Sports Medicine

, Volume 40, Issue 10, pp 841–858 | Cite as

The Extent to Which Behavioural and Social Sciences Theories and Models are Used in Sport Injury Prevention Research

  • Angela J. McGlashan
  • Caroline F. FinchEmail author
Review Article


Behavioural and social science theories and models (BSSTM) can enhance efforts to increase health and safety behaviours, such as the uptake and maintenance of injury prevention measures. However, the extent to which they have been used in sports injury research to date is currently unknown. A systematic review of 24 electronic databases was undertaken to identify the extent to which BSSTM have been incorporated into published sports injury prevention research studies and to identify which theories were adopted and how they were used. After assessment against specific inclusion and exclusion criteria, the full text of 100 potentially relevant papers was reviewed in detail. These papers were classified as follows: (i) explicit — the use of BSSTM was a stated key aspect in the design or conduct of the study; or (ii) atheoretical — there was no clear evidence for the use of BSSTM. The studies that explicitly mentioned BSSTM were assessed for how BSSTM were specifically used. Amongst the 100 identified papers, only eleven (11% of the total) explicitly mentioned BSSTM. Of these, BSSTM were most commonly used to guide programme design/implementation (n = 8) and/or to measure a theory/construct (n = 7). In conclusion, very few studies relating to sport safety behaviours have explicitly used any BSSTM. It is likely that future sports injury prevention efforts will only be enhanced, and achieve successful outcomes, if increased attention is given to fully understanding the behavioural determinants of safety actions. Appropriate use of BSSTM is critical to provide the theoretical basis to guide these efforts.


Injury Prevention Sport Injury Health Belief Model Personal Protective Equipment Theory Application 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors have no financial or conflicting interests. Angela McGlashan was supported by a Postgraduate Research Scholarship funded from a National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) funded research project (Project ID: 400937). Caroline Finch is supported by an NHMRC Principal Research Fellowship. Comments on a draft version of the paper were received from Dr Dara Twomey, Dr Peta White and Ms Rebecca McQueen.

Supplementary material

40279_2012_40100841_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (120 kb)
Supplementary material, approximately 123 KB.


  1. 1.
    Finch C, Cassell E. The public health impact of injury during sport and active recreation. J Sci Med Sport 2006; 9: 490–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gabbe BJ, Finch C, Cameron PA, et al. Incidence of serious injury and death during sport and recreational activities inVictoria, Australia. Br J Sports Med 2005; 39: 573–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing. Sports safety in Australia: an update 2003. 2004 [online]. Available from URL: [Accessed2008 Mar 12]Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Conn JM, Annest JL, Gilchrist J. Sports and recreationrelated injury episodes in the U.S. population 1997-1999. Inj Prev 2003; 9 (2): 117–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chalmers DJ. Injury prevention in sport: not yet part of the game? Inj Prev 2002; 8 Suppl. IV: 22–5Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    National Centre for Injury Prevention and Control. CDC injury research agenda. 2002 [online]. Available from URL: [Accessed 2008 Feb 3]Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Finch C, Owen N. Injury prevention and the promotion of physical activity: what is the nexus? J Sci Med Sport 2001; 4 (1): 77–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Commonwealth Department of Human Services and Health. Better health outcomes for Australians: nationalgoals, targets and strategies for better health outcomesinto the next century. Canberra (ACT): Australian Government Publishing Service, 1994Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bahr R, Krosshaug T. Understanding injury mechanisms: a key component of preventing injuries in sport. Br JSports Med 2005; 39 (6): 324–9Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Meeuwisse WH, Tyreman H, Hagel B, et al. A dynamic model of etiology in sport injury: the recursive nature ofrisk and causation. Clin J Sports Med 2007; 17 (3): 215–9Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    McIntosh AS. Risk compensation, motivation, injuries, and biomechanics in competitive sport. Br J Sports Med 2005; 39 (1): 2–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Finch C. A new framework for research leading to sports injury prevention. J Sci Med Sport 2006; 9: 