Advertisement

American Journal of Clinical Dermatology

, Volume 12, Issue 2, pp 101–112 | Cite as

Nail Disorders in Children

Diagnosis and Management
  • Bertrand RichertEmail author
  • Josette André
Therapy In Practice Nail Disorders in Children

Abstract

Nail disorders in children can be divided into seven categories. The first is physiologic alterations, which every physician should be aware of in order to reassure parents. These usually disappear with age and do not require any treatment. Among congenital and inherited conditions, the nail-patella syndrome, with its pathognomonic triangular lunula, should not be missed as recognition of the disease allows early diagnosis of associated pathologies. The most common infection is the periungual wart, whose treatment is delicate. Herpetic whitlow should be distinguished from bacterial whitlow as their therapeutic approaches differ. Dermatologic diseases encompass eczema, psoriasis, lichen planus, lichen striatus, trachyonychia, and parakeratosis pustulosa. Lichen planus, when it presents as in adults, is important to recognize because, if not treated, it may lead to permanent nail loss. Systemic or iatrogenic nail alterations may be severe but are usually not the first clue to the diagnosis. Beau lines on several fingernails are very common in children after temperature crest. Tumors are rare in children. Radiographic examination allows confirmation of the diagnosis of subungual exostosis. Other cases should undergo biopsy. Single-digit longitudinal melanonychia in children is mostly due to nevi. Its management should be tailored on a case-by-case basis. Acute trauma should never be underestimated in children and hand surgeons should be involved if necessary. Onychophagia and onychotillomania are responsible for chronic trauma.

Keywords

Lichen Planus Epidermolysis Bullosa Pterygium Nail Plate Dyskeratosis Congenita 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

No sources of funding were used to prepare this review. The authors have no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this review.

