Sports Medicine

, Volume 40, Issue 12, pp 1019–1035 | Cite as

Fundamental Movement Skills in Children and Adolescents

Review of Associated Health Benefits
  • David R. Lubans
  • Philip J. Morgan
  • Dylan P. Cliff
  • Lisa M. Barnett
  • Anthony D. Okely
Review Article

Abstract

The mastery of fundamental movement skills (FMS) has been purported as contributing to children’s physical, cognitive and social development and is thought to provide the foundation for an active lifestyle. Commonly developed in childhood and subsequently refined into context- and sport-specific skills, they include locomotor (e.g. running and hopping), manipulative or object control (e.g. catching and throwing) and stability (e.g. balancing and twisting) skills. The rationale for promoting the development of FMS in childhood relies on the existence of evidence on the current or future benefits associated with the acquisition of FMS proficiency. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the relationship between FMS competency and potential health benefits in children and adolescents. Benefits were defined in terms of psychological, physiological and behavioural outcomes that can impact public health. A systematic search of six electronic databases (EMBASE, OVID MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus and Sport- Discus®) was conducted on 22 June 2009. Included studies were crosssectional, longitudinal or experimental studies involving healthy children or adolescents (aged 3–18 years) that quantitatively analysed the relationship between FMS competency and potential benefits. The search identified 21 articles examining the relationship between FMS competency and eight potential benefits (i.e. global self-concept, perceived physical competence, cardio-respiratory fitness [CRF], muscular fitness, weight status, flexibility, physical activity and reduced sedentary behaviour). We found strong evidence for a positive association between FMS competency and physical activity in children and adolescents. There was also a positive relationship between FMS competency and CRF and an inverse association between FMS competency and weight status. Due to an inadequate number of studies, the relationship between FMS competency and the remaining benefits was classified as uncertain. More longitudinal and intervention research examining the relationship between FMS competency and potential psychological, physiological and behavioural outcomes in children and adolescents is recommended.

Notes

Acknowledgements

No external funding was used for this project. The authors would like to thank Emily Hoffman and Kelly Magrann for their assistance in the retrieval of journal articles. The authors have no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this review.