3–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Finch CF, Donaldson A. A sports setting matrix for understanding the implementation context for communitysport. Br J Sports Med. Epub 2009 Feb 6Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Aaltonen S, Karjalaionen H, Heinonen A, et al. Prevention of sports injuries: systematic review of randomized controlledtrials. Arch Intern Med 2007; 167: 1585–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Parkkari J, Kujala UM, Kannus P. Is it possible to prevent sports injuries? Review of controlled clinical trials andrecommendations for future work. Sports Med 2001; 31 (14): 985–95854 McGlashan & FinchPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yang J, Bowling M, Lewis MA, et al. Use of discretionary protective equipment in high school athletes: prevalenceand determinants. Am J Public Health 2005; 95 (11): 1996–2002PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Trifiletti LB, Gielen AC, Sleet DA, et al. Behavioral and social sciences theories and models: are they used in unintentionalinjury prevention research? Health Educ Res 2005; 20 (3): 298–307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Van Tiggelen D, Wickes S, Stevens V, et al. Effective prevention of sports injuries: a model integrating efficacy,efficiency, compliance and risk-taking behaviour. Br JSports Med 2008; 42 (8): 648–52Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gielen AC, Sleet DA. Application of behaviour-change theories andmethods to injury prevention. Epidemiol Rev 2003; 25: 65–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Thompson NJ, Sleet D, Sacks JJ. Increasing the use of bicycle helmets: lessons from behavioral science. Patient Educ Couns 2002; 46: 191–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gielen AC, Girasek DC. Integrating perspectives on the prevention of unintentional injuries. In: Schneiderman N, Speers MA, Silva JM, et al., editors. Integrating behavioral and social sciences with public health. Washington,DC: American Psychological Association, 2001: 203–30Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gielen AC. Health education and injury control: integrating approaches. Health Educ Q 1992; 19: 203–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Glanz K, Rimer BK, Lewis FM. Health behavior and health education: theory, research, and practice. 3rd ed. San Francisco (CA): Jossey-Bass, 2002Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Eime R, Owen N, Finch C. Protective eyewear promotion: applying principles of behaviour change in the design of asquash injury prevention programme. Sports Med 2004; 34 (10): 629–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gielen AC, Sleet DA, DiClemente RJ. Injury and violence prevention: behavioral science theories, methods, andapplications. San Francisco (CA): Jossey-Bass, 2006Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Michie S, Abraham C. Interventions to change health behaviours: evidence-based or evidence-inspired? Psychol Health 2004; 19 (1): 29–49Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Simpson J, Chalmers D, Waller A. The New Zealand rugby injury and performance project: developing ‘Tackling Rugby Injury’, a national injury prevention program. Health Promo J Aust 2002; 13 (1): 44–50Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Abernathy L, Bleakley C. Strategies to prevent injury in adolescent sport: a systematic review. Br J Sports Med 2007; 41: 627–38Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Padua DA, Marshall SW. Evidence supporting ACL injury-prevention exercise programs: a review of the literature. Athl Ther Today 2006; 11 (2): 10–6Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Echlin PS, Upshur REG, Peck DM, et al. Craniomaxillofacial injury in sport: a review of prevention research. Br J Sports Med 2005; 39: 254–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Pollack KM, Canham-Chervak M, Gazal-Carvalho C, et al. Interventions to prevent softball related injuries: areview of the literature. Inj Prev 2005; 11: 277–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Thacker SB, Stroup DF, Branche CM, et al. Prevention of knee injuries in sports: a systematic review of the literature. J Sport Med Phys Fitness 2003; 43: 165–79Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Nutbeam D, Bauman A. Evaluation in a nutshell: a practical guide to the evaluation of health promotion programs. Sydney (NSW): McGraw-Hill, 2006Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Nutbeam D, Harris H. Theory in a nutshell: a practical guide to health promotion theories. 