CNS Drugs

, Volume 24, Issue 11, pp 941–968

Dopamine Receptor Agonists for the Treatment of Early or Advanced Parkinson’s Disease

Review Article


Dopamine receptor agonists are indicated for the symptomatic treatment of early, moderate or advanced Parkinson’s disease as well as for the reduction of levodopa-related motor complications. Ergolinic dopamine agonists, such as bromocriptine or pergolide, were initially developed and marketed, and then non-ergolinic dopamine agonists, such as pramipexole and ropinirole, were introduced, reducing the risk of drug-induced fibrotic reactions. Once-daily, controlled-release oral and transdermal formulations have been developed aiming at providing more stable 24-hour plasma drug concentrations and more convenient administration. A disease-modifying effect of dopamine agonists has not been demonstrated clinically.

As with any other drug, dopamine agonists can also cause adverse drug reactions, which can be related or unrelated to dopaminergic hyperactivation. Dopaminergic reactions include nausea, hallucinations, confusion and orthostatic hypotension, among others, which were readily identified in pre-marketing clinical trials. During post-marketing surveillance, important adverse reactions were identified, such as daytime somnolence, impulse-control disorders and heart valve fibrosis. Other issues, including the efficacy of dopamine agonists for the treatment of non-motor symptoms, remain under evaluation.


  1. 1.
    Birkmayer W, Hornykiewicz O. The effect of l–3,4-dihy-droxyphenylalanine (=DOPA) on akinesia in parkinsonism. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 1998; 4: 59–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nutt JG. Levodopa-induced dyskinesia: review, observations, and speculations. Neurology 1990; 40: 340–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rascol O, Payoux P, Ory F, et al. Limitations of current Parkinson’s disease therapy. Ann Neurol 2003; 53 Suppl. 3: S3–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Calne DB, Teychenne PF, Leigh PN, et al. Treatment of parkinsonism with bromocriptine. Lancet 1974; 2: 1355–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Deleu D, Northway MG, Hanssens Y. Clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Clin Pharmacokinet 2002; 41: 261–309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Olanow CW, Stern MB, Sethi K. The scientific and clinical basis for the treatment of Parkinson disease. Neurology 2009;72:S1–136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kvernmo T, Hartter S, Burger E. A review of the receptor-binding and pharmacokinetic properties of dopamine agonists. Clin Ther 2006; 28: 1065–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Montastruc JL, Rascol O, Senard JM. Current status of dopamine agonists in Parkinson’s disease management. Drugs 1993; 46: 384–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Johnston TH, Fox SH, Brotchie JM. Advances in the delivery of treatments for Parkinson’s disease. Expert Opin Drug Deliv 2005; 2: 1059–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    LeWitt PA. Subcutaneously administered apomorphine: pharmacokinetics and metabolism. Neurology 2004; 62: S8–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Neef C, van Laar T. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships of apomorphine in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Clin Pharmacokinet 1999; 37: 257–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fariello RG. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic features of cabergoline: rationale for use in Parkinson’s disease. Drugs 1998; 55 Suppl. 1: 10–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Albanese A, Colosimo C. Dihydroergocriptine in Parkinson’s disease: clinical efficacy and comparison with other dopamine agonists. Acta Neurol Scand 2003; 107: 349–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Biglan KM, Holloway RG. A review of pramipexole and its clinical utility in Parkinson’s disease. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2002; 3: 197–210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Blin O. The pharmacokinetics of pergolide in Parkinson’s disease. Curr Opin Neurol 2003; 16 Suppl. 1: S9–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Curran MP, Perry CM. Cabergoline: a review of its use in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Drugs 2004; 64: 2125–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Marco AD, Appiah-Kubi LS, Chaudhuri KR. Use of the dopamine agonist cabergoline in the treatment of movement disorders. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2002; 3:1481–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Matheson AJ, Spencer CM. Ropinirole: a review of its use in the management of Parkinson’s disease. Drugs 2000; 60: 115–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jenner P, Könen-Bergman M, Schepers C, et al. Pharmacokinetics of a once-daily extended-release formulation of pramipexole in healthy male volunteers: three studies. Clin Ther 2009; 31(11): 2698–711PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tompson DJ, Vearer D. Steady-state pharmacokinetic properties of a 24-hour prolonged-release formulation of ropinirole: results of two randomized studies in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Clin Ther 2007; 29: 2654–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rascol O, Perez-Lloret S. Rotigotine transdermal delivery for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2009; 10: 677–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    U.S. FDA. FDA approved drug products [online]. Available from URL: [Accessed 2009 Dec 22]
  23. 23.
