Background: Adverse drug events (ADEs) are an important problem in hospital practice. Computerized physician order entry (CPOE) and clinical decision support systems (CDSS) are useful tools in the prevention of ADEs. In the Netherlands there are some basic CDSS within CPOE systems, but there is not much experience with sophisticated systems. We have recently developed a more advanced CDSS, a computerized adverse drug event alerting system (ADEAS).
Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the newly developed ADEAS, which uses a set of clinical rules, with the conventional medication surveillance, a basic CDSS within a CPOE, to assess its additional value in detecting patients with a potential ADE.
Setting: Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC), a university hospital in Leiden, the Netherlands.
Design: Two studies were carried out; one retrospective and one prospective.The retrospective comparison of ADEAS with conventional medicationsurveillance was conducted on all patients admitted to the hospital (exceptintensive care unit patients) during a 1-month period (15 November-15 December2006). A prospective comparison of both systems was performedduring a 6-month period (May–October 2007) on one general internal medicineward.
Measurements: The endpoint was the total number of alerts and content of alerts generated by both methods. In the prospective study we also focused on the number of unique alerts and interventions by the hospital pharmacist following the alerts.
Results: In the retrospective study, ADEAS generated 2010 alerts compared with 2322 generated by the conventional method. In the prospective study, 248 and 177 alerts were generated by ADEAS and the conventional method, respectively. The number of unique alerts was 85 (of which 72 were considered true positive alerts) and 136, respectively. The hospital pharmacist made 14 (19.4%) interventions following a true positive alert with ADEAS and 5 (3.7%) with the conventional method. The contents of alerts generated by ADEAS were different to the safety alerts generated by conventional medication surveillance. The conventional medication surveillance generated safety alerts regarding drug-drug interactions and drug-overdosing. ADEAS generated alerts regarding declined renal function or other laboratory abnormalities and absence of essential concurrent medication.
Conclusions: Compared with our conventional medication surveillance, the computerized alert system ADEAS selected different patients at risk for an ADE. This makes ADEAS in our hospital of additional value to the hospital pharmacist as a suitable tool in reducing the number of preventable ADEs.
Positive Predictive Value Clinical Decision Support System Hospital Information System Computerize Physician Order Entry Hospital Pharmacist
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This study is financially supported by the Dutch Society of Hospital Pharmacists (NVZA), the Dutch Society of Hospital Physicians (OMS) and the Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sports. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare that are directly relevant to the content of this study.
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