2nd ed. Sydney(NSW): McGraw-Hill, 2004Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Braham R, Finch CF, McIntosh AS, et al. Community football players’ attitudes towards protective equipment:a pre-season measure. Br J Sports Med 2004; 38: 426–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Comstock RD, Fields SK, Knox CL. Protective equipment use among female rugby players. Clin J Sports Med 2005; 15 (4): 239–43Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hennessy B, Murray I, O’Connor K, et al. Prevailing attitudes amongst current senior intercounty hurlers to headand facial protection: a pilot study. Ir JMed Sci 2007; 176: 279–81Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Williams-Avery R, MacKinnon DP. Injuries and use of protective equipment among college in-line skaters. Accid Anal Prev 1996; 28 (6): 779–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Deroche T, Stephan Y, Castanier C, et al. Social cognitive determinants of the intention to wear safety gearamong adult in-line skaters. Accid Anal Prev 2009; 41: 1064–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kroncke EL, Niedfeldt MW, Young CC. Use of protective equipment by adolescents in inline skating, skateboarding,and snowboarding. Clin J Sports Med 2008; 18 (1): 38–43Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    De Nooijer J, De Wit M, Steenhuis I. Why young Dutch inline skaters do (not) use protective equipment. Eur J Pub Health 2004; 14: 178–81Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lehl G. Perception of Chandigarh sports coaches regarding oro-facial injuries and their prevention. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2005; 23 (2): 67–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Eime R, Finch CF, Sherman CA, et al. Are squash players protecting their eyes? Inj Prev 2002; 8: 239–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Eime R, Finch CF, Owen N, et al. The effectiveness of a squash eyewear promotion strategy. Br J Sports Med 2005; 39: 681–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Eime R, McCarty C, Finch CF, et al. Unprotected eyes in squash: not seeing the risk of injury. J Sci Med Sport 2005; 8 (1): 92–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Eime R, Finch CF. Have the attitudes of Australian squash players towards protective eyewear changed over the pastdecade? Br J Sports Med 2002; 36: 442–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Finch C, Vear P. What do adult squash players think about protective eyewear? Br J Sports Med 1998; 32 (2): 155–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Eime R, Finch CF, Owen N, et al. Knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of squash venue operators relating to use of protectiveeyewear. Inj Control Saf Promot 2004; 11 (1): 47–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Genovese MT, Lenzo NP, Lim RK, et al. Eye injuries among pennant squash players and their attitudes towardsprotective eyewear. Med J Aust 1990; 153 (17): 655–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Woods SE, Zabat E, Daggy M, et al. Face protection in recreational hockey players. Fam Med 2007; 39 (7): 473–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Danis RP, Hu K, Bell M. Acceptability of baseball face guards and reduction of oculofacial injury in receptiveyouth league players. Inj Prev 2000; 6: 232–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Finch CF, McIntosh AS, McCrory P. What do under 15 year old schoolboy rugby union players think about protectiveheadgear? Br J Sports Med 2001; 35: 89–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Finch CF, McIntosh AS, McCrory P, et al. A pilot study of the attitudes of Australian Rules footballers towardsprotective headgear. J Sci Med Sport 2003; 6 (4): 505–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kahanov L, Dusa MJ, Wilkinson S, et al. Self-reported headgear use and concussions among collegiate men’srugby union players. Res Sports Med 2005; 13: 77–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Taylor DM, Bennett D, Garewal D, et al. Perceptions of surfboard riders regarding the need for protective headgear. Wilderness Environ Med 2005; 16: 75–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Condie C, Rivara FP, Bergman AB. Strategies of a successful campaign to promote the use of equestrian helmets. Public Health Rep 1993; 108 (1): 121–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Schuller DE, Dankle SK, Martin M, et al. Auricular injury and the use of headgear in wrestlers. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1989; 115 (6): 714–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Andersen PA, Buller DB, Scott MD, et al. Prevalence and diffusion of helmet use at ski areas in Western North America in 2001-02. Inj Prev 2004; 10: 358–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Clingenpeel JM, Marshall SW. Helmet rental practices in United States ski areas: a national survey. Inj Prev 2003; 9: 317–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Evans B, Gervais JT, Heard K, et al. Ski patrollers: reluctant role models for helmet use. Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot 2009; 16 (1): 9–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Pettersen JA. Does rugby headgear prevent concussion? Attitudes of Canadian players and coaches. Br J Sports Med 2002; 36: 19–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Chapman PJ. Orofacial injuries and the use of mouthguards by the 1984 Great Britain rugby league touringteam. Br J Sports Med 1985; 19: 34–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Chapman PJ. Attitudes to mouthguards and prevalence of orofacial injuries in international rugby: a study of the1990 Wallabies. Aust J Sci Med Sport 1991; 23: 115–7Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Chapman PJ, Nasser BP. Prevalence of orofacial injuries and use of mouthguards in high school rugby union. Aust Dent J 1996; 41 (4): 252–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Chapman PJ, Nasser BP. Attitudes to mouthguards and prevalence of orofacial injuries in four teams competing atthe second rugby world cup. Br J Sports Med 1993; 27 (3): 197–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Chapman PJ. Orofacial injuries and international rugby players’ attitudes to mouthguards. Br J Sports Med 1990; 24 (3): 156–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Upson N. Dental injuries and the attitudes of rugby players to mouthguards. Br J Sports Med 1982; 16 (4): 241–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Rayner W. Mouthguard use in match play and training in a cohort of professional rugby league players. Intl J Sports Sci Coach 2008; 3 (1): 87–93Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Davies RM, Bradley D, Hale RW, et al. The prevalence of dental injuries in rugby players and their attitude tomouthguards. Br J Sports Med 1977; 11: 72–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Chapman PJ. Players’ attitudes to mouthguards and prevalence of orofacial injuries in the 1987 U.S. rugby football team. Am J Sports Med 1989; 17 (5): 690–1PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Godwin WC, Bagramian RA, Robinson E. The utilisation of mouth-protectors by freshman football players. J Public Health Dent 1972; 32 (1): 22–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Rosenberg N. Acceptability of mouth protectors by high school football players. Public Health Rep 1963; 78 (11): 941–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Nachman BM, Smith JF, Richardson FS. Football players’ opinions of mouthguards. J Am Dent Assoc 1965; 70: 62–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Maestrello-deMoya MG, Primosch RE. Orofacial trauma and mouth-protector wear among high school varsitybasketball players. J Dent Child 1989; 56 (1): 36–9Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Cornwell H, Messer LB, Speed H. Use of mouthguards by basketball players in Victoria, Australia. Dent Traumatol 2003; 19: 193–203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Ma W. Basketball players’ experience of dental injury and awareness about mouthguard in China. Dent Traumatol 2008; 24: 430–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Berry DC, Miller MG, Leow W. Attitudes of central collegiate hockey association ice hockey players towardathletic mouthguard usage. J Public Health Dent 2005; 65 (2): 71–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Miller MG, Berry DC, Gariepsy GS, et al. Attitudes of high school ice hockey players toward mouthguard usage. IJAHSP 2006; 4 (4): 1–6Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Hendrick K, Farrelly P, Jagger R. Oro-facial injuries and mouthguard use in elite female field hockey players. Dent Traumatol 2008; 24: 189–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Eroglu E, Diljin KA, Lutfi BM. Elite tae kwon do athletes’ satisfaction with custom-made mouthguards. Dent Traumatol 2006; 22: 193–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Yamada T, Sawaski Y, Tomida I, et al. Oral injury and mouthguard usage by athletes in Japan. Endod DentTramatol 1998; 14: 84–7Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Teo CS, Stokes AN, Loh T, et al. A survey of tooth injury experience and attitudes to prevention in a group of Singapore schoolboys. Ann Acad Med Singapore 1995; 24 (1): 23–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Onyeaso CO, Adegbesan OA. Oro-facial injury and mouthguard usage by athletes in Nigeria. Int Dent J 2003; 53 (4): 231–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Berg R, Berkley DB, Tang JMW, et al. Knowledge and attitudes of Arizona high school coaches regarding oral facial injuries and mouth guard use among athletes. J Am Dent Assoc 1998; 129: 1425–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Onyeaso CO, Adegbesan OA. Knowledge