References

  1. 1.
    Turano AF. Transverse ridging in early infancy. Pediatrics 1968; 41: 996–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wolf D, Wolf R, Goldberg MD. Beau’s lines: a case report. Cutis 1982; 29: 141Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Baran R, Dawber RPR, de Berker DAR. The nail in childhood and old age. In: Baran R, Dawber RPR, de Berker DAR, et al., editors. Diseases of the nail and their management. 3rd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 2001: 104–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tosti A, Piraccini BM. Nail disorders. In: Harper J, Oranje A, Prose N, editors. Textbook of pediatric dermatology. 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 2006: 1790–8Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Shuster S. The significance of chevron nails. Br J Dermatol 1996; 135: 151–2PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Parry EJ, Morley WN, Dawber RPR. Herringbone nails: an uncommon variant of nail growth in childhood? Br J Dermatol 1995; 132: 1021–2PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Harper KJ, Beer WE. Congenital malalignment of the great toenail: an inherited condition. Clin Exp Dermatol 1986; 11: 514–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Baran R, Haneke E. Congenital and/or hereditary conditions. In: Krull EA, Zook EG, Baran R, et al., editors. Nails surgery: a text and atlas. Philadelphia (PA): Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001: 365–8Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Baran R, Bureau H. Congenital malalignment of the big toe-nail as a cause of ingrowing toe-nail in infancy: pathology and treatment (a study of thirty cases). Clin Exp Dermatol 1983; 8: 619–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Baran R, Grognard C, Duhard E, et al. Congenital malalignment of the great toenail: an enigma solved by a novel surgical approach. Ann Dermatol Venereol 1998; 125 Suppl. 1: 1S56Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Handfield-Jones SE, Harman RPM. Spontaneous improvement of congenital malalignment of the great toenails [letter]. Br J Dermatol 1988; 118: 305–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Baran R. Significance and management of congenital malalignment of the big toenail. Cutis 1996; 58: 181–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Richert B, Choffray A, de la Brassinne M. Cosmetic surgery for congenital nail deformities. J Cosmet Dermatol 2008; 7: 304–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ronchese F. The racket thumbnail. Dermatologica 1973; 146: 199–202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fistarol SK, Itin PH. Nail changes in genodermatoses. Eur J Dermatol 2002; 12 (2): 119–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Martinet C, Pascal M, Civatte J, et al. Lateral nail-pad of the big toe in infants: a propos of 2 cases [in French]. Ann Dermatol Venereol 1984; 111: 731–2PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hammerton MD, Shrank AB. Congenital hypertrophy of the lateral nail folds of the hallux. Pediatr Dermatol 1988; 5: 243–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rufli T, von Schulthess A, Itin P. Congenital hypertrophy of the lateral nail folds of the hallux. Dermatology 1992; 184: 296–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cambiaghi S, Pistritto G, Gelmetti C. Congenital hypertrophy of the lateral nail folds of the hallux in twins. Br J Dermatol 1997; 136: 635–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Piraccini BM, Parente GL, Varotti E, et al. Congenital hypertrophy of the lateral nail folds of the hallux: clinical features and follow-up of 7 cases. Pediatr Dermatol 2000; 17 (5): 348–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Arai H, Arai T, Nakajima H, et al. Formable acrylic treatment for ingrowing nail with gutter splint and sculptured nail. Int J Dermatol 2004; 43: 759–65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Higashi N, Kume A, Tanogushi T, et al. Congenital curved nail of the fourth toe. J Ped Dermatol (Japan) 1999; 18: 99–101Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Isawa M, Hirose T, Matuso K. Congenital curved nail of the fourth toe. Plast Recontr Surg 1991; 87: 553–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Juhlin L, Baran R. Hereditary and congenital nail disorders. In: Baran R, Dawber RPR, de Berker DAR, et al., editors. Diseases of the nail and their management. 3rd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 2001: 370–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Tosti A, Peluso AM, Piraccini BM. Nail diseases in children. Adv Dermatol 1997; 13: 353–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tosti A, Baran R, Dawber RPR. The nail in systemic diseases and druginduced changes. In: Baran R, Dawber RPR, de Berker DAR, et al., editors. Diseases of the nail and their management. 3rd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Science, 2001: 223–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bongers EM, Gubler MC, Knoers NV. Nail-patella syndrome: overview on clinical and molecular findings. Pediatr Nephrol 2002; 17: 703–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dreyer SD, Zhou G, Baldini A, et al. Mutations in LMX1B cause abnormal skeletal patterning and renal dysplasia in nail patella syndrome. Nat Genet 1998; 19: 47–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Norton LA, Mescon H. Nail-patella-elbow syndrome. Arch Dermatol 1968; 98: 372–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Itin PH, Eich G, Fistarol SK. Missing creases of distal finger joints as a diagnostic clue of nail-patella syndrome. Dermatology 2006; 213: 153–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Vanhooteghem O, Henrijean A, Richert B, et al. Hereditary osteo-onychodysplasia (nail patella syndrome) [in French]. Ann Dermatol Vénéréol 2001; 128: 1063–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lourenço SV, Boggio PA, Fezzi FA et al. Dyskeratosis congenita: report of a case with emphasis on gingival aspect. Ped Dermatol 