Sports Medicine

, Volume 41, Issue 5, pp 413–432 | Cite as

Strength Testing and Training of Rowers

A Review
  • Trent W. LawtonEmail author
  • John B. Cronin
  • Michael R. McGuigan
Review Article


In the quest to maximize average propulsive stroke impulses over 2000-m racing, testing and training of various strength parameters have been incorporated into the physical conditioning plans of rowers. Thus, the purpose of this review was 2-fold: to identify strength tests that were reliable and valid correlates (predictors) of rowing performance; and, to establish the benefits gained when strength training was integrated into the physical preparation plans of rowers. The reliability of maximal strength and power tests involving leg extension (e.g. leg pressing) and arm pulling (e.g. prone bench pull) was high (intra-class correlations 0.82–0.99), revealing that elite rowers were significantly stronger than their less competitive peers. The greater strength of elite rowers was in part attributed to the correlation between strength and greater lean body mass (r = 0.570.63). Dynamic lower body strength tests that determined the maximal external load for a one-repetition maximum (1RM) leg press (kg), isokinetic leg extension peak force (N) or leg press peak power (W) proved to be moderately to strongly associated with 2000-m ergometer times (r=-0.54 to -0.68; p < 0.05). Repetition tests that assess muscular or strength endurance by quantifying the number of repetitions accrued at a fixed percentage of the strength maximum (e.g. 50–70% 1RM leg press) or set absolute load (e.g. 40 kg prone bench pulls) were less reliable and more time consuming when compared with briefer maximal strength tests. Only leg press repetition tests were correlated with 2000-m ergometer times (e.g. r=-0.67; p < 0.05). However, these tests differentiate training experience and muscle morphology, in that those individuals with greater training experience and/or proportions of slow twitch fibres performed more repetitions. Muscle balance ratios derived from strength data (e.g. hamstring-quadriceps ratio <45% or knee extensor-elbow flexor ratio around 4.2•0.22 to 1) appeared useful in the pathological assessment of low back pain or rib injury history associated with rowing. While strength partially explained variances in 2000-m ergometer performance, concurrent endurance training may be counterproductive to strength development over the shorter term (i.e. <12 weeks). Therefore, prioritization of strength training within the sequence of training units should be considered, particularly over the non-competition phase (e.g. 2–6 sets — 4–12 repetitions, three sessions a week). Maximal strength was sustained when infrequent (e.g. one or two sessions a week) but intense (e.g. 73–79% of maximum) strength training units were scheduled; however, it was unclear whether training adaptations should emphasize maximal strength, endurance or power in order to enhance performance during the competition phase. Additionally, specific on-water strength training practices such as towing ropes had not been reported. Further research should examine the on-water benefits associated with various strength training protocols, in the context of the training phase, weight division, experience and level of rower, if limitations to the reliability and precision of performance data (e.g. 2000-m time or rank) can be controlled. In conclusion, while positive ergometer time-trial benefits of clinical and practical significance were reported with strength training, a lack of statistical significance was noted, primarily due to an absence of quality long-term controlled experimental research designs.


Strength Training Rowing Performance Ergometer Rowing Maximal Strength Training Elite Rower 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This review was made possible due to funds awarded through a Prime Minister’s Scholarship 2010 (a New Zealand Government grant). The authors have no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this review.


  1. 1.