and attitudes of coaches of secondary school athletes in Ibadan, Nigeriaregarding oro-facial injuries and mouthguard use by theathletes. Dent Traumatol 2003; 19 (4): 204–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Lieger O, von Arx T. Orofacial/cerebal injuries and the use of mouthguards by professional athletes in Switzerland. Dent Traumatol 2006; 22: 1–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Ferrari CH, de Medeiros JMF. Dental trauma and level of information: mouthguard use in different contact sports. Dent Traumatol 2002; 18 (2): 144–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Ranalli DN, Lancaster DM. Attitudes of college football coaches regarding NCAA mouthguard regulations andplayer compliance. J Public Health Dent 1995; 55 (3): 139–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Hawn KL, Visser MF, Sexton PJ. Enforcement of mouthguard use and athlete compliance in national collegiateathletic association men’s collegiate ice hockey competition. J Athl Train 2002; 37 (2): 204–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Lancaster DM, Ranalli DN. Comparative evaluation of college football officials’ attitudes toward NCAA mouth guard regulations and player compliance. Pediatr Dent 1993; 15 (6): 398–402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Pribble JM, Maio RF, Freed GL. Parental perceptions regarding mandatory mouthguard use in competitive youthsoccer. Inj Prev 2004; 10: 159–62856 McGlashan & FinchPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Diab N, Mourino AP. Parental attitudes toward mouthguards. Pediatr Dent 1997; 19: 455–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Walker J, Jakobsen J, Brown S. Attitudes concerning mouthguard use in 7- to 8-year-old children. J Dent Child 2002; 69 (2): 207–11Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Kumamoto DP, Meleedy-Rey MS, Thayer-Doyle C. Project mouthguard: a survey of Illinois dentists’ attitudes onmouthguards. CDS Review 1998; 91 (1): 28–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Maestrello CL, Mourino AP, Farrington FH. Dentists’ attitudes toward mouthguard protection. Pediatr Dent 1999; 21 (6): 340–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Stokes AN, Teo CS, Bagramian RA, et al. Singapore dentists’ knowledge, advocacy and utilisation of mouthguards. Singapore Dent J 1993; 18 (1): 39–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Onyeaso CO, Arowojolu MO, Okoje VN. Nigerian dentists’ knowledge and attitudes towards mouthguard protection. Dent Traumatol 2004; 20: 187–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Cetinbas T, Sonmez H. Mouthguard utilisation rates during sport activities in Ankara, Turkey. Dent Traumatol 2006; 22: 127–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Duymus ZY, Gungor H. Use of mouthguard rates among university athletes during sport activities in Erzurum,Turkey. Dent Traumatol 2009; 25: 318–22Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Lang B, Pohl Y, Fillippi A. Knowledge and prevention of dental trauma in team handball in Switzerland andGermany. Dent Traumatol 2002; 18: 329–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Persic R, Pohl Y, Fillippi A. Dental squash injuries: a survey among players and coaches in Switzerland, Germanyand France. Dent Traumatol 2006; 22: 231–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Seals RR, Morrow RM, Kuebker WA, et al. An evaluation of mouthguard programs in Texas high school football. J Am Dent Assoc 1985; 110: 904–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Chatterjee M, Hilton I. A comparison of the attitudes and beliefs of professional rugby players from one club andparents of children playing rugby at an adjacent amateurclub to the wearing of mouthguards. Prim Dent Care 2007; 14 (3): 111–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Jolly KA, Messer LB, Manton D. Promotion of mouthguards among amateur football players in Victoria. AustN Z J Public Health 1996; 20 (6): 630–9Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Cohen S. A study of the use of mouth protection in the sport of ice hockey. Pa Dent J 1975; 77 (2-3): 33–4Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Yamamoto LG, Inaba AS, Okamura DM, et al. Injury reduction and bounce characteristics of safety baseballsand acceptability by youth leagues. Clin Pediatr 2001: 197–203Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Rosen JC, Johnson RJ, Lefebvre MF, et al. Behavioral determinants of skiers’ failure to adjust release bindings. Clin Sports Med 1982; 1 (2): 209–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Hawkins RD, Fuller CW. A preliminary assessment of footballers’ awareness of injury prevention strategies. Br J Sports Med 1998; 32: 140–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Finch C, Donohue S, Garnham A. Safety