References

  1. 1.
    Gallahue DL, Ozmun JC. Understanding motor development: infants, children, adolescents, adults. 6th ed. Boston(MA): McGraw-Hill, 2006Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Clark JE, Metcalfe JS. The mountain of motor development. In: Clark JE, Humprehy JH, editors. Motor development:research and reviews. Vol. 2. Reston (VA): National Associationof Sport & Physical Education, 2002: 163–90Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Stodden D, Goodway JD, Langendorfer S, et al. A developmental perspective on the role of motor skill competencein physical activity: an emergent relationship. Quest 2008; 60: 290–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Clark JE. From the beginning: a developmental perspective on movement and mobility. Quest 2005; 57: 37–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Payne VG, Isaacs LD. Human motor development: a lifespan approach. 3rd ed. Mountain View (CA): Mayfield,1995Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Goodway JD, Branta CF. Influence of a motor skill intervention on fundamental motor skill development of disadvantagedpreschool children. Res Q Exerc Sport 2003; 74: 36–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    National Association for Sport and Physical Education. Active Start: a statement of physical activity guidelines forchildren birth to five years. Reston (VA): NASPE Publications, 2004Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    National Association for Sport and Physical Education. Moving into the future: national standards for physical education. Reston (VA): McGraw-Hill, 2004Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Department for Education and Employment. The National Curriculum for England: physical education. London: Crown/Qualifications and Curriculum Authority, 1999Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Okely AD, Booth ML. Mastery of fundamental movement skills among children in New South Wales: prevalence andsociodemographic distribution. J Sci Med Sport 2004; 7 (3): 358–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Erwin HE, Castelli DM. National physical education standards: a summary of student performance and its correlates. Res Q Exerc Sport 2008; 79 (4): 495–505PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Booth M, Okely AD, McLellan L, et al. Mastery of fundamental motor skills among New South Wales school students: prevalence and socio demographic distribution. J Sci Med Sport 1999; 2 (2): 93–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pangrazi RP. Dynamic physical education for elementary school children. 14th ed. San Francisco (CA): Pearson Education, 2004Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Moher D, Cook DJ, Eastwood S, et al. Improving the quality of reports of meta-analyses of randomised controlledtrials: the QUOROM statement. Lancet 1999; 354 (27): 1896–900PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    von Elm E, Altman DG, Egger M, et al. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology(STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observationalstudies. Prev Med 2007; 370 (9596): 1453–7Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Moher D, Schulz KF, Altman DG. The CONSORT statement: revised recommendations for improving the qualityof reports of parallel-group randomized trials. Ann Intern Med 2001; 134: 657–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sallis JF, Prochaska JJ, Taylor WC. A review of correlates of physical activity of children and adolescents. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000; 32 (5): 963–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hinkley T, Crawford D, Salmon J, et al. Preschool children and physical activity: a review of correlates. Am J Prev Med 2008; 34 (5): 435–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Van der Horst, Paw MJCA, Twisk JWR, et al. A brief review on correlates of physical activity and sedentarinessin youth. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2007; 39 (8): 1241–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Martinek T, Cheffers J, Zaichkowsky L. Physical activity, motor development and self-concept: race and age differences. Percept Mot Skills 1978; 46: 147–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rudisill ME, Mahar MT, Meaney KS. The relationship between children’s perceived and actual motor competence. Percept Mot Skills 1993; 76 (3): 895–906PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Marshall J, Bouffard M. The effects of quality daily physical education on movement competency in obese versus nonobesechildren. Adapt Phys Act Q 1997; 14: 222–37Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Reeves L, Broeder CE, Kennedy-Honeycutt L, et al. Relationship of fitness and gross motor skills for five-to-sixyear-old children. Percept Mot Skills 1999; 89: 739–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Okely A, Booth ML, Patterson JW. Relationship of cardiorespiratory endurance to fundamental movement skill proficiencyamong adolescents. Pediatr Exerc Sci 2001; 13 (4): 380–91Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Okely A, Booth ML, Patterson JW. Relationship of physical activity to fundamental movement skills among adolescents. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001; 33 (11): 1899–904PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    McKenzie T, Sallis J, Broyles S, et al. Childhood movement skills: predictors of physical activity in Anglo Americanand Mexican American adolescents? Res Q Exerc Sport 2002; 73 (3): 238–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Okely AD, Booth ML, Chey T. Relationships between body composition and fundamental movement skills amongchildren and adolescents. Res Q Exerc Sport 2004; 75 (3): 238–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Graf C, Koch B, Kretschmann-Kandel E, et al. Correlation between BMI, leisure habits and motor abilities in childhood(CHILT-Project). Int J Obes 2004; 28: 22–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Southall J, Okely A, Steele J. Actual and perceived physical competence in overweight and non-overweight children. Pediatr Exerc Sci 2004; 16: 15–24Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Fisher A, Reilly JJ, Kelly LA, et al. Fundamental movement skills and habitual physical activity in young children. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2005; 37 (4): 684–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hamstra-Wright K, Swanik B, Sitler M, et al. Gender comparisons of dynamic restraint and motor skill in children. Clin J Sports Med 2006; 16 (1): 56–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Castelli D, Valley J. The relationship of physical fitness and motor competence to physical activity. J Teach Phys Educ 2007; 26: 358–74Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Barnett LM, van Beurden E, Morgan PJ, et al. Does childhood motor skill proficiency predict adolescent fitness? Med Sci Sports Exerc 2008; 40 (12): 2137–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Barnett LM, Morgan PJ, van Beurden E, Beard JR. Perceived sports competence mediates the relationship betweenchildhood motor skill proficiency and adolescentphysical activity and fitness: a longitudinal assessment. IntJ Behav Nutr Phys Act. Epub 2008 Aug 8Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hume C, Okely A, Bagley S, et al. Does weight status influence associations between chidlren’s fundamentalmovement skills and physical activity? Res Q Exerc Sport 2008; 79 (2): 158–65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Williams HG, Pfeiffer KA, O’Neill JR, et al. Motor skill performance and physical activity in preschool children. Obesity 2008; 16: 1421–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Barnett LM, van Beurden E, Morgan PJ, et al. Childhood motor skill proficiency as a predictor of adolescent physicalactivity. J Adolesc Health 2009; 44 (3): 252–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    D’Hondt E, Deforche B, De Bourdeaudhuij I, et al. Relationship between motor skill and body mass index in 5- to10-year-old children. Adapt Phys Act Q 2009; 26 (1): 21–37Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Cliff DP, Okely AD, Smith LM, et al. Relationships between fundamental movement skills and objectively measuredphysical activity in preschool children. Pediatr Exerc Sci 2009; 21: 436–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Okely A, Booth M, Chey T. Relationships between body composition and fundamental movement skills amongchildren and adolescents. Res Q Exerc Sport 2004; 75 (3): 238–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    D’Hondt E, Deforche B, De Bourdeaudhuij I, et al. Relationship between motor skill and body mass index in 5 to10 year old children. Adapt Phys Act Q 2009; 26: 21–37Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Stodden D, Langendorfer S, Roberton MA. The association between motor skill competence and physical fitness inyoung adults. Res Q Exerc Sport 2009; 80 (2): 223–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Runion BP, Roberton MA, Langendorfer SJ. Forceful overarm throwing: a comparison of two cohorts measured20 years apart. Res Q Exerc Sport 2003; 74 (3): 324–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    American College of Sports Medicine. Physical fitness in children and youth. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1988; 20: 422–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Wrotniak BH, Epstein LH, Dorn JM, et al. The relationship between motor proficiency and physical activity in children. Pediatr 2006; 118 (6): e1758–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Saakslahti A, Numminen P, Niinikoski H, et al. Is physical activity related to body size, fundamental motor skills andCHD risk factors in early childhood? Pediatr Exerc Sci 1999; 11: 327–40Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Raudsepp L, Liblik R. Relationship of perceived and actual motor competence in children. Percept Mot Skills 2002; 94: 1059–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Raudsepp L, Pall P. The relationship between fundamental motor skills and outside school physical activity of elementaryschool children. Pediatr Exerc Sci 2006; 18: 426–35Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Reilly J, Kelly L, Montgomery C, et al. Physical activity to prevent obesity in young children: cluster randomisedcontrolled trial. BMJ 2006; 333: 1041–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Salmon J, Ball K, Hume C, et al. Outcomes of a grouprandomized trial to prevent excess weight gain, reducescreen behaviors and promote physical activity in 10-yearoldchildren: Switch-Play. Int J Obes 2008; 32: 601–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Lubans DR, Foster C, Biddle SJH. A review of mediators of behavior in interventions to promote physical activityamong children and adolescents. Prev Med 2008; 47: 463–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Raudsepp L. Gender differences in fundamental movement patterns, motor performances and strengthmeasurements of prepubertal children. Pediatr Exerc Sci 1995; 7: 294–304Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    van Beurden E, Barnett LM, Zask A, et al. Can we skill and activate children through primary school physicaleducation lessons? Move it Groove it’: a collaborativehealth promotion intervention. Prev Med 2003; 36 (4): 493–501PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Goodway J, Crowe H, Ward P. Effects of motor skill instruction on fundamental motor skill development. Adapt Phys Act Q 2003; 20: 298–314Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Haubenstricker J, Wisner D, Seefeldt V, et al. Gender differences and mixed-longitudinal norms on selected motorskills for children and youth [abstract]. J Sport Exerc Psych 1997; 19: S63Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Branta C, Haudenstricker J, Seefeldt V. Age changes in motor skills during childhood and adolesence. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 1984; 12: 467–520PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Morgan PJ, Hansen V. Classroom teachers’ perceptions of the impact of barriers to teaching PE on the quality of PEprograms delivered in primary schools. Res Q Exerc Sport 2008; 79: 506–16PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis Data Information BV 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • David R. Lubans
    • 1
  • Philip J. Morgan
    • 1
  • Dylan P. Cliff
    • 2
  • Lisa M. Barnett
    • 3
  • Anthony D. Okely
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Education, Callaghan CampusUniversity of NewcastleNewcastleAustralia
  2. 2.Interdisciplinary Educational Research InstituteUniversity of WollongongWollongongAustralia
  3. 3.Centre for Physical Activity and NutritionDeakin UniversityMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations