rep 1985; 100: 158–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dishman RK. Determinants of participation in physical activity. In: Bouchard C, Shephard RJ, Stephens T, et al., editors. Exercise, fitness, and health: a consensus of currentknowledge. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics, 1990: 75–101Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Williams DM, Dunsiger S, Ciccolo JT, et al. Acute affective response to a moderate-intensity exercise stimulus predictsphysical activity participation 6 and 12 months later. Psychol Sport Exerc 2008; 9: 231–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hardy CJ, Rejeski WJ. Not what, but how one feels: the measurement of affect during exercise. J Sport Exerc Psychol 1989; 11: 304–17Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Schneider M, Dunn A, Cooper D. Affect, exercise, and physical activity among healthy adolescents. J Sport Exerc Psychol 2009; 31: 706–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kwan BM, Bryan A. In-task and post-task affective response to exercise: translating exercise intentions into behaviour. Br J Health Psychol 2010; 15: 115–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ekkekakis P, Petruzzello SJ. Acute aerobic exercise and affect: current status, problems, and prospects regardingdose-response. Sports Med 1999; 28: 337–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM’s guidelines for exercise testing and prescription (7th ed.). Philadelphia(PA): Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2006Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rhodes RE, Warburton DER, Murray H. Characteristics of physical activity guidelines and their effect on adherence: areview of randomized trials. Sports Med 2009; 39: 355–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cox KL, Burke V, Gorely TJ, et al. Controlled comparison of retention and adherence in home- vs center-initiatedexercise interventions in women ages 40-65 years: the S.W.E.A.T. study (Sedentary Women Exercise Adherence Trial). Prev Med 2003; 36: 17–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lee JY, Jensen BE, Oberman A, et al. Adherence in the Training Levels Comparison Trial. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1996; 28: 47–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Perri MG, Anton SD, Durning PE, et al. Adherence to exercise prescriptions: effects of prescribing moderateversus higher levels of intensity and frequency. Health Psychol 2002; 21: 452–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sallis JF, Haskell WL, Fortmann SP, et al. Predictors of adoption and maintenance of physical activity in a communitysample. Prev Med 1986; 15: 331–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pollock ML. How much exercise is enough? Phys Sportsmed 1978; 6: 50–64Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    United States Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2010. 2nd ed., Vol. 2. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dishman RK. Compliance/adherence in health-related exercise. Health Psychol 1982; 1: 237–67Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Dishman RK. Health psychology and exercise adherence. Quest 1982; 33: 166–80Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM’s guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. 8th ed. Philadelphia(PA): Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2010Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kirkcaldy BC, Shephard RJ. Therapeutic implications of exercise. Int J Sport Psychol 1990; 21: 165–84Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ojanen M. Can the true effects of exercise on psychological variables be separated from placebo effects? Int J Sport Psychol 1994; 25: 63–80Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Saklofske DH, Blomme GC, Kelly IW. The effects of exercise and relaxation on energetic and tense arousal. Pers Individ Dif 1992; 13: 623–5Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Thayer RE. Energy, tiredness, and tension effects of a sugar snack versus moderate exercise. J Pers Soc Psychol 1987; 52: 119–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ekkekakis P, Hall EE, Van Landuyt LM, et al. Walking in (affective) circles: can short walks enhance affect? J Behav Med 2000; 23: 245–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ekkekakis P, Backhouse SH, Gray C, et al. Walking is popular among adults but is it pleasant? A framework forclarifying the link between walking and affect as illustratedin two studies. Psychol Sport Exerc 2008; 9: 246–64Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Focht BC. Brief walks in outdoor and laboratory environments: effects on affective responses, enjoyment, andintentions to walk for exercise. Res Q Exerc Sport 2009; 80: 611–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Reed J, Ones DS. The effect of acute aerobic exercise on positive activated affect: a meta-analysis. Psychol Sport Exerc 2006; 7: 477–514Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Pronk NP, Crouse SF, Rohack JJ. Maximal exercise and acute mood response in women. Physiol Behav 1995; 57Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Van Landuyt LM, Ekkekakis P, Hall EE, et al. Throwing the mountains into the lakes: on the perils of nomotheticconceptions of the exercise-affect relationship. J Sport Exerc Psychol 2000; 22: 208–34Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gauvin L, Brawley LR. Alternative psychological models and methodologies for the study of exercise and affect. In: Seraganian P, editor. Exercise psychology: the influenceof physical exercise on psychological processes. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1993: 146–71Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ekkekakis P, Hall EE, Petruzzello SJ. Variation and homogeneity in affective responses to physical activity ofvarying intensities: an alternative perspective on doseresponsebased on evolutionary considerations. J Sports Sci 2005; 23: 477–500PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ekkekakis P, Hall EE, Petruzzello SJ. Some like it vigorous: individual differences in the preference for and toleranceof exercise intensity. J Sport Exerc Psychol 2005; 27: 350–74Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ekkekakis P, Petruzzello SJ. Analysis of the affect measurement conundrum in exercise psychology: I. Fundamental issues. Psychol Sport Exerc 2000; 1: 71–88Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Backhouse SH, Ekkekakis P, Biddle SJH, et al. Exercise makes people feel better but people are inactive: paradoxor artifact? J Sport Exerc Psychol 2007; 29: 498–517PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Bixby WR, Spalding TW, Hatfield BD. Temporal dynamics and dimensional specificity of the affective response to exerciseof varying intensity: differing pathways to a commonoutcome. J Sport Exerc Psychol 2001; 23: 171–90Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Katch V, Weltman A, Sady S, et al. Validity of the relative percent concept for equating training intensity. Eur JAppl Physiol 1978; 39: 219–27Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Coplan NL, Gleim GW, Nicholas JA. Using exercise respiratory measurements to compare methods of exerciseprescription. Am J Cardiol 1986; 58: 832–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Dwyer J. Metabolic character of exercise at traditional training intensities in cardiac patients and healthy persons. J Cardiopulm Rehabil 1994; 14: 189–96Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Dwyer J, Bybee R. Heart rate indices of the anaerobic threshold. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1983; 15: 72–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Goldberg L, Elliot DL, Kuehl KS. Assessment of exercise intensity formulas by use of ventilatory threshold. Chest 1988; 94: 95–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    McConnell TR, Clark BA, Conlin NC, et al. Gas exchange anaerobic threshold: implications for prescribing exercisein cardiac rehabilitation. J Cardiopulm Rehabil 1993; 13: 31–6Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Meyer T, Gabriel HHW, Kindermann W. Is determination of exercise intensities as percentages of. VO2max of HRmaxadequate? Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999; 31: 1342–5Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Normandin EA, Camaione DN, Clark BA, et al. A comparison of conventional versus anaerobic threshold exerciseprescription methods in subjects with left ventricular dysfunction. J Cardiopulm Rehabil 1993; 13: 110–6Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Whipp BJ. Domains of aerobic function and their limiting parameters. In: Steinacker JM, Ward SA, editors. The physiology and pathophysiology of exercise tolerance. New York: Plenum, 1996: 83–9Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Gaesser GA, Poole DC. The slow component of oxygen uptake kinetics in humans. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 1996; 24: 35–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Ekkekakis P, Petruzzello SJ. Analysis of the affect measurement conundrum in exercise psychology: IV. A conceptualcase for the affect circumplex. Psychol Sport Exerc 2002; 3: 35–63Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Annesi JJ. Effects of differing durations and intensities of cardiovascular exercise on aversion and feeling states innew women exercisers. Percept Mot Skills 2002; 94: 735–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kerr JH, Kuk G. The effects of low and high intensity exercise on emotions, stress and effort. Psychol Sport Exerc 2001; 2: 173–86Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Wininger SR. Improvement of affect following exercise: methodological artifact or real finding? Anxiety Stress Coping 2007; 20: 93–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Dyrlund AK, Wininger SR. The effects of music preference and exercise intensity on psychological variables. J Music Ther 2008; 45: 114–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Focht BC, Hausenblas HA. State anxiety responses to acute exercise in women with high social physique anxiety. J Sport Exerc Psychol 2003; 25: 123–44Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Focht BC, Hausenblas HA. Exercising in public and private environments: effects on feeling states in women with socialphysique anxiety. J Appl Biobehav Res 2006; 11: 147–65Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Lind E, Ekkekakis P, Vazou S. The affective impact of exercise intensity that slightly exceeds the preferred level: ‘pain’ for noadded ‘gain’. J Health