2009; 26: 176–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bolognia JL, Orlow SJ. Pigmentary disorders. In: Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Rapini RP, editors. Dermatology. Philadelphia (PA): Mosby, 2003: 935–1004Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Feinstein A, Friedman J, Schewack-Millet M. Pachyonychia congenita. J Am Acad Dermatol 1988; 19: 705–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Terrinoni A, Smith FJ, Didona B, et al. Novel and recurrent mutations in the genes encoding keratins K6a, K16 and K17 in 13 cases of pachyonychia congenita. J Invest Dermatol 2001; 117: 1391–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Iorizzo M, Vincenzi C, Smith FJ, et al. Pachyonychia congenita type I presenting with subtle nail changes. Pediatr Dermatol 2009; 26: 492–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Iraci S, Bianchi L, Gatti S, et al. Pachyonychia congenital with late onset of nail dystrophy: a new clinical entity? Clin Exp Dermatol 1993; 18: 478–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hannaford RS, Stapleton K. Pachyonychia congenita tarda. Australas J Dermatol 2000; 41: 175–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hoting E, Wassilew SW. Systemic retinoid therapy with etretinate in pachyonychia congenital [in German]. Hautarzt 1985; 36: 526–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Baran R, Haneke E. Matricectomy and nail ablation. Hand Clin 2002; 18: 69–70Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Fine JD, Eady RA, Bauer EA, et al. The classification of inherited epidermolysis bullosa (EB): report of the Third International Consensus Meeting on Diagnosis and Classification of EB. J Am Acad Dermatol 2008; 58: 931–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Tosti A, Cadore de Farias D, Murrell DF. Nail involvement in epidermolysis bullosa. Dermatol Clin 2010; 28: 153–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Tosti A, Piraccini BM, Scher RK. Isolated nail dystrophy suggestive of dominant dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa. Pediatr Dermatol 2003; 20: 456–67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Dharma B, Moss C, McGrath JA, et al. Dominant dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa presenting as familial nail dystrophy. Clin Exp Dermatol 2001; 26: 93–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lyon M, Doehring MC. Blistering distal dactylitis: a case series in children under nine months of age. J Emerg Med 2004; 26: 421–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ney AC, English 3rd JC, Greer KE. Coexistent infections on a child’s distal phalanx: blistering dactylitis and herpetic whitlow. Cutis 2002; 69: 46–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rigopoulos D, Larios G, Gregoriou S, et al. Acute and chronic paronychia. Am Fam Physician 2008; 77: 339–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    de Berker D. Childhood nail diseases. Dermatol Clin 2006; 24: 355–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Shaw J, Body R. Incision and drainage preferable to oral antibiotics in acute paronychial infection? Emerg Med J 2005; 22: 813–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Silverman PA. Diseases of the nail in infants and children. In: Callen JP, Dahl MV, Golitz LE, et al., editors. Advances in dermatology. Vol. 5. Chicago (IL): Year Book Medical, 1990: 153–71Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Szinnai G, Schaad UB, Heininger U. Multiple herpetic whitlow lesions in a 4-year-old girl: case report and review of the literature. Eur J Pediatr 2001; 160: 528–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Wu IB, Schwartz RA. Herpetic whitlow. Cutis 2007; 79: 193–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Feder Jr HM, Long SS. Herpetic whitlow: epidemiology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and treatment. Am J Dis Child 1983; 137: 861–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Tosti A, Piraccini B-M. Warts of the nail unit: surgical and non-approaches. Dermatol Surg 2001; 27: 235–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Läuchli S, Eichmann A, Baran R. Swelling of the proximal nail fold caused by underlying warts. Dermatology 2001; 202: 328–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Lambert J, Richert B, de la Brassinne M. Comment je traite y les verrues péri-unguéales. Rev Med Liège 1999; 54: 646–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Dawber R, Colver G, Jackson A. Viral warts, cryosurgical techniques. In: Dawber R, Colver G, Jackson A, editors. Cutaneous cryosurgery: principles and clinical practice. 2nd ed. London: Martin Dunitz, 1997: 43Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Adalatkhah H, Khalilollahi H, Amini N, et al. Compared therapeutic efficacy between intralesional bleomycin and cryotherapy for common warts: a randomized clinical trial. Dermatol Online J 2007; 13: 4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Miller RAW. Nail dystrophy following intralesional injection of bleomycin for a periungual wart. Arch Dermatol 1984; 141: 731–5Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Shelley WB, Shelley ED. Intralesional bleomycin sulfate for therapy for warts. Arch Dermatol 1991; 127: 234–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Vanhooteghem O, Richert B, de la Brassinne M. Raynaud phenomenon after treatment of verruca vulgaris of the sole with intralesional injection of bleomycin. Pediatr Dermatol 2001; 18 (3): 249–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Dasher DA, Burkhart CN, Morrell DS. Immunotherapy for childhood warts. Pediatr Ann 2009; 38: 373–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Signore RJ. Candida albicans intralesional injection immunotherapy of warts. Cutis 2002; 70: 185–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Perman M, Sterling GB, Gaspari A. The painful purple digit: an alarming complication of Candida albicans antigen treatment of recalcitrant warts. Dermatitis 2005; 16: 38–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Logan RA, Zachary CB. Outcome of carbon dioxide laser therapy for persistent cutaneous viral warts. Br J Dermatol 1989; 121: 99–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Ross BS, Levine VS, Nehal K, et al. Pulsed dye laser treatments of warts. Dermatol Surg 1999; 25: 377–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Langdon RE. Erbium-YAG laser enables complete ablation of periungual verrucae without the need for injected anesthetics. Dermatol Surg 1998; 24: 157–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Ginter-Hanselmayer G, Weger W, Smolle J. Onychomycosis: a new emerging infectious disease in childhood population and adolescents–report on treatment experience with terbinafine and itraconazole in 36 patients. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2008; 22: 470–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Lateur N, Mortaki A, André J. Two hundred ninety-six cases of onychomycosis in children and teenagers: a ten year laboratory survey. Pediatr Dermatol 2003; 20: 385–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Gupta AK, Skinner AR. Onychomycosis in children: a brief overview with treatment strategies. Pediatr Dermatol 2004; 21: 74–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Zaias N, Tosti A, Rebell G, et al. Autosomal dominant pattern of distal subungual onychomycosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum. J Am Acad Dermatol 1996; 34: 302–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Sigurgeirsson B, Kristinsson KG, Jonasson PS. Onychomycosis in Icelandic children. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2006; 20: 796–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Leibovici V, Evron R, Dunchin M, et al. A population-based study of toenail onychomycosis in Israeli children. Pediatr Dermatol 2009; 26: 95–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Romano C, Papini M, Ghilardi A, et al. Onychomycosis in children: a survey of 46 cases. Mycoses 2005; 48: 430–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Vásquez-del Mercado E, Arenas R. Onychomycosis among children: a retrospective study of 233 Mexican cases. Gac Med Mex 2008; 144 (1): 7–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Bonifaz A, Ibarra G. Onychomycosis in children: treatment with bifonazoleurea. Pediatr Dermatol 2000; 17: 310–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Baran R, Hay RJ, Garduno JI. Review of antifungal therapy, part II: treatment rationale, including specific patient populations. J Dermatolog Treat 2008; 19: 168–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Tosti A, Piraccini BM, Iorizzo M. Management of onychomycosis in children. Derm Clin 2003; 3: 507–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Tosti A, Piraccini BM, Ghetti E, et al. Topical steroids versus systemic antifungals in the treatment of chronic paronychia: an open, randomized doubleblind and double dummy study. J Am Acad Dermatol 2002; 47: 73–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Al-Mutairi N, Manchanda Y, Nour-Eldin O. Nail changes in childhood psoriasis: a study from Kuwait. Pediatr Dermatol 2007; 24: 7–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Goettmann S. Nail pathology in children [in French]. Rev Prat 2000; 50: 2256–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Diluvio L, Campione E, Paternò EJ, et al. Childhood nail psoriasis: a useful treatment with tazarotene 0.05%. Pediatr Dermatol 2007; 24: 332–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Trueb RM. Therapies for childhood psoriasis. Curr Probl Dermatol 2009; 38: 137–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Tosti A, Ricotti C, Romanelli P, et al. Evaluation of the efficacy of acitretin therapy for nail psoriasis. Arch Dermatol 2009; 145: 269–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Tosti A, Piraccini BM, Cambiaghi S, et al. Nail lichen planus in children. Arch Dermatol 2001; 137: 1027–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Peluso AM, Tosti A, Piraccini BM, et al. Lichen planus limited to the nails in childhood: case report and literature review. Pediatr Dermatol 1993; 10: 36–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Tosti A, Peluso AM, Misciali C, et al. Nail lichen striatus: clinical features and long term follow-up of five patients. J Am Acad Dermatol 1997; 36: 908–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Tosti A, Bardazzi F, Piraccini BM, et al. Idiopathic trachyonychia (twentynail dystrophy): a pathological study of 23 patients. Br J Dermatol 1994; 131: 866–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Richert B, André J. Trachyonychia: a clinical and histological study of 22 cases [abstract]. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 1999; 12 Suppl. 2: S126Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Sakata S, Howard A, Tosti A, et al. Follow up of 12 patients with trachyonychia. Australas J Dermatol 2006; 47: 166–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    De Dulanto F, Armijo-Moreno M, Camacho-Martinez F. Histological findings in parakeratosis pustulosa. Acta Derm Venereol 1974; 54: 356–67Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Tosti A, Peluso AM, Zuchelli V. Clinical features and long-term follow-up of 20 cases of parakeratosis pustulosa. Pediatr Dermatol 1998; 15 (4): 259–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Bernier V, Labrèze Ch, Bury F, et al. Nail matrix arrest in the course of hand, foot and mouth disease. Eur J Pediatr 2001; 160: 649–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Chen W, Yu YS, Liu YH, et al. Nail changes associated with chemotherapy in children. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2007; 21: 186–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Baran R, Juhlin L. Photo onycholysis. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 2002; 18: 202–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Davis DA, Cohen PR. Subungual exostosis: case report and review of the literature. Pediatr Dermatol 1996; 13: 212–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    de Berker DAR, Langtry J. Treatment of subungual exostosis by elective day care surgery. Br J Dermatol 1999; 140: 915–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Zeller J, Friedmann D, Clerici T, et al. The significance of a single periungual fibroma: report of seven cases. Arch Dermatol 1995; 131: 1465–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Webb DW, Clarke A, Fryer A, et al. The cutaneous features of tuberous sclerosis: a population study. Br J Dermatol 1996; 131: 1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Haneke E. Intraoperative differential diagnosis of onychomatricoma, Koenen’s tumours and hyperplastic Bowen’s disease [abstract]. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 1998; 11: S119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Baran R, Richert B. Common nail tumors. Dermatol Clin 2006; 24: 297–311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Goettmann-Bonvallot S, André J, Belaich S. Longitudinal melanonychia in children: a clinical and histopathologic study of 40 cases. J Am Acad Dermatol 1999; 41: 17–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Tosti A, Baran R, Piraccini BM, et al. Nail matrix nevi: a clinical and histopathological study of twenty-two patients. J Am Acad Dermatol 1996; 34: 765–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Iorizzo M, Tosti A, Di Chiacchio N, et al. Nail melanoma in children: differential diagnosis and management. Dermatol Surg 2008; 34: 974–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    André J, Goettmann-Bonvallot S. Longitudinal melanonychia [letter]. J Am Acad Dermatol 2003; 49: 776PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Hart RG, Kleinert HE. Fingertip and nail bed injuries. Emerg Med Clin North Am 1993; 11: 755–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Leung AK, Robson WL. Nail biting. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 1990; 29: 690–2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Joubert CE. Relationship of self-esteem, manifest anxiety and obsessivecompulsiveness to personal habits. Psychol Rep 1993; 26: 237–42Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Pacan P, Grzesiak M, Reich A, et al. Onychophagia as a spectrum of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Acta Derm Venereol 2009; 89: 278–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Lee DY. Chronic nail biting and irreversible shortening of the fingernails [letter]. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2009; 23: 185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Baydas B, Uslu H, Yavuz I, et al. Effect of a chronic nail-biting habit of the oral carriage of Enterobacteraceae. Oral Microbiol Immunol 2007; 22: 1–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Larsen CD, Stavisky E, Larsen MD, et al. Children’s hygiene and length as predictors of carious teeth. NY State Dent J 2007; 73: 33–7Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Cortese SG, Biondi AM. Relationship between dysfunctions and parafunctional oral habits and temporomandibular disorders in children and teenagers [in Spanish]. Arch Argent Pediatr 2009; 107: 134–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Tosti A, Peluso AM, Bardazzi F, et al. Phalangeal osteomyelitis due to nail biting. Acta Derm Venereol 1994; 74: 206–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Odenrick L, Brattström V. Nailbiting: frequency and association with root resorption during orthodontic treatment. Br J Orthod 1985; 12: 78–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Kozlowski JT. A non-invasive method for ending thumb and fingersucking habits [letter]. J Clin Orthod 2007; 41: 636PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Ozkaya E, Mirzoyeva L. Tosylamide/formaldehyde resin allergy in a young boy: exposure from bitter nail varnish used against nail biting. Contact Dermatitis 2009; 60: 171–2PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Berk M, Jeavons S, Dean OM, et al. Nail-biting stuff? The effect of N-acetylcysteine on nail-biting. CNS Spectr 2009; 14: 357–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Grant JE, Odlaug BL, Kim SW. N-acetylcysteine, a glutamate modulator in the treatment of onychotillomania: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2009; 66: 756–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Leonard HL, Lenane MC, Swedo SE, et al. A double-blind comparison of clomipramine and desipramine treatment of severe onychophagia (nail biting). Arch Gen Psychiatry 1991; 48: 821–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Koo JY, Smith LL. Obsessive-compulsive disorders in the pediatric dermatology practice. Pediatr Dermatol 1991; 8: 107–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Penzel F. Skin picking and nail biting: related habits [online]. Available from URL: (http://westsuffolkpsych.homestead.com/SkinPicking.html) [Accessed 2008 May 11]
  123. 123.
    Arnovitz B. Psychotherapies for compulsive self-injurious behavior. In: Hollander E, Simeon D, editors. Self-injurious behaviours: assessment and treatment. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, 2001: 97–112Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Richert B. Dystrophies non-traumatiques: l’ongle incarné. In: Dumontier CH, editor. Monographie de la société française de la chirurgie de la main. Paris: Elsevier, 2000: 27: 189–94Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    de Berker DA. Phenolic ablation of the nail matrix. Australas J Dermatol 2001; 42: 59–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Matsui T, Kidou M, Ono T. Infantile multiple ingrowing nails of the fingers induced by the grasp reflex: a new entity. Dermatology 2002; 205: 25–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis Data Information BV 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of DermatologyUniversity Hospital of LiègeLiègeBelgium
  2. 2.Department of Dermatology, University Hospitals Saint-Pierre and Brugmann and the Child University Hospital Reine FabiolaUniversité Libre de Bruxelles (ULB)BrusselsBelgium

Personalised recommendations