    Shephard RJ. Science and medicine of rowing: a review. J Sports Sci 1998; 16 (7): 603–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hagerman FC. Applied physiology of rowing. Sports Med 1984; 1 (4): 303–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hofmijster MJ, Landman EHJ, Smith RM, et al. Effect of stroke rate on the distribution of net mechanical power inrowing. J Sports Sci 2007; 25 (4): 403–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hofmijster MJ, Van Soest AJ, De Koning JJ. Rowing skill affects power loss on a modified rowing ergometer. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2008; 40 (6): 1101–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kleshnev V, Kleshnev I. Dependence of rowing performance and efficiency on motor coordination of the main bodysegments. J Sports Sci 1998; 16 (5): 418–9Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Millward A. A study of the forces exerted by an oarsman and the effect on boat speed. J Sports Sci 1987 Summer; 5 (2): 93–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Smith RM, Spinks WL. Discriminant analysis of biomechanical differences between novice, good and eliterowers. J Sports Sci 1995; 13 (5): 377–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Baudouin A, Hawkins D. Investigation of biomechanical factors affecting rowing performance. J Biomech 2004; 37 (7): 969–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kraemer WJ, Adams K, Cafarelli E, et al. American College of Sports Medicine position stand: progression models inresistance training for healthy adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2002; 34 (2): 364–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kramer JF, Leger A, Paterson DH, et al. Rowing performance and selected descriptive, field, and laboratory variables. Can J Appl Physiol 1994; 19 (2): 174–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lund R, Dolny D, Browder K. Strength-power relationships during two lower extremity movements in female division irowers. J Exerc Physiol-online 2006; 9 (3): 41–52Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hay JG. Rowing: an analysis of the New Zealand Olympic selection tests. NZ J Health Phys Educ Rec 1968; 1: 83–90Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hahn A. Identification and selection of talent in Australian rowing. Excel 1990; 6 (3): 5–11Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nevill AM, Beech C, Holder RL, et al. Scaling concept II rowing ergometer performance for differences in bodymass to better reflect rowing in water. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2010; 20 (1): 122–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Russell AP, Le Rossignol PF, Sparrow WA. Prediction of elite schoolboy 2000-m rowing ergometer performancefrom metabolic, anthropometric and strength variables. J Sports Sci 1998; 16 (8): 749–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mikulic P, Smoljanovic T, Bojanic I, et al. Relationship between 2000-m rowing ergometer performance times andWorld Rowing Championships rankings in elite-standardrowers. J Sports Sci 2009; 27 (9): 907–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Brughelli M, Cronin J, Levin G, et al. Understanding change of direction ability in sport: a review of resistance trainingstudies. Sports Med 2008; 38 (12): 1045–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bell GJ, Syrotiuk DG, Attwood K, et al. Maintenance of strength gains while performing endurance training inoarswomen. Can J Appl Physiol 1993; 18 (1): 104–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    duManoir GR, Haykowsky MJ, Syrotuik DG, et al. The effect of high-intensity rowing and combined strength andendurance training on left ventricular systolic function andmorphology. Int J Sorts Med 2007; 28 (6): 488–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ebben WP, Kindler AG, Chirdon KA, et al. The effect of high-load vs. high-repetition training on endurance performance. J Strength and Cond Res 2004; 18 (3): 513–7Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gallagher D, DiPietro L, Viser AJ, et al. The effects of concurrent endurance and resistance training on 2000 meterrowing ergometer times in collegiate male rowers. J Strength and Cond Res 2010; 24 (5): 1208–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Haykowsky M, Chan S, Bhambhani Y, et al. Effects of combined endurance and strength training on left venricularmorphology in male and female rowers. Can J Cardiol 1998; 14 (3): 387–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kennedy MD, Bell GJ. Development of race profiles for the performance of a simulated 2000-m rowing race. CanJ Appl Physiol 2003; 28 (4): 536–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kramer JF, Morrow A, Leger A. Changes in rowing ergometer, weight lifting, vertical jump and isokinetic performancein response to standard and standard plus plyometrictraining programs. Int J Sports Med 1983; 14 (8): 449–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Syrotuik DG, Game AB, Gillies EM, et al. Effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation during combinedstrength and high intensity rowing training on performance. Can J Appl Physiol 2001; 26 (6): 527–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tse MA, McManus AM, Masters RSW. Development and validation of a core endurance intervention program: implicationsfor performance in college-age rowers. J Strengthand Cond Res 2005; 19 (3): 547–52Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Webster TG, Gervais PL, Syrotuik DG, et al. The combined effects of 8-weeks aerobic and resistance training on simulated2000-meter rowing performance and the related biomechanicaland physiological determinants in men andwomen. Ad Exerc Sports Physiol 2006; 12 (4): 135–43Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Koutedakis Y, Frischknecht R, Murthy M. Knee flexion to extension peak torque ratios and low-back injuries inhighly active individuals. Int J Sports Med 1997; 18 (4): 290–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fiskerstrand A, Seiler KS. Training and performance characteristics among Norwegian international rowers 1970-2001. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2004; 14 (5): 303–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kerr DA, Ross WD, Norton K, et al. Olympic lightweight and open-class rowers possess distinctive physical andproportionality characteristics. J Sports Sci 2007; 25 (1): 43–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bourgois J, Claessens AL, Janssens M, et al. Anthropometric characteristics of elite female junior rowers. J Sports Sci 2001; 19 (3): 195–202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bourgois J, Claessens AL, Vrijens J, et al. Anthropometric characteristics of elite male junior rowers. Br J Sports Med 2000; 34 (3): 213–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mikulic P. Anthropometric and physiological profiles of rowers of varying ages and ranks. Kinesiology 2008; 40 (1): 80–8Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mikulic P. Anthropometric and metabolic determinants of 6,000-m rowing ergometer performance in internationallycompetitive rowers. J Strength Cond Res 2009; 23 (6): 1851–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Yoshiga CC, Higuchi M. Rowing performance of female and male rowers. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2003; 13 (5): 317–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hartmann U, Mader A, Wasser K, et al. Peak force, velocity, and power during five and ten maximal rowing ergometerstrokes by world class female and male rowers. Int JSports Med 1993; 14 ( Suppl.1): S42–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Steinacker JM. Physiological aspects of training in rowing. Int J Sports Med 1993; 14 ( Suppl.1): S3–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tachibana K, Yashiro K, Miyazaki J, et al. Muscle crosssectional areas and performance power of limbs and trunkin the rowing motion. Sports Biomech 2007; 6 (1): 44–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Koutedakis Y, Sharp NCC. A modified Wingate test for measuring anaerobic work of the upper body in juniorrowers. Br J Sports Med 1986; 20 (4): 153–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Pyke FS, Minikin BR, Woodman LB, et al. Isokinetic strength and maximal oxygen uptake of trained oarsmen. Can J Appl Sport Sci 1979; 4 (4): 277–9Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Drarnitsyn O, Ivanova A, Sazonov V. The relationship between the dynamics of cardiorespiratory variables androwing ergometer performance. Human Physiol 2009; 35 (3): 325–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Secher NH. Physiological and biomechanical aspects of rowing: implications for training. Sports Med 1993; 15 (1): 24–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Koutedakis Y, Agrawal A, Sharp NC. Isokinetic characteristics of knee flexors and extensors in male dancers,Olympic oarsmen, Olympic bobsleighers, and non-athletes. J Dance Med Sci 1999; 2 (2): 63–7Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Jürimä e, Abernethy PJ, Quigley BM, et al. Differences in muscle contractile characteristics among bodybuilders,endurance trainers and control subjects. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1997; 75 (4): 357–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Grant S, Shields C, Fitzpatrick V, et al. Climbing-specific finger endurance: a comparative study of intermediate rockclimbers, rowers and aerobically trained individuals. J Sports Sci 2003; 21 (8): 621–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Secher NH. Isometric rowing strength of experienced and inexperienced oarsmen. Med Sci Sports 1975; 7 (4): 280–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Peltonen J, Rusko H. Interrelations between power, force production and energy metabolism in maximal leg workusing a modified rowing ergometer. J Sports Sci 1993; 11 (3): 233–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hagerman FC, Staron RS. Seasonal variations among physiological variables in elite oarsmen. Can J Appl Sport Sci 1983; 8 (3): 143–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Larsson L, Forsberg A. Morphological muscle characteristics in rowers. Can J Appl Sport Sci 1980; 5 (4): 239–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Cronin JB, Jones JV, Hagstrom JT. Kinematics and kinetics of the seated row and implications for conditioning. J Strength and Cond Res 2007; 21 (4): 1265–70Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Liu Y, Lormes W, Beissnecker S, et al. Effects of high intensity resistance and low intensity endurance training onmyosin heavy chain isoform expression in highly trainedrowers. Int J Sports Med 2003; 24 (4): 264–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    McNeely E, Sandler D, Bamel S. Strength and power goals for competitive rowers. Strength Cond J 2005; 27 (3): 10–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Clarkson PM, Graves J, Melchionda AM, et al. Isokinetic strength and endurance and muscle fiber type of eliteoarswomen. Can J Appl Sport Sci 1984; 9 (3): 127–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Chun-Jung H, Nesser TW, Edwards JE. Strength and power determinants of rowing performance. J Exerc Physiol-online 2007; 10 (4): 43–50Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Jürimä e, Perez-Turpin JA, Cortell-Tormo JM, et al. Relationship between rowing ergometer performance andphysiological responses to upper and lower body exercisesin rowers. J Sci Med Sport 2010; 13 (4): 434–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Jensen RL, Freedson PS, Hamill J. The prediction of power and efficiency during near-maximal rowing. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1996; 73 (1-2): 98–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hopkins WG. Measures of reliability in sports medicine and science. Sports Med 2000; 30 (1): 1–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kramer JF. Effect of hand position on knee extension and knee flexion torques of intercollegiate rowers. J Orthopaed Sports Phys Ther 1990; 11 (8): 367–71Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kramer JF, Leger A, Morrow A. Oarside and nonoarside knee extensor strength measures and their relationship torowing ergometer performance. J Orthopaed Sports Phys Ther 1991; 14 (5): 213–9Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Levinger I, Goodman C, Hare D, et al. The reliability of the 1RM strength test for untrained middle-aged individuals. J Sci Med Sport 2009; 12: 310–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Chan RH. Endurance times of trunk muscles in male intercollegiate rowers in Hong Kong. Arch Phys Med Rehab 2005; 86 (10): 2009–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Yoshiga CC, Higuchi M. Bilateral leg extension power and fat-free mass in young oarsmen. J Sports Sci 2003; 21 (11): 905–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Murphy AJ, Wilson GJ. Poor correlations between isometric tests and dynamic performance: relationship tomuscle activation. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1996; 73 (3-4): 353–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Wilson GJ, Murphy AJ. The use of isometric tests of muscular function in athletic assessment. Sports Med 1996; 22 (1): 19–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Shimoda M, Fukunaga T, Higuchi M, et al. Stroke power consistency and 2000m rowing performance in varsityrowers. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2009; 19 (1): 83–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Gerdle B, Karlsson S, Crenshaw AG, et al. Characteristics of the shift from the fatigue phase to the endurance level(breakpoint) of peak torque during repeated dynamicmaximal knee extensions are correlated to muscle morphology. Isokinet Exerc Sci 1998; 7 (2): 49–60Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Maestu J, Jürimäe J, Jürimä e. Monitoring of performance and training in rowing. Sports Med 2005; 35 (7): 597–617PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Liu Y, Lormes W, Baur C, et al. Human skeletal muscle HSP70 response to physical training depends on exerciseintensity. Int J Sports Med 2000; 21 (5): 351–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Liu Y, Lormes W, Wang L, et al. Different skeletal muscle HSP70 responses to high-intensity strength training andlow-intensity endurance training. Eur J Appl Physiol 2004; 91: 330–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Simsch C, Lormes W, Petersen KG, et al. Training intensity influences leptin and thyroid hormones in highly trainedrowers. Int J Sports Med 2002; 23 (6): 422–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Douris PC, White BP, Cullen RC, et al. The relationship between maximal repetition performance and muscle fibertype as estimated by noninvasive technique in the quadricepsof untrained women. J Strength Cond Res 2006; 20 (3): 699–703PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Hoeger WW, Barette SL, Hale DF, et al. Relationship between repetitions and selected percentages of one repetitionmaximum. J Appl Sport Sci Res 1987; 1 (1): 11–3Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Hoeger WWK, Hopkins DR, Barette SL, et al. Relationship between repetitions and selected percentages of one repetitionmaximum: a comparison between untrained andtrained males and females. J Appl Sport Sci Res 1990; 4 (2): 47–54Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Desgorces FD, Berthelot G, Dietrich G, et al. Local muscular endurance and prediction of 1 repetition maximumfor bench in 4 athletic populations. J Strength Cond Res 2010; 24 (2): 394–400PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Lindstrom B, Lexell J, Gerdle B, et al. Skeletal muscle fatigue and endurance in young and old men and women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 1997; 52 (1): B59–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Crewther BT, Gill N, Weatherby RP, et al. A comparison of ratio and allometric scaling methods for normalizingpower and strength in elite rugby union players. J Sports Sci 2009; 27 (14): 1575–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Jaric S, Mirkov D, Markovic G. Normalizing physical performance tests for body size: a proposal for standardization. J Strength Cond Res 2005; 19 (2): 467–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Nevill AM, Holder RL. Scaling, normalizing, and per ratio standards: an allometric modeling approach. J Appl Physiol 1995; 79 (3): 1027–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Bompa TO. Technique and muscle force. Can J Appl Sport Sci 1980; 5 (4): 245–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Vinther A, Kanstrup IL, Christiansen E, et al. Exercise-induced rib stress fractures: potential risk factors related tothoracic muscle co-contraction and movement pattern. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2006; 16 (3): 188–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    McGregor AH, Anderton L, Gedroyc WMW. The trunk muscles of elite oarsmen. Br J Sports Med 2002; 36 (3): 214–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Parkin S, Nowicky AV, Rutherford OM, et al. Do oarsmen have asymmetries in the strength of their back and legmuscles? J Sports Sci 2001; 19 (7): 521–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Campos GE, Luecke TJ, Wendeln HK, et al. Muscular adaptations in response to three different resistance-trainingregimens: specificity of repetition maximum training zones. Eur J Appl Physiol 2002; 88 (1-2): 50–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Peterson MD, Rhea MR, Alvar BA. Maximizing strength development in athletes: a meta-analysis to determine thedose-response relationship. J Strength Cond Res 2004; 18 (2): 377–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Drinkwater EJ, Lawton TW, Lawton TW, et al. Increased number of forced repetitions does not enhance strengthdevelopment with resistance training. J Strength Cond Res 2007; 21 (3): 841–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Izquierdo-Gabarren M, González De Txabarri Expósito R, García-pallarás J, et al. Concurrent endurance and strengthtraining not to failure optimizes performance gains. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2010; 42 (6): 1191–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Lawton T, Cronin J, Drinkwater E, et al. The effect of continuous repetition training and intra-set rest training onbench press strength and power. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2004; 44 (4): 361–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Bell G, Syrotuik D, Martin TP, et al. Effect of concurrent strength and endurance training on skeletal muscle propertiesand hormone concentrations in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol 2000; 81 (5): 418–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Docherty D, Sporer B. A proposed model for examining the interference phenomenon between concurrent aerobic andstrength training. Sports Med 2000; 30 (6): 385–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Leveritt M, Abernethy PJ, Barry BK, et al. Concurrent strength and endurance training: a review. Sports Med 1999; 28 (6): 413–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Yamamoto LM, Klau JF, Casa DJ, et al. The effects of resistance training on road cycling performance amonghighly trained cyclists: a systematic review. J Strength Cond Res 2010; 24 (2): 560–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Yamamoto LM, Lopez RM, Klau JF, et al. The effects of resistance training on endurance distance running performanceamong highly trained runners: a systematic review. J Strength Cond Res 2008; 22 (6): 2036–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    De Souza EO, Tricolli V, Franchini E, et al. Acute effect of two aerobic exercise modes on maximum strength andstrength endurance. J Strength Cond Res 2007; 21 (4): 1286–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Bell G, Petersen S, Wessel J, et al. Adaptations to endurance and low velocity resistance training performed in a sequence. Can J Sport Sci 1991; 16 (3): 186–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Bell G, Petersen SR, Quinney HA, et al. Sequencing of endurance and high-velocity strength training. Can J Sport Sci 1988; 13 (4): 214–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Bell GJ, Petersen SR, Arthur Quinney H, et al. The effect of velocity-specific strength training on peak torque andanaerobic rowing power. J Sports Sci 1989 Winter; 7 (3): 205–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Paton CD, Hopkins WG. Combining explosive and highresistance training improves performance in competitivecyclists. J Strength Cond Res 2005; 19 (4): 826–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Bastiaans J, Diemen A, Veneberg T, et al. The effects of replacing a portion of endurance training by explosivestrength training on performance in trained cyclists. Eur JAppl Physiol 2001; 86 (1): 79–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    McGregor AH, Bull AMJ, Byng-Maddick R. A comparison of rowing technique at different stroke rates: a descriptionof sequencing, force production and kinematics. In J Sports Med 2004; 25: 465–70Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis Data Information BV 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Trent W. Lawton
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • John B. Cronin
    • 2
    • 3
  • Michael R. McGuigan
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.New Zealand Academy of Sport, Performance Services — Strength and ConditioningAucklandNew Zealand
  2. 2.Sport Performance Research Institute New ZealandAUT UniversityAucklandNew Zealand
  3. 3.School of Biomedical and Health SciencesEdith Cowan UniversityJoondalupAustralia

Personalised recommendations