    Weber J, Keating GM. Ropinirole prolonged release: in advanced Parkinson’s disease. CNS Drugs 2009; 23: 81–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Schapira AH, Albrecht S, Barone P, et al. Inmediate vs delayed-start pramipexole in early Parkinson’s disease: the PROUD study [abstract]. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2009; 15S2: S81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hauser RA, Rascol O, Barone P, et al. Pharmacokinetic profiling of pramipexole extended-release in Parkinson’s disease patients: implication for dosing in PD patients with renal insufficiency [abstract]. Mov Disord 2009; 24 Suppl. 1: S265–6Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kaye CM, Nicholls B. Clinical pharmacokinetics of ropinirole. Clin Pharmacokinet 2000; 39: 243–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cawello W, Braun M, Boekens H. Absorption, disposition, metabolic fate, and elimination of the dopamine agonist rotigotine in man: administration by intravenous infusion or transdermal delivery. Drug Metab Dispos 2009; 37: 2055–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cawello W, Wolff HM, Meuling WJ, et al. Transdermal administration of radiolabelled [14C]rotigotine by a patch formulation: a mass balance trial. Clin Pharmacokinet 2007; 46: 851–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Piercey MF, Hoffmann WE, Smith MW, et al. Inhibition of dopamine neuron firing by pramipexole, a dopamine D3 receptor-preferring agonist: comparison to other dopamine receptor agonists. Eur J Pharmacol 1996; 312: 35–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Piercey MF. Pharmacology of pramipexole, a dopamine D3-preferring agonist useful in treating Parkinson’s disease. Clin Neuropharmacol 1998; 21: 141–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Antonini A, Poewe W. Fibrotic heart-valve reactions to dopamine-agonist treatment in Parkinson’s disease. Lancet Neurol 2007; 6: 826–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tulloch IF. Pharmacologic profile of ropinirole: a non-ergoline dopamine agonist. Neurology 1997; 49: S58–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Luquin MR, Laguna J, Obeso JA. Selective D2 receptor stimulation induces dyskinesia in parkinsonian monkeys. Ann Neurol 1992; 31: 551–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Robertson HA. Dopamine receptor interactions: some implications for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Trends Neurosci 1992; 15: 201–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gomez-Mancilla B, Bedard PJ. Effect of chronic treatment with (+)-PHNO, a D2 agonist in MPTP-treated monkeys. Exp Neurol 1992; 117: 185–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Grondin R, Bedard PJ, Britton DR, et al. Potential therapeutic use of the selective dopamine D1 receptor agonist, A-86929: an acute study in parkinsonian levodopa-primed monkeys. Neurology 1997; 49: 421–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rascol O, Nutt JG, Blin O, et al. Induction by dopamine D1 receptor agonist ABT-431 of dyskinesia similar to levodopa in patients with Parkinson disease. Arch Neurol 2001; 58: 249–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wise RA, Rompre PP. Brain dopamine and reward. Annu Rev Psychol 1989; 40: 191–225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Maj J, Rogoz Z, Skuza G, et al. Antidepressant effects of pramipexole, a novel dopamine receptor agonist. J Neural Transm 1997; 104: 525–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Montastruc JL, Rascol A. Treatment of Parkinson’s disease with high doses of bromocriptine: possible interaction with josamycin [in French]. Presse Med 1984; 13: 2267–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Periti P, Mazzei T, Mini E, et al. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions of macrolides. Clin Pharmacokinet 1992; 23: 106–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Fahn S, Elton RL, members of the UPDRS committee. Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale. In: Mardsen CD, Golstein M, Calne DB, editors. Recent developments in Parkinson’s disease. New York: McMillan, 1987: 153–63Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Goetz CG, Poewe W, Rascol O, et al. Evidence-based medical review update: pharmacological and surgical treatments of Parkinson’s disease: 2001 to 2004. Mov Disord 2005; 20: 523–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Rascol O, Goetz C, Koller W, et al. Treatment interventions for Parkinson’s disease: an evidence based assessment. Lancet 2002; 359: 1589–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Staal-Schreinemachers AL, Wesseling H, Kamphuis DJ, et al. Low-dose bromocriptine therapy in Parkinson’s disease: double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Neurology 1986; 36: 291–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Parkinson’s Disease Research Group in the United Kingdom. Comparisons of therapeutic effects of levodopa, levodopa and selegiline, and bromocriptine in patients with early, mild Parkinson’s disease: three year interim report: Parkinson’s Disease Research Group in the United Kingdom. BMJ 1993; 307: 469–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Przuntek H, Welzel D, Gerlach M, et al. Early institution of bromocriptine in Parkinson’s disease inhibits the emergence of levodopa-associated motor side effects: long-term results of the PRADO study. J Neural Transm 1996; 103: 699–715PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Katzenschlager R, Head J, Schrag A, et al. Fourteen-year final report of the randomized PDRG-UK trial comparing three initial treatments in PD. Neurology 2008; 71:474–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Montastruc JL, Rascol O, Senard JM, et al. A randomised controlled study comparing bromocriptine to which levodopa was later added, with levodopa alone in previously untreated patients with Parkinson’s disease: a five year follow up. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1994; 57:1034–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Alarcon F, Cevallos N, Lees AJ. Does combined levodopa and bromocriptine therapy in Parkinson’s disease prevent late motor complications? Eur J Neurol 1998; 5: 255–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Stowe RL, Ives NJ, Clarke C, et al. Dopamine agonist therapy in early Parkinson’s disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008; (16): CD006564Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Herskovits E, Yorio A, Leston J. Long term bromocriptine treatment in de novo Parkinsonian patients. Medicina (B Aires) 1988; 48: 345–50Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Bakheit AM, Henderson LM, Moore AP, et al. Long-term double masked trial of early treatment with L-dopa plus bromocriptine versus L-dopa alone in Parkinson’s disease: interim results. Eur Neurol 1990; 30: 108–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Olsson JE, European Multicentric Trial Group. Bromocriptine and levodopa in early combination in Parkinson’s disease: first results of the Collaborative European Multicentric Trial. In: Streifler MB, Korczyn AD, Melamed E, et al. editors. Advances in neurology. Vol 53. Parkinson’s disease: anatomy, pathology, and therapy. New York: Raven Press, 1990Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Gimenez-Roldan S, Tolosa E, Burguera JA, et al. Early combination of bromocriptine and levodopa in Parkinson’s disease: a prospective randomized study of two parallel groups over a total follow-up period of 44 months including an initial 8-month double-blind stage. Clin Neuropharmacol 1997; 20: 67–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Olanow CW, Hauser RA, Gauger L, et al. The effect of deprenyl and levodopa on the progression of Parkinson’s disease. Ann Neurol 1995; 38: 771–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Bracco F, Battaglia A, Chouza C, et al. The long-acting dopamine receptor agonist cabergoline in early Parkinson’s disease: final results of a 5-year, double-blind, levo-dopa-controlled study. CNS Drugs 2004; 18: 733–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Rinne UK, Bracco F, Chouza C, et al. Early treatment of Parkinson’s disease with cabergoline delays the onset of motor complications: results of a double-blind levodopa controlled trial. The PKDS009 Study Group. Drugs 1998; 55 Suppl. 1: 23–30Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Rinne UK, Bracco F, Chouza C, et al. Cabergoline in the treatment of early Parkinson’s disease: results of the first year of treatment in a double-blind comparison of cabergoline and levodopa. The PKDS009 Collaborative Study Group. Neurology 1997; 48: 363–8Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Bergamasco B, Frattola L, Muratorio A, et al. Alpha-dihydroergocryptine in the treatment of de novo parkinsonian patients: results of a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Acta Neurol Scand 2000; 101: 372–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Rinne UK. Lisuride, a dopamine agonist in the treatment of early Parkinson’s disease. Neurology 1989; 39: 336–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Allain H, Destee A, Petit H, et al. Five-year follow-up of early lisuride and levodopa combination therapy versus levodopa monotherapy in de novo Parkinson’s disease: the French Lisuride Study Group. Eur Neurol 2000; 44: 22–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Mizuno Y, Kondo T, Narabayashi H. Pergolide in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Neurology 1995; 45: S13–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Barone P, Bravi D, Bermejo-Pareja F, et al. Pergolide monotherapy in the treatment of early PD: a randomized, controlled study. Pergolide Monotherapy Study Group. Neurology 1999; 53: 573–9Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Oertel WH, Wolters E, Sampaio C, et al. Pergolide versus levodopa monotherapy in early Parkinson’s disease patients: the PELMOPET study. Mov Disord 2006; 21: 343–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Grosset K, Grosset D, Lees A. Trial of subtherapeutic pergolide in de novo Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2005; 20: 363–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Rascol O, Dubois B, Caldas AC, et al. Early piribedil monotherapy of Parkinson’s disease: a planned seven-month report of the REGAIN study. Mov Disord 2006; 21:2110–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Hubble JP, Koller WC, Cutler NR, et al. Pramipexole in patients with early Parkinson’s disease. Clin Neuropharmacol 1995; 18: 338–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Shannon KM, Bennett Jr JP, Friedman JH. Efficacy of pramipexole, a novel dopamine agonist, as monotherapy in mild to moderate Parkinson’s disease: the Pramipexole Study Group. Neurology 1997; 49: 724–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Parkinson’s Disease Study Group. Pramipexole vs levodopa as initial treatment for Parkinson disease: a randomized controlled trial. Parkinson Study Group. JAMA 2000; 284: 1931–8Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Pogarell O, Gasser T, van Hilten JJ, et al. Pramipexole in patients with Parkinson’s disease and marked drug resistant tremor: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled multicentre study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2002; 72: 713–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Parkinson’s Disease Study Group. Long-term effect of initiating pramipexole vs levodopa in early Parkinson disease. Arch Neurol 2009; 66: 563–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Poewe WH, Barone P, Hauser RA, et al. Pramipexole extended-release is effective in early Parkinson’s disease [abstract]. Mov Disord 2009; 24 Suppl. 1: S273Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Schapira AH, Barone P, Hauser RA, et al. Efficacy and safety of pramipexole extended-release for advanced Parkinson’s disease [abstract]. Mov Disord 2009; 24 Suppl. 1: S277–8Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Adler CH, Sethi KD, Hauser RA, et al. Ropinirole for the treatment of early Parkinson’s disease: the Ropinirole Study Group. Neurology 1997; 49: 393–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Brooks DJ, Abbott RJ, Lees AJ, et al. A placebo-controlled evaluation of ropinirole, a novel D2 agonist, as sole dop-aminergic therapy in Parkinson’s disease. Clin Neuropharmacol 1998; 21: 101–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Rascol O, Brooks DJ, Brunt ER, et al. Ropinirole in the treatment of early Parkinson’s disease: a 6-month interim report of a 5-year levodopa-controlled study. 