attitudes and beliefs of junior Australian football players. Inj Prev 2002; 8: 151–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Reid SR, Losek JD. Factors associated with significant injuries in youth ice hockey players. Pediatr Emer Care 1999; 15 (5): 310–3Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Coulon L, Lackey G, Mok M, et al. A profile of little athletes’ injuries and the prevention methods used. J Sci Med Sport 2001; 4 (1): 48–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Carter AF, Muller R. A survey of injury knowledge and technical needs of junior rugby union coaches in Townsville(North Queensland). J Sci Med Sport 2008; 11: 167–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Heck JH. Asurvey ofNew Jersey high school football officials regarding spearing rules. J Athl Tran 1995; 30 (1): 63–8Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Lawrence DW, Stewart GW, Christy DM, et al. High school football-related cervical spinal cord injuries inLouisiana: the athlete’s perspective. J La State Med Soc 1997; 149: 27–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Fradkin AJ, Finch CF, Sherman CA. Warm-up attitudes and behaviours of amateur golfers. J Sci Med Sport 2003; 6 (2): 210–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Shehab R, Mirabelli M, Gorenflo D, et al. Pre-exercise stretching and sports related injuries: knowledge, attitudesand practices. Clin J Sports Med 2006; 16 (3): 228–31Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Gilchrist J, Mandelbaum BR, Melancon H, et al. A randomized controlled trial to prevent noncontact anteriorcruciate ligament injury in female collegiate soccer players. Am J Sports Med 2008; 36 (8): 1476–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Twomey D, Finch CF, Roediger E, et al. Preventing lower limb injuries: is the latest evidence being translated intothe football field? J Sci Med Sport 2008; 12 (4): 452–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Bell PA. Spondylolysis in fast bowlers: principles of prevention and a survey of awareness among cricket coaches. Br J Sports Med 1992; 26: 273–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Gabbe BJ, Finch CF. Who participates in the get fit to ski program? Aust J Physiother 1999; 45: 145–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Stewart-Levy A, Hawkes AP, Rossie GV. Helmet for skiers and snowboarders: an injury prevention program. Health Promo Prac 2007; 8 (3): 257–65Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Iversen MD, Friden C. Pilot study of female high school basketball players’ anterior cruciate ligament injuryknowledge, attitudes, and practices. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2009; 19 (4): 595–602PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Kilding AE, Tunstall H, Kuzmic D. Suitability of FIFA’s “The 11” training programme for young football players:impact of physical performance. J Sci Med Sport 2008; 7: 320–6Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Finch C, Gabbe B. The perceived benefits of participation in the get fit to ski program. Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot 2000; 7 (3): 209–11Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    van Mechelen W, Hlobil H, Kemper H, et al. Prevention of running injuries by warm-up, cool-down, and stretchingexercises. Am J Sports Med 1993; 21 (5): 711–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Jorgensen U, Fredensborg T, Haraszuk JP, et al. Reduction of injuries in downhill skiing by use of an instructional skivideo:a prospective randomised intervention study. Knee Surg, Sports Traumatol, Arthrosc 1998; 6: 194–200Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Abbott K, Klarenaar P, Donaldson A, et al. Evaluating safeclub: can risk management training improve the safetyactivities of community soccer clubs? Br J Sports Med 2007; 42: 460–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Gianotti S, Hume PA, Tunstall H. Efficacy of injury prevention related coach education within netball and soccer. J Sci Med Sport 2010; 13 (1): 32–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Sawyer RJ, Hamdallah M, White D, et al. High school coaches’ assessments, intentions to use, and use of a concussion prevention toolkit: Centres for Disease Controland Prevention’s heads up, concussion in high schoolsports. Health Promo Prac 2010; 11 (1): 34–43Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Jalleh G, Donovan RJ, Clarkson J, et al. Increasing mouthguard usage among junior rugby and basketballplayers. Aust N Z J Public Health 2001; 25 (3): 250–2PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Janz NK, Becker MH. The health belief model: a decade later. Health Educ Q 1984; 11 (1): 1–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Azjen I. The theory of planned behavior. Organ Behav Hum Decis Process 1991; 50: 179–211Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    De Vries H, Backbier E, Kok G, et al. The impact of social influence in the context of attitude, self-efficacy, intentionand previous behaviour as predictors of smoking onset. J Appl Soc Psychol 1995; 25: 237–57Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Bandura A. Social cognitive theory: an agentic perspective. Ann Rev Psychol 2001; 52: 1–26Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    DiClemente CC, Crosby RA, Kegler MC. Review of emerging theories in health promotion practice and research:strategies for improving public health. Health Educ Res 2004; 19 (3): 349–50Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Rogers EM. A protection motivation theory of fear appeals and attitude change. J Psychol 1991; 93: 91–114Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Prochaska JO, Redding CA, Evers KE. The transtheoretical model and stages of change. In: Glanz K, Rimer BK, Lewis FM, editors. Health behavior and health education:theory, research and practice. 3rd ed. San Francisco (CA): Jossey-Bass, 2002: 99–120Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Weinstein ND, Sandman PM. A model of the precaution adoption process: evidence from home radon testing. Health Psychol 1992; 11: 170–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Israel BA. Social networks and health status: linking theory, research and practice. Patient Couns Health Educ 1982; 4: 65–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Bandura A. Self efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behaviour change. Psychol Rev 1977; 84 (2): 191–215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Minkler M, Wallerstein N. Improving health through community organisation and community building. In: Glanz K, Lewis FM, Rimer BK, editors. Health behaviourand health education: theory, research and practice. 2nd ed. San Francisco (CA): Jossey-Bass, 1997: 241–69Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Aldoory L, Bonzo S. Using communication theory in injury prevention campaigns. Inj Prev 2005; 11: 260–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Beyer JM, Trice HM. Implementing change: alcoholism policies in work organisations. New York: Free Press, 1978Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Glasgow RE, Vogt TM, Boles SM. Evaluating the public health impact of health promotion interventions: the RE-AIM framework. Am J Public Health 1999; 89: 1322–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Maibach EW, Rothschild ML, Novelli WD. Social marketing. In: Glanz K, Rimer BK, Lewis FM, editors. Health behavior and health education: theory, researchand practice. 3rd ed. San Francisco (CA): Jossey-Bass, 2002: 437–61Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Williams AF, Wells JK, Farmer CM. Effectiveness of Ford’s belt reminder system in increasing seat belt use. Inj Prev 2002; 8: 293–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Davidson LL, Durkin MS, Kuhn L, et al. The impact of the safe kids/health neighbours injury prevention programin Harlem, 1988-1991. Am J Public Health 1994; 84 (4): 580–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Sleet DA, Hollenbach K, Hovell M. Applying behavioral principles to motor vehicle occupant protection. Edu Treat Child 1986; 9: 320–33Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Streff FM, Geller ES. Strategies for motivating safety belt use: the application of applied behavioral analysis. Health Educ Res 1986; 1: 47–59Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Thomson JA, Ampofo Boateng K, Lee DN, et al. The effectiveness of parent in promoting the development ofroad crossing skills in young children. Br J Educ Psych 1998; 68: 475–91Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Boyce TE, Geller ES. Applied behavioral analysis and occupational safety: the challenge of response maintenance. J Org Beh Manag 2001; 21 (1): 31–60Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Ivers R. Systematic reviews of bicycle helmet research [letter]. Inj Prev 2007; 13: 190PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    O’Callaghan FV, Nausbaum S. Predicting bicycle helmet wearing intentions and behaviour among adolescents. J Safety Res 2006; 37: 425–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Lajunen T, Rasanen M. Can social psychological models be used to promote bicycle helmet use among teenagers? Acomparison of the health belief model, theory of plannedbehaviour and the locus of control. J Safety Res 2004; 35: 115–23PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis Data Information BV 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Human Movement and Sport SciencesUniversity of BallaratMt Helen, BallaratAustralia

Personalised recommendations