Psychol 2008; 13: 464–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Parfitt G, Rose EA, Markland D. The effect of prescribed and preferred intensity exercise on psychological affectand the influence of baseline measures of affect. J Health Psychol 2000; 5: 231–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Cox RH, Thomas TR, Hinton PS, et al. Effects of acute 60 and 80% V̇O2max bouts of aerobic exercise on stateanxiety of women of different age groups across time. ResQ Exerc Sport 2004; 75: 165–75Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Cox RH, Thomas TR, Hinton PS, et al. Effects of acute bouts of aerobic exercise of varied intensity on subjectivemood experiences in women of different age groups acrosstime. J Sport Behav 2006; 29: 40–59Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Katula JA, Blissmer BJ, McAuley E. Exercise intensity and self-efficacy effects on anxiety reduction in healthy, olderadults. J Behav Med 1999; 22: 233–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    McAuley E, Blissmer B, Katula J, et al. Exercise environment, self-efficacy, and affective responses to acute exercisein older adults. Psychol Health 2000; 15: 341–55Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Lochbaum MR, Karoly P, Landers DM. Affect responses to acute bouts of aerobic exercise: a test of opponentprocesstheory. J Sport Behav 2004; 27: 330–48Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Lochbaum MR. Viability of resting electroencephalograph asymmetry as a predictor of exercise-induced affect: a lackof consistent support. J Sport Behav 2006; 29: 315–36Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Blanchard CM, Rodgers WM, Spence JC, et al. Feeling state responses to acute exercise of high and low intensity. J Sci Med Sport 2001; 4: 30–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Blanchard CM, Rodgers WM, Courneya KS, et al. Moderators of the exercise/feeling-state relationship: the influenceof self-efficacy, baseline, and in-task feeling statesat moderate- and high-intensity exercise. J Appl Soc Psychol 2002; 32: 1379–95Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Daley AJ, Huffen C. The effects of low and moderate intensity exercise on subjective experiences in a naturalistichealth and fitness club setting. J Health Psychol 2003; 8: 685–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Daley AJ, Welch A. Subjective exercise experiences during and after high and low intensity exercise in active andinactive adult females. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2003; 43: 220–2PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Dunn EC, McAuley E. Affective responses to exercise bouts of varying intensities. J Soc Behav Pers 2000; 15: 201–14Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Kilpatrick M, Hebert E, Bartholomew J, et al. Effect of exertional trend during cycle ergometry on postexerciseaffect. Res Q Exerc Sport 2003; 74: 353–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Oweis P, Spinks W. Biopsychological, affective and cognitive responses to acute physical activity. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2001; 41: 528–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Smith JC, O’Connor PJ, Crabbe JB, et al. Emotional responsiveness after low- and moderate-intensity exerciseand seated rest. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2002; 34: 1158–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Tieman JG, Peacock LJ, Peacock LJ, et al. The influence of exercise intensity and physical activity history on stateanxiety after exercise. Int J Sport Psychol 2002; 33: 155–66Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Thayer RE. The biopsychology of mood and arousal. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Gauvin L, Rejeski WJ. The Exercise-induced Feeling Inventory: development and initial validation. J Sport Exerc Psychol 1993; 15: 403–23Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Spielberger CD, Gorsuch RL, Lushene RE. Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Palo Alto (CA): Consulting Psychologists, 1970Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Bradley MM, Lang PJ. Measuring emotion: the Self- Assessment Manikin and the Semantic Differential. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 1994; 25: 49–59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    McAuley E, Courneya KS. The Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale (SEES): development and preliminaryvalidation. J Sport Exerc Psychol 1994; 16: 163–77Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Bixby WR, Lochbaum MR. Affect responses to acute bouts of aerobic exercise in fit and unfit participants: anexamination of opponent-process theory. J Sport Behav 2006; 29: 111–25Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Blanchard CM, Rodgers WM, Wilson PM, et al. Does equating total Vol. of work between two different exerciseconditions matter when examining exercise-inducedfeeling states? Res Q Exerc Sport 2004; 75: 209–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Ekkekakis P, Hall EE, Petruzzello SJ. The relationship between exercise intensity and affective responses demystified:to crack the forty-year-old nut, replace the fortyyear-old nutcracker! Ann Behav Med 2008; 35: 136–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Kilpatrick M, Jarreau D, Bartholomew J, et al. Comparing exercise bouts of different intensities and durations onpost-exercise mood [abstract]. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2004; 36: S286–7Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Kilpatrick MW, Kraemer RR, Bartholomew JB, et al. Affective responses to exercise are dependent on intensityrather than total work. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2007; 39: 1417–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Parfitt G, Rose EA, Burgess WM. The psychological and physiological responses of sedentary individuals to prescribedand preferred intensity exercise. Br J Health Psychol 2006; 11: 39–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Rose EA, Parfitt G. A quantitative analysis and qualitative explanation of the individual differences in affective responsesto prescribed and self-selected exercise intensities. J Sport Exerc Psychol 2007; 29: 281–309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Schneider M, Graham D. Personality, physical fitness, and affective response to exercise among adolescents. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2009; 41: 947–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Sheppard KE, Parfitt G. Affective responses to prescribed and self-selected exercise intensities in young adolescentboys and girls. Pediatr Exerc Sci 2008; 20: 129–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Watson D, Clark LA, Tellegen A. Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect:the PANAS scales. J Pers Soc Psychol 1988; 54: 1063–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Folstein MF, Luria R. Reliability, validity, and clinical application of the Visual Analogue Mood Scale. Psychol Med 1973; 3: 479–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Acevedo EO, Kraemer RR, Haltom RW, et al. Perceptual responses proximal to the onset of blood lactate accumulation. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2003; 43: 267–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Acevedo EO, Kraemer RR, Kamimori GH, et al. Stress hormones, effort sense, and perceptions of stress duringincremental exercise: an exploratory investigation. JStrength Cond Res 2007; 21: 283–8Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Ekkekakis P, Hall EE, Petruzzello SJ. Practical markers of the transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolismduring exercise: rationale and a case for affect-based exerciseprescription. Prev Med 2004; 38: 149–59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Ekkekakis P, Lind E, Vazou S. Affective responses to increasing levels of exercise intensity in normal-weight,overweight, and obese middle-aged women. Obesity 2010; 18: 79–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Hall EE, Ekkekakis P, Petruzzello SJ. The affective beneficence of vigorous exercise revisited. Br J Health Psychol 2002; 7: 47–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Hall EE, Folger SE, Miller PC, et al. Affective responses to a graded exercise test on a recumbent bicycle: when do I startto feel bad [abstract]? Med Sci Sports Exerc 2004; 36: S166Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Sheppard KE, Parfitt G. Patterning of physiological and affective responses during a graded exercise test in sedentarymen and boys. J Exerc Sci Fitness 2008; 6: 121–9Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Welch AS, Hulley A, Ferguson C, et al. Affective responses of inactive women to a maximal incremental exercise test:a test of the dual-mode model. Psychol Sport Exerc 2007; 8: 401–23Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Borg G. Borg’s perceived exertion and pain scales. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics, 1998Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Ekkekakis P. Let them roam free? Physiological and psychological evidence for the potential of self-selected exercise intensity in public health. Sports Med 2009; 39: 857–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Jones AM, Doust JH. Limitations to submaximal exercise performance. In: Eston R, Reilly T, editors. Kinanthropometry and exercise physiology laboratory manual:tests, procedures and data. Vol. 2. London: Routledge, 2001: 280–318Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Wyatt FB. Comparison of lactate and ventilatory threshold to maximal oxygen consumption: a meta-analysis. JStrength Cond Res 1999; 13: 67–71Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Svedahl K, MacIntosh BR. Anaerobic threshold: the concept and methods of measurement. Can J Appl Physiol 2003; 28: 299–323PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    de Geus EJC, de Moor MHM. A genetic perspective on the association between exercise and mental health. Ment Health Phys Act 2008; 1: 53–61Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Morgan WP, O’Connor PJ. Exercise and mental health. In: Dishman RK, editor. Exercise adherence: its impact on public health. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics, 1988: 91–121Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Ekkekakis P, Thome J, Hall EE, et al. The Preference for and Tolerance of the Intensity of Exercise Questionnaire:a psychometric evaluation among college women. J Sports Sci 2008; 26: 499–510PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Ekkekakis P, Lind E, Joens-Matre RR. Can self-reported preference for exercise intensity predict physiologicallydefined self-selected exercise intensity? Res Q Exerc Sport 2006; 77: 81–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Ekkekakis P, Lind E, Hall EE, et al. Can self-reported tolerance of exercise intensity play a role in exercise testing? Med Sci Sports Exerc 2007; 39: 1193–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Legrand FD, Bertucci WM, Thatcher J. Telic dominance influences affective response to a heavy-intensity 10-mintreadmill running session. J Sports Sci 2009; 27: 1059–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Dishman RK, Farquhar RP, Cureton KJ. Responses to preferred intensities of exertion inmen differing in activitylevels. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1994; 26: 783–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Williams DM. Exercise, affect, and adherence: an integrated model and a case for self-paced exercise. J Sport Exerc Psychol 2008; 30: 471–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Cabanac M. Exertion and pleasure from an evolutionary perspective. In: Acevedo EO, Ekkekakis P, editors. Psychobiology of physical activity. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics, 2006: 79–89Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Farrell PA, Wilmore JH, Coyle EF, et al. Plasma lactate accumulation and distance running performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1979; 11: 338–44Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Tanaka K, Matsuura Y. Marathon performance, anaerobic threshold, and onset of blood lactate accumulation. JAppl Physiol 1984; 57: 640–3Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Lind E, Joens-Matre RR, Ekkekakis P. What intensity of physical activity do formerly sedentary middle-agedwomen select? Evidence of a coherent pattern from physiological,perceptual, and affective markers. Prev Med 2005; 40: 407–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Deci EL, Ryan RM. The ‘what’ and ‘why’ of goal pursuits: human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychol Inq 2000; 11: 227–68Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Vazou-Ekkekakis S, Ekkekakis P. Affective consequences of imposing the intensity of physical activity: does the lossof perceived autonomy matter? Hell J Psychol 2009; 6: 125–44Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Rose EA, Parfitt G. Can the Feeling Scale be used to regulate exercise intensity? Med Sci Sports Exerc 2008; 40: 1852–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Ekkekakis P. Pleasure and displeasure from the body: perspectives from exercise. Cogn Emot 2003; 17: 213–39Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Ekkekakis P. The study of affective responses to acute exercise: the dual-mode model. In: Stelter R, Roessler KK, editors. New approaches to sport and exercise psychology. Oxford: Meyer & Meyer, 2005: 119–46Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Ekkekakis P, Acevedo EO. Affective responses to acute exercise: toward a psychobiological dose-response model. In: Acevedo EO, Ekkekakis P, editors. Psychobiology of physicalactivity. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics, 2006: 91–109Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Meyer T, Lucía A, Earnest CP, et al. A conceptual framework for performance diagnosis and training prescriptionfrom submaximal gas exchange parameters: theory andapplication. Int J Sports Med 2005; 26 ( Suppl.1): S38–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Hu L, Motl RW, McAuley E, et al. Effects of self-efficacy on physical activity enjoyment in college-aged women. IntJ Behav Med 2007; 14: 92–6Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Jerome GJ, Marquez DX, McAuley E, et al. Self-efficacy effects on feeling states in women. Int J Behav Med 2002; 9: 139–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Martin Ginis KA, Burke SM, Gauvin L. Exercising with others exacerbates the negative effects of mirrored environmentson sedentary women’s feeling states. Psychol Health 2007; 22: 945–62Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Raedeke TD, Focht BC, Scales D. Social environmental factors and psychological responses to acute exercise forsocially physique anxious females. Psychol Sport Exerc 2007; 8: 463–76Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Lutz R, Lochbaum M, Turnbow K. The role of relative autonomy in post-exercise affect responding. J Sport Behav 2003; 26: 137–54Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Petruzzello SJ, Hall EE, Ekkekakis P. Regional brain activation as a biological marker of affective responsivity toacute exercise: influence of fitness. Psychophysiology 2001; 38: 99–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Hall EE, Ekkekakis P, Petruzzello SJ. Regional brain activity and strenuous exercise: predicting affective responses usingEEG asymmetry. Biol Psychol 2007; 75: 194–200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Ekkekakis P. The genetic tidal wave finally reached our shores: will it be the catalyst for a critical overhaul of theway we think and do science? Ment Health Phys Act 2008; 1: 47–52Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Ekkekakis P. Illuminating the black box: investigating prefrontal cortical hemodynamics during exercise withnear-infrared spectroscopy. J Sport Exerc Psychol 2009; 31: 505–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Bhambhani Y, Malik R, Mookerjee S. Cerebral oxygenation declines at exercise intensities above the respiratorycompensation threshold. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 2007; 156: 196–202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Perrey S. Non-invasive NIR spectroscopy of human brain function during exercise. Methods 2008; 45: 289–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Ruppe T, Perrey S. Prefrontal cortex oxygenation and neuromuscular responses to exhaustive exercise. Eur JAppl Physiol 2008; 102: 153–63Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Davidson RJ. The neural circuitry of emotion and affective style: prefrontal cortex and amygdala contributions. Soc Sci Inf 2001; 40: 11–37Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Davidson RJ. Anxiety and affective style: role of prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Biol Psychiatry 2002; 51: 68–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Davidson RJ, Jackson DC, Kalin NH. Emotion, plasticity, context, and regulation: perspectives from affective neuroscience. Psychol Bull 2000; 126: 890–909PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Lind E, Welch AS, Ekkekakis P. Do ‘mind over muscle’ strategies work? Examining the effects of attentional associationand dissociation on exertional, affective, and physiologicalresponses to exercise. Sports Med 2009; 39: 743–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Ekkekakis P, Petruzzello SJ. Biofeedback in exercise psychology. In: Blumenstein B, Bar-Eli M, Tenenbaum G, editors. Brain and body in sport and exercise: biofeedbackapplication in performance enhancement. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2002: 77–100Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Ekkekakis P, Lind E. Exercise does not feel the same when you are overweight: the impact of self-selected and imposedintensity on affect and exertion. Int J Obes 2006; 30: 652–60Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Myers J, Ashley E. Dangerous curves: a perspective on exercise, lactate, and the anaerobic threshold. Chest 1997; 111: 787–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Binder RK, Wonisch M, Corra U, et al. Methodological approach to the first and second lactate threshold in incrementalcardiopulmonary exercise testing. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 2008; 15: 726–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Ekkekakis P, Lind E, Hall EE, et al. Do regression-based computer algorithms for determining the ventilatorythreshold agree? J Sports Sci 2008; 26: 967–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Haskell WL, Lee IM, Pate RR, et al. Physical activity and public health: updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2007; 39: 1423–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Gordon NF, Scott CB. Exercise intensity prescription in cardiovascular disease: theoretical basis for anaerobicthreshold determination. J Cardiopulm Rehabil 1995; 15: 193–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Meyer T, Görge G, Schwaab B, et al. An alternative approach for exercise prescription and efficacy testing inpatients with chronic heart failure: a randomized controlledtraining study. Am Heart J 2005; 149 (5): 926Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Nieuwland W, Berkhuysen MA, Van Veldhuisen DJ, et al. Individual assessment of intensity-level for exercisetraining in patients with coronary artery disease isnecessary. Int J Cardiol 2002; 84: 15–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Strzelczyk TA, Quigg RJ, Pfeifer PB, et al. Accuracy of estimating exercise prescription intensity in patients withleft ventricular systolic dysfunction. J Cardiopulm Rehabil 2001; 21: 158–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Soya H, Mukai A, Deocaris CC, et al. Threshold-like pattern of neuronal activation in the hypothalamus duringtreadmill running: establishment of a minimum runningstress (MRS) rat model. Neurosci Res 2007; 58: 341–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Welsch MA, Pollock ML, Brechue WF, et al. Using the exercise test to develop the exercise prescription in healthand disease. Prim Care 1994; 21: 589–609PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Foster C, Porcari JP, Anderson J, et al. The Talk Test as a marker of exercise training intensity. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev 2008; 28: 24–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Persinger R, Foster C, Gibson M, et al. Consistency of the talk test for exercise prescription. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2004; 36: 1632–6PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis Data Information BV 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Panteleimon Ekkekakis
    • 1
  • Gaynor Parfitt
    • 2
  • Steven J. Petruzzello
    • 3
  1. 1.235 Barbara E. Forker Building, Department of KinesiologyIowa State UniversityAmesUSA
  2. 2.School of Health SciencesUniversity of South AustraliaAdelaideAustralia
  3. 3.Department of Kinesiology and Community HealthUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignUrbanaUSA

Personalised recommendations