056 Study Group. Mov Disord 1998; 13: 39–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Korczyn AD, Brunt ER, Larsen JP, et al. A 3-year randomized trial of ropinirole and bromocriptine in early Parkinson’s disease: the 053 Study Group. Neurology 1999; 53: 364–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Rascol O, Brooks DJ, Korczyn AD, et al. A five-year study of the incidence of dyskinesia in patients with early Parkinson’s disease who were treated with ropinirole or levodopa: 056 Study Group. N Engl J Med 2000; 342: 1484–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Schrag A, Keens J, Warner J. Ropinirole for the treatment of tremor in early Parkinson’s disease. Eur J Neurol 2002; 9: 253–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Whone AL, Watts RL, Stoessl AJ, et al. Slower progression of Parkinson’s disease with ropinirole versus levodopa: the REAL-PET study. Ann Neurol 2003; 54: 93–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Rascol O, Brooks DJ, Korczyn AD, et al. Development of dyskinesias in a 5-year trial of ropinirole and L-dopa. Mov Disord 2006; 21: 1844–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Hauser RA, Rascol O, Korczyn AD, et al. Ten-year follow-up of Parkinson’s disease patients randomized to initial therapy with ropinirole or levodopa. Mov Disord 2007; 22: 2409–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Stocchi F, Hersh BP, Scott BL, et al. Ropinirole 24-hour prolonged release and ropinirole immediate release in early Parkinson’s disease: a randomized, double-blind, non-inferiority crossover study. Curr Med Res Opin 2008; 24: 2883–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Giladi N, Boroojerdi B, Korczyn AD, et al. Rotigotine transdermal patch in early Parkinson’s disease: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study versus placebo and ropinirole. Mov Disord 2007; 22: 2398–404PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Parkinson’s Disease Study Group. A controlled trial of rotigotine monotherapy in early Parkinson’s disease. Arch Neurol 2003; 60: 1721–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Jankovic J, Watts RL, Martin W, et al. Transdermal rotigotine: double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Parkinson disease. Arch Neurol 2007; 64: 676–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Riopelle RJ. Bromocriptine and the clinical spectrum of Parkinson’s disease. Can J Neurol Sci 1987; 14: 455–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Rascol O, Barone P, Debieuvre C, et al. Easy switching from immediate- to extended-release pramipexole in early Parkinson’s disease at the same daily dosage [abstract]. Mov Disord 2009; 24 Suppl. 1: S362Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Korczyn AD, Brooks DJ, Brunt ER, et al. Ropinirole versus bromocriptine in the treatment of early Parkinson’s disease: a 6-month interim report of a 3-year study. 053 Study Group. Mov Disord 1998; 13: 46–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Parkinson’s Disease Study Group. A controlled trial of rasagiline in early Parkinson disease: the TEMPO Study. Arch Neurol 2002; 59: 1937–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    The Parkinson Study Group. Effect of deprenyl on the progression of disability in early Parkinson’s disease. N Engl J Med 1989; 321: 1364–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Dewey Jr RB, Hutton JT, LeWitt PA, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of subcutaneously injected apomorphine for parkinsonian off-state events. Arch Neurol 2001; 58: 1385–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Inzelberg R, Nisipeanu P, Rabey JM, et al. Double-blind comparison of cabergoline and bromocriptine in Parkinson’s disease patients with motor fluctuations. Neurology 1996; 47: 785–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Hutton JT, Koller WC, Ahlskog JE, et al. Multicenter, placebo-controlled trial of cabergoline taken once daily in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Neurology 1996; 46: 1062–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Olanow CW, Fahn S, Muenter M, et al. A multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled trial of pergolide as an adjunct to Sinemet in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 1994; 9: 40–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Pezzoli G, Martignoni E, Pacchetti C, et al. Pergolide compared with bromocriptine in Parkinson’s disease: a multicenter, crossover, controlled study. Mov Disord 1994; 9: 431–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Ziegler M, Castro-Caldas A, Del SS, et al. Efficacy of piribedil as early combination to levodopa in patients with stable Parkinson’s disease: a 6-month, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Mov Disord 2003; 18: 418–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Castro-Caldas A, Delwaide P, Jost W, et al. The Parkinson-Control study: a 1-year randomized, double-blind trial comparing piribedil (150 mg/day) with bromocriptine (25 mg/day) in early combination with levodopa in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2006; 21: 500–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Pinter MM, Pogarell O, Oertel WH. Efficacy, safety, and tolerance of the non-ergoline dopamine agonist prami-pexole in the treatment of advanced Parkinson’s disease: a double blind, placebo controlled, randomised, multicentre study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1999; 66: 436–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Mizuno Y, Yanagisawa N, Kuno S, et al. Randomized, double-blind study of pramipexole with placebo and bromocriptine in advanced Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2003; 18: 1149–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Lieberman A, Ranhosky A, Korts D. Clinical evaluation of pramipexole in advanced Parkinson’s disease: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Neurology 1997; 49(1): 162–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Clarke CE, Speller JM, Clarke JA. Pramipexole for levo-dopa-induced complications in Parkinson’s disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000; (3): CD002261Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Wermuth L, Danish Pramipexole Study Group. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, multi-center study of pramipexole in advanced Parkinson’s disease. Eur J Neurol 1998; 5: 235–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Murayama S, Narabayashi H, Kowa H, et al. Clinical evaluation of ropinirole hydrochloride in patients with Parkinson’s disease: a double-blind comparative study versus bromocriptine mesylate. Japan Pharmacol Ther 1996; 24: 1939–2007Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Clarke CE, Deane KH. Ropinirole versus bromocriptine for levodopa-induced complications in Parkinson’s disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001; (3): CD001517Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Mizuno Y, Abe T, Hasegawa K, et al. Ropinirole is effective on motor function when used as an adjunct to levodopa in Parkinson’s disease: STRONG study. Mov Disord 2007; 22: 1860–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Lieberman A, Olanow CW, Sethi K, et al. A multicenter trial of ropinirole as adjunct treatment for Parkinson’s disease: Ropinirole Study Group. Neurology 1998; 51: 1057–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Clarke CE, Deane KH. Ropinirole for levodopa-induced complications in Parkinson’s disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001; (1): CD001516Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Brunt ER, Brooks DJ, Korczyn AD, et al. A six-month multicentre, double-blind, bromocriptine-controlled study of the safety and efficacy of ropinirole in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease not optimally controlled by L-dopa. J Neural Transm 2002; 109: 489–502PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Guttman M. Double-blind comparison of pramipexole and bromocriptine treatment with placebo in advanced Parkinson’s disease: International Pramipexole-Bromocriptine Study Group. Neurology 1997; 49: 1060–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Moller JC, Oertel WH, Koster J, et al. Long-term efficacy and safety of pramipexole in advanced Parkinson’s disease: results from a European multicenter trial. Mov Disord 2005; 20: 602–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Martignoni E, Pacchetti C, Sibilla L, et al. Dihydroergocryptine in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease: a six months’ double-blind clinical trial. Clin Neuropharmacol 1991; 14: 78–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Navan P, Findley LJ, Undy MB, et al. A randomly assigned double-blind cross-over study examining the relative anti-parkinsonian tremor effects of pramipexole and pergolide. Eur J Neurol 2005; 12: 1–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    LeWitt PA, Lyons KE, Pahwa R. Advanced Parkinson disease treated with rotigotine transdermal system: PREFER Study. Neurology 2007; 68: 1262–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Poewe WH, Rascol O, Quinn N, et al. Efficacy of pramipexole and transdermal rotigotine in advanced Parkinson’s disease: a double-blind, double-dummy, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Neurol 2007; 6: 513–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Laihinen A, Rinne UK, Suchy I. Comparison of lisuride and bromocriptine in the treatment of advanced Parkinson’s disease. Acta Neurol Scand 1992; 86: 593–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    LeWitt PA, Gopinathan G, Ward CD, et al. Lisuride versus bromocriptine treatment in Parkinson disease: a double-blind study. Neurology 1982; 32: 69–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    LeWitt PA, Ward CD, Larsen TA, et al. Comparison of pergolide and bromocriptine therapy in parkinsonism. Neurology 1983; 33: 1009–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Tolcapone Study Group. Efficacy and tolerability of tolcapone compared with bromocriptine in levodopa-treated parkinsonian patients. Mov Disord 1999; 14: 38–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Koller W, Lees A, Doder M, et al. Randomized trial of tolcapone versus pergolide as add-on to levodopa therapy in Parkinson’s disease patients with motor fluctuations. Mov Disord 2001; 16: 858–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Kumar N, Van Gerpen JA, Bower JH, et al. Levodopa-dyskinesia incidence by age of Parkinson’s disease onset. Mov Disord 2005; 20: 342–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Hely MA, Morris JG, Reid WG, et al. The Sydney Multi-centre Study of Parkinson’s disease: a randomised, prospective five year study comparing low dose bromocriptine with low dose levodopa-carbidopa. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1994; 57: 903–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Hely MA, Morris JG, Reid WG, et al. Sydney Multicenter Study of Parkinson’s disease: non-L-dopa-responsive problems dominate at 15 years. Mov Disord 2005; 20:190–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Stocchi F, Kakarieka A, Kieburtz K, et al. The STRIDE-PD study: late breaking abstracts. 13th International Congress of Parkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorders [online]. Available from URL: [Accessed 2009 Dec 1]
  126. 126.
    Hauser RA, Friedlander J, Zesiewicz TA, et al. A home diary to assess functional status in patients with Parkinson’s disease with motor fluctuations and dyskinesia. Clin Neuropharmacol 2000; 23: 75–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Clarke CE, Speller JM. Pergolide versus bromocriptine for levodopa-induced motor complications in Parkinson’s disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000; (2): CD000236Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Clarke CE, Speller JM. Pergolide for levodopa-induced complications in Parkinson’s disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000; (2): CD000235Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Rascol O, Lees AJ, Senard JM, et al. Ropinirole in the treatment of levodopa-induced motor fluctuations in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Clin Neuropharmacol 1996; 19: 234–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Pahwa R, Stacy MA, Factor SA, et al. Ropinirole 24-hour prolonged release: randomized, controlled study in advanced Parkinson disease. Neurology 2007; 68: 1108–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Ostergaard L, Werdelin L, Odin P, et al. Pen injected apomorphine against off phenomena in late Parkinson’s disease: a double blind, placebo controlled study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1995; 58: 681–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Katzenschlager R, Hughes A, Evans A, et al. Continuous subcutaneous apomorphine therapy improves dyskinesias in Parkinson’s disease: a prospective study using single-dose challenges. Mov Disord 2005; 20: 151–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Garcia Ruiz PJ, Sesar IA, Ares PB, et al. Efficacy of long-term continuous subcutaneous apomorphine infusion in advanced Parkinson’s disease with motor fluctuations: a multicenter study. Mov Disord 2008; 23: 1130–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Yanagisawa N, Kowa H, Mizuno Y, et al. The clinical evaluation of CG-101 (cabergoline) in Parkinson’s disease patients with L-DOPA: a multi-centred phase III double-blind comparative study vs. bromocriptine mesilate. J Clin Ther Med 1996; 12(17): 12Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Clarke CE, Deane KH. Cabergoline versus bromocriptine for levodopa-induced complications in Parkinson’s disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001; (1): CD001519Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Steiger MJ, El-Debas T, Anderson T, et al. Double-blind study of the activity and tolerability of cabergoline versus placebo in parkinsonians with motor fluctuations. J Neurol 1996; 243: 68–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Clarke CE, Deane KH. Cabergoline for levodopa-induced complications in Parkinson’s disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001; (1): CD001518Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Deuschl G, Vaitkus A, Fox GC, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of entacapone versus cabergoline in parkinsonian patients suffering from wearing-off. Mov Disord 2007; 22: 1550–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Im JH, Ha JH, Cho IS, et al. The efficacy and safety of ropinirole as an adjunct to levodopa in Korean patients with Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 1999; 5: S75Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Hoehn MM, Elton RL. Low dosages of bromocriptine added to levodopa in Parkinson’s disease. Neurology 1985; 35: 199–206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Toyokura Y, Mizuno Y, Kase M, et al. Effects of bromocriptine on parkinsonism: a nation-wide collaborative double-blind study. Acta Neurol Scand 1985; 72: 157–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Stocchi F. Use of apomorphine in Parkinson’s disease. Neurol Sci 2008; 29 Suppl. 5: S383–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Colzi A, Turner K, Lees AJ. Continuous subcutaneous waking day apomorphine in the long term treatment of levodopa induced interdose dyskinesias in Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998; 64: 573–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Manson AJ, Turner K, Lees AJ. Apomorphine monotherapy in the treatment of refractory motor complications of Parkinson’s disease: long-term follow-up study of 64 patients. Mov Disord 2002; 17: 1235–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Facca A, Sanchez-Ramos J. High-dose pergolide monotherapy in the treatment of severe levodopa-induced dyskinesias. Mov Disord 1996; 11: 327–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Cristina S, Zangaglia R, Mancini F, et al. High-dose ropinirole in advanced Parkinson’s disease with severe dyskinesias. Clin Neuropharmacol 2003; 26: 146–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Chaudhuri KR, Schapira AH. Non-motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease: dopaminergic pathophysiology and treatment. Lancet Neurol 2009; 8: 464–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Corrigan MH, Denahan AQ, Wright CE, et al. Comparison of pramipexole, fluoxetine, and placebo in patients with major depression. Depress Anxiety 2000; 11: 58–65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Zarate Jr CA, Payne JL, Singh J, et al. Pramipexole for bipolar II depression: a placebo-controlled proof of concept study. Biol Psychiatry 2004; 56: 54–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Izumi T, Inoue T, Kitagawa N, et al. Open pergolide treatment of tricyclic and heterocyclic antidepressant-resistant depression. J Affect Disord 2000; 61: 127–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Lattanzi L, Dell’Osso L, Cassano P, et al. Pramipexole in treatment-resistant depression: a 16-week naturalistic study. Bipolar Disord 2002; 4: 307–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Perugi G, Toni C, Ruffolo G, et al. Adjunctive dopamine agonists in treatment-resistant bipolar II depression: an open case series. Pharmacopsychiatry 2001; 34: 137–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Rektorova I, Rektor I, Bares M, et al. Pramipexole and pergolide in the treatment of depression in Parkinson’s disease: a national multicentre prospective randomized study. Eur J Neurol 2003; 10: 399–406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Barone P, Scarzella L, Marconi R, et al. Pramipexole versus sertraline in the treatment of depression in Parkinson’s disease: a national multicenter parallel-group randomized study. J Neurol 2006; 253: 601–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Barone P, Poewe W, Tolosa E, et al. Efficacy of double-blind, placebo-controlled pramipexole against depression in Parkinson’s disease [abstract]. Mov Disord 2009; 24 Suppl. 1: S347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Gallagher DA, Schrag A. Impact of newer pharmacological treatments on quality of life in patients with Parkinson’s disease. CNS Drugs 2008; 22: 563–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Holloway RG, Shoulson I, Fahn S, et al. Pramipexole vs levodopa as initial treatment for Parkinson disease: a 4-year randomized controlled trial. Arch Neurol 2004; 61: 1044–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Noyes K, Dick AW, Holloway RG. Pramipexole versus levodopa in patients with early Parkinson’s disease: effect on generic and disease-specific quality of life. Value Health 2006; 9: 28–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Rektorova I, Balaz M, Svatova J, et al. Effects of ropinirole on nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson disease: a prospective multicenter study. Clin Neuropharmacol 2008; 31: 261–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Happe S, Berger K. The association of dopamine agonists with daytime sleepiness, sleep problems and quality of life in patients with Parkinson’s disease: a prospective study. J Neurol 2001; 248: 1062–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Schapira AH. Molecular and clinical pathways to neuroprotection of dopaminergic drugs in Parkinson disease. Neurology 2009; 72: S44–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Gerlach M, Double KL, Youdim MB, et al. Strategies for the protection of dopaminergic neurons against neurotoxicity. Neurotox Res 2000; 2: 99–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Muralikrishnan D, Mohanakumar KP. Neuroprotection by bromocriptine against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetra-hydropyridine-induced neurotoxicity in mice. FASEB J 1998; 12: 905–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Ogawa N, Tanaka K, Asanuma M, et al. Bromocriptine protects mice against 6-hydroxydopamine and scavenges hydroxyl free radicals in vitro. Brain Res 1994; 657: 207–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Clow A, Freestone C, Lewis E, et al. The effect of pergolide and MDL 72974 on rat brain CuZn superoxide dismutase. Neurosci Lett 1993; 164: 41–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Kakimura J, Kitamura Y, Takata K, et al. Release and aggregation of cytochrome c and alpha-synuclein are inhibited by the antiparkinsonian drugs, talipexole and pramipexole. Eur J Pharmacol 2001; 417: 59–67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Gu M, Iravani MM, Cooper JM, et al. Pramipexole protects against apoptotic cell death by non-dopaminergic mechanisms. J Neurochem 2004; 91: 1075–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Chau KY, Korlipara LV, Cooper JM, et al. Protection against paraquat and A53T alpha-synuclein toxicity by cabergoline is partially mediated by dopamine receptors. J Neurol Sci 2009; 278: 44–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Ravina B, Eidelberg D, Ahlskog JE, et al. The role of radiotracer imaging in Parkinson disease. Neurology 2005; 64: 208–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Edwards IR, Aronson JK. Adverse drug reactions: definitions, diagnosis, and management. Lancet 2000; 356: 1255–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Montastruc JL, Sommet A, Lacroix I, et al. Pharmacovigilance for evaluating adverse drug reactions: value, organization, and methods. Joint Bone Spine 2006; 73: 629–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Freeman R. Current pharmacologic treatment for orthostatic hypotension. Clin Auton Res 2008; 18 Suppl. 1: 14–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Schoffer KL, Henderson RD, O’Maley K, et al. Nonpharmacological treatment, fludrocortisone, and domperidone for orthostatic hypotension in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2007; 22: 1543–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Biglan KM, Holloway Jr RG, McDermott MP, et al. Risk factors for somnolence, edema, and hallucinations in early Parkinson disease. Neurology 2007; 69: 187–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Factor SA, Molho ES, Podskalny GD, et al. Parkinson’s disease: drug-induced psychiatric states. Adv Neurol 1995; 65: 115–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    The French Clozapine Parkinson Study Group. Clozapine in drug-induced psychosis in Parkinson’s disease. Lancet 1999; 353: 2041–2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    The Parkinson Study Group. Low-dose clozapine for the treatment of drug-induced psychosis in Parkinson’s disease. N Engl J Med 1999; 340: 757–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Diederich NJ, Fenelon G, Stebbins G, et al. Hallucinations in Parkinson disease. Nat Rev Neurol 2009; 5: 331–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Fujimoto K. Management of non-motor complications in Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol 2009; 256 Suppl. 3: 299–305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Antonini A, Cilia R. Behavioural adverse effects of dopaminergic treatments in Parkinson’s disease: incidence, neurobiological basis, management and prevention. Drug Saf 2009; 32: 475–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Rossi M, Gerschcovich ER, de Achaval D, et al. Decision-making in Parkinson’s disease patients with and without pathological gambling. Eur J Neurol 2010; 17: 97–102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Voon V, Fox SH. Medication-related impulse control and repetitive behaviors in Parkinson disease. Arch Neurol 2007; 64: 1089–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Frucht S, Rogers JD, Greene PE, et al. Falling asleep at the wheel: motor vehicle mishaps in persons taking pramipexole and ropinirole. Neurology 1999; 52: 1908–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Homann CN, Suppan K, Wenzel K, et al. Sleep attacks with apomorphine. Wien Klin Wochenschr 2002; 114: 430–1PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Ferreira JJ, Galitzky M, Montastruc JL, et al. Sleep attacks and Parkinson’s disease treatment. Lancet 2000; 355: 1333–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Schapira AH. Sleep attacks (sleep episodes) with pergolide. Lancet 2000; 355: 1332–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Tan EK. Piribedil-induced sleep attacks in Parkinson’s disease. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2003; 17: 117–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Ryan M, Slevin JT, Wells A. Non-ergot dopamine agonist-induced sleep attacks. Pharmacotherapy 2000; 20: 724–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Santens P. Sleep attacks in Parkinson’s disease induced by entacapone, a COMT-inhibitor. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2003; 17: 121–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Ferreira JJ, Thalamas C, Montastruc JL, et al. Levodopa monotherapy can induce “sleep attacks” in Parkinson’s disease patients. J Neurol 2001; 248: 426–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Ferreira JJ, Desboeuf K, Galitzky M, et al. Sleep disruption, daytime somnolence and ‘sleep attacks’ in Parkinson’s disease: a clinical survey in PD patients and age-matched healthy volunteers. Eur J Neurol 2006; 13: 209–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Hobson DE, Lang AE, Martin WR, et al. Excessive daytime sleepiness and sudden-onset sleep in Parkinson disease: a survey by the Canadian Movement Disorders Group. JAMA 2002; 287: 455–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Paus S, Brecht HM, Koster J, et al. Sleep attacks, daytime sleepiness, and dopamine agonists in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2003; 18: 659–67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Etminan M, Samii A, Takkouche B, et al. Increased risk of somnolence with the new dopamine agonists in patients with Parkinson’s disease: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Drug Saf 2001; 24: 863–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Tandberg E, Larsen JP, Karlsen K. Excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep benefit in Parkinson’s disease: a community-based study. Mov Disord 1999; 14: 922–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Razmy A, Lang AE, Shapiro CM. Predictors of impaired daytime sleep and wakefulness in patients with Parkinson disease treated with older (ergot) vs newer (nonergot) dopamine agonists. Arch Neurol 2004; 61: 97–102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Montastruc JL, Brefel-Courbon C, Senard JM, et al. Sleep attacks and antiparkinsonian drugs: a pilot prospective pharmacoepidemiologic study. Clin Neuropharmacol 2001; 24: 181–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Manni R, Terzaghi M, Sartori I, et al. Dopamine agonists and sleepiness in PD: review of the literature and personal findings. Sleep Med 2004; 5: 189–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Schlesinger I, Ravin PD. Dopamine agonists induce episodes of irresistible daytime sleepiness. Eur Neurol 2003; 49: 30–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Korner Y, Meindorfner C, Moller JC, et al. Predictors of sudden onset of sleep in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2004; 19: 1298–305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Brodsky MA, Godbold J, Roth T, et al. Sleepiness in Parkinson’s disease: a controlled study. Mov Disord 2003; 18: 668–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Ferreira JJ, Galitzky M, Thalamas C, et al. Effect of ropinirole on sleep onset: a randomized, placebo-controlled study in healthy volunteers. Neurology 2002; 58: 460–2PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Micallef J, Rey M, Eusebio A, et al. Antiparkinsonian drug-induced sleepiness: a double-blind placebo-controlled study of L-dopa, bromocriptine and pramipexole in healthy subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2009; 67: 333–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Homann CN, Wenzel K, Suppan K, et al. Sleep attacks in patients taking dopamine agonists: review. BMJ 2002; 324: 1483–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Hauser RA, Wahba MN, Zesiewicz TA, et al. Modafinil treatment of pramipexole-associated somnolence. Mov Disord 2000; 15: 1269–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Ondo WG, Fayle R, Atassi F, et al. Modafinil for daytime somnolence in Parkinson’s disease: double blind, placebo controlled parallel trial. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2005; 76: 1636–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Adler CH, Caviness JN, Hentz JG, et al. Randomized trial of modafinil for treating subjective daytime sleepiness in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2003; 18: 287–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Ben-Noun L. Drug-induced respiratory disorders: incidence, prevention and management. Drug Saf 2000; 23: 143–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Bhatt MH, Keenan SP, Fleetham JA, et al. Pleuropulmonary disease associated with dopamine agonist therapy. Ann Neurol 1991; 30: 613–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Ling LH, Ahlskog JE, Munger TM, et al. Constrictive pericarditis and pleuropulmonary disease linked to ergot dopamine agonist therapy (cabergoline) for Parkinson’s disease. Mayo Clin Proc 1999; 74: 371–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Mondal BK, Suri S. Pergolide-induced retroperitoneal fibrosis [letter]. Int J Clin Pract 2000; 54: 403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Shaunak S, Wilkins A, Pilling JB, et al. Pericardial, retroperitoneal, and pleural fibrosis induced by pergolide. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1999; 66: 79–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Agarwal P, Fahn S, Frucht SJ. Diagnosis and management of pergolide-induced fibrosis. Mov Disord 2004; 19: 699–704PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Horvath J, Fross RD, Kleiner-Fisman G, et al. Severe multivalvular heart disease: a new complication of the ergot derivative dopamine agonists. Mov Disord 2004; 19: 656–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Vergeret J, Barat M, Taytard A, et al. Pleuropulmonary fibrosis and bromocriptine. Sem Hop 1984; 60: 741–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Steiger M, Jost W, Grandas F, et al. Risk of valvular heart disease associated with the use of dopamine agonists in Parkinson’s disease: a systematic review. J Neural Transm 2009; 116: 179–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Rascol O, Pathak A, Bagheri H, et al. Dopaminagonists and fibrotic valvular heart disease: further considerations. Mov Disord 2004; 19: 1524–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Rascol O, Pathak A, Bagheri H, et al. New concerns about old drugs: valvular heart disease on ergot derivative dopamine agonists as an exemplary situation of pharmacovigilance. Mov Disord 2004; 19: 611–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Bowron A. Practical considerations in the use of apomorphine injectable. Neurology 2004; 62: S32–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Poewe W, Kleedorfer B, Wagner M, et al. Continuous subcutaneous apomorphine infusions for fluctuating Parkinson’s disease: long-term follow-up in 18 patients. Adv Neurol 1993; 60: 656–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Warshaw EM, Paller AS, Fowler JF, et al. Practical management of cutaneous reactions to the methylphenidate transdermal system: recommendations from a dermatology expert panel consensus meeting. Clin Ther 2008; 30: 326–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Fabre N, Montastruc JL, Rascol O. Alopecia: an adverse effect of bromocriptine. Clin Neuropharmacol 1993; 16: 266–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Burchill SA, Thody AJ, Ito S. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone, tyrosinase activity and the regulation of eumelanogenesis and phaeomelanogenesis in the hair follicular melanocytes of the mouse. J Endocrinol 1986; 109: 15–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Thody AJ, Ridley K, Carter RJ, et al. Alpha-MSH and coat color changes in the mouse. Peptides 1984; 5: 1031–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Sharif NA, McLaughlin MA, Kelly CR, et al. Cabergoline: pharmacology, ocular hypotensive studies in multiple species, and aqueous humor dynamic modulation in the Cynomolgus monkey eyes. Exp Eye Res 2009; 88: 386–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Pinter MM, Helscher RJ, Mundsperger N, et al. Transient increase of pancreatic enzymes evoked by apomorphine in Parkinson’s disease. J Neural Transm 1998; 105(10–12): 1237–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Lane RJ, Routledge PA. Drug-induced neurological disorders. Drugs 1983; 26: 124–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Muller T, Przuntek H, Kuhlmann A. Loss of color vision during long-term treatment with pramipexole. J Neurol 2003; 250: 101–2PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Sweetman SC. Martindale: the complete drug reference [online]. Available from URL: [Accessed 2009 Jun 1]
  230. 230.
    Antonini A, Tolosa E, Mizuno Y, et al. A reassessment of risks and benefits of dopamine agonists in Parkinson’s disease. Lancet Neurol 2009; 8: 929–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Moller JC, Eggert KM, Unger M, et al. Clinical risk-benefit assessment of dopamine agonists. Eur J Neurol 2008; 15 Suppl. 2: 15–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis Data Information BV 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Neurosciences, Faculty of MedicineHospital and University of Toulouse and INSERM CIC9023 and UMR 825ToulouseFrance
  2. 2.Clinical Pharmacology CenterRaul Carrea Institute for Neurological ResearchBuenos AiresArgentina

Personalised recommendations