Sports Medicine

, Volume 40, Issue 7, pp 539–563 | Cite as

Physical Activity Questionnaires for Youth

A Systematic Review of Measurement Properties
  • Mai J. M. Chinapaw
  • Lidwine B. Mokkink
  • Mireille N. M. van Poppel
  • Willem van Mechelen
  • Caroline B. Terwee
Review Article

Abstract

Because of the diversity in available questionnaires, it is not easy for researchers to decide which instrument is most suitable for his or her specific demands. Therefore, we systematically summarized and appraised studies examining measurement properties of self-administered and proxy-reported physical activity (PA) questionnaires in youth.

Literature was identified through searching electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE using ‘EMBASE only’ and Sport Discus®) until May 2009. Studies were included if they reported on the measurement properties of self-administered and proxy-reported PA questionnaires in youth (mean age <18 years) and were published in the English language. Methodological quality and results of included studies was appraised using a standardized checklist (qualitative attributes and measurement properties of PA questionnaires [QAPAQ]).

We included 54 manuscripts examining 61 versions of questionnaires. None of the included questionnaires showed both acceptable reliability and validity. Only seven questionnaires received a positive rating for reliability. Reported validity varied, with correlations between PA questionnaires and accelerometers ranging from very low to high (previous day PA recall: correlation coefficient [r] = 0.77). In general, PA questionnaires for adolescents correlated better with accelerometer scores than did those for children.

From this systematic review, we conclude that no questionnaires were available with both acceptable reliability and validity. Considerably more high-quality research is required to examine the validity and reliability of promising PA questionnaires for youth.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This review was financially supported by the Department of Public and Occupational Health, the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, the EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center and Body@Work, Research Center Physical Activity, Work and Health, TNO-VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The authors have no conflicts of interest directly relevant to the contents of this article.

References

  1. 1.
    Ekblom B, Astrand PO. Role of physical activity on health in children and adolescents. Acta Paediatr 2000; 89 (7): 762–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hallal PC, Victora CG, Azevedo MR, et al. Adolescent physical activity and health: a systematic review. Sports Med 2006; 36 (12): 1019–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ward DS, Evenson KR, Vaughn A, et al. Accelerometer use in physical activity: best practices and research recommendations. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2005; 37 (11 Suppl.): S582–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Trost S. Measurement of physical activity in children and adolescents. Am J Lifestyle Med 2007; 1 (4): 299–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Salmon J, Booth ML, Phongsavan P, et al. Promoting physical activity participation among children and adolescents. Epidemiol Rev 2007; 29: 144–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Montoye HJ, Kemper HCG, Saris WHM, et al. Measuring physical activity and energy expenditure. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics, 1996Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Going SB, Levin S, Harrell J, et al. Physical activity assessment in American Indian schoolchildren in the Pathwaysstudy. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 69 (4 Suppl.): 788–95SGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sallis JF. Self-report measures of children’s physical activity. J Sch Health 1991; 61 (5): 215–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Baquet G, Stratton GVPEBS. Improving physical activity assessment in prepubertal children with high-frequencyaccelerometry monitoring: a methodological issue. Prev Med 2007; 44 (2): 143–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Terwee CB, Mokkink LB, van Poppel MNM, et al. Qualitative attributes and measurement properties ofphysical activity questionnaires: a checklist. Sports Med 2010; 40 (7): 525–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Scientific Advisory Committee of the Medical Outcomes Trust. Assessing health status and quality-of-life instruments: attributes and review criteria. Qual Life Res 2002; 11: 193–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Terwee CB, Bot SD, de Boer MR, et al. Quality criteria were proposed for measurement properties of health statusquestionnaires. J Clin Epidemiol 2007; 60 (1): 34–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    de Vet HCW. Observer reliability and agreement. In: Armitage P, Colton T, editors. Encyclopedia of biostatistics. Boston (MA): John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 1998: 3123–8Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Telford A, Salmon J, Jolley D, et al. Reliability and validity of physical activity questionnaires for children: the Children’sLeisure Activities Study Survey (CLASS). Pediatr Exerc Sci 2004; 16: 64–78Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Janz KF, Broffitt B, Levy SM. Validation evidence for the Netherlands physical activity questionnaire for young children: the Iowa Bone Development study. Res Q Exerc Sport 2005; 76 (3): 363–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Corder K, van Sluijs EM, Wright A, et al. Is it possible to assess free-living physical activity and energy expenditurein young people by self-report? Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 89 (3): 862–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Crocker PR, Bailey DA, Faulkner RA, et al. Measuring general levels of physical activity: preliminary evidence forthe Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1997; 29 (10): 1344–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Treuth MS, Sherwood NE, Butte NF, et al. Validity and reliability of activity measures in African-American girlsfor GEMS. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2003; 35 (3): 532–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Salmon J, Telford A, Crawford D. Assessment of physical activity among primary school aged children: the Children’sLeisure Activities Study (CLASS). Australas Epidemiolog 2002; 9: 10–14Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Treuth MS, Sherwood NE, Baranowski T, et al. Physical activity self-report and accelerometry measures from theGirls Health Enrichment Multi-site Studies. Prev Med 2004; 38 Suppl.: x43–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ching PLYH, Dietz WH. Reliability and validity of activity measures in preadolescent girls. Ped Exerc Sci 1995; 7: 389–99Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Brown TD, Holland BV. Test-retest reliability of the selfassessed physical activity checklist. Percept Mot Skills 2004; 99 (3 Pt 2): 1099–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Koo MM, Rohan TE. Comparison of four habitual physical activity questionnaires in girls aged 7–15 yr. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999; 31 (3): 421–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Janz KF, Witt J, Mahoney LT. The stability of children’s physical activity as measured by accelerometry and selfreport. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1995; 27 (9): 1326–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    McMurray RG, Harrell JS, Bradley CB, et al. Comparison of a computerized physical activity recall with a triaxialmotion sensor in middle-school youth. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998; 30 (8): 1238–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Taren DL, Freeman MB, Brandenburg NA. Evaluation of dietary and activity questionnaires for elementary schoolchildren. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1993; 699: 298–300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Barbosa N, Sanchez CE, Vera JA, et al. A physical activity questionnaire: reproducibility and validity. J Sports Sci Med 2007; 6: 505–18Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lubans DR, Sylva K, Osborn Z. Convergent validity and test-retest reliability of the Oxford Physical Activity Questionnairefor secondary school students. Behav Change 2008; 25 (1): 23–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Prochaska JJ, Sallis JF, Long B. A physical activity screening measure for use with adolescents in primary care. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2001; 155 (5): 554–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rangul V, Holmen TL, Kurtze N, et al. Reliability and validity of two frequently used self-administered physicalactivity questionnaires in adolescents [abstract]. BMC Med Res Methodol 2008; 8: 47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Aaron DJ, Kriska AM, Dearwater SR, et al. Reproducibility and validity of an epidemiologic questionnaire toassess past year physical activity in adolescents. Am JEpidemiol 1995; 142 (2): 191–201Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    McMurray RG, Ring KB, Treuth MS, et al. Comparison of two approaches to structured physical activity surveys foradolescents. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2004; 36: 2135–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Booth ML, Okely AD, Chey TN, et al. The reliability and validity of the Adolescent Physical Activity Recall Questionnaire. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2002; 34 (12): 1986–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Treuth MS, Hou N, Young DR, et al. Validity and reliability of the Fels physical activity questionnaire for children. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2005; 37 (3): 488–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lachat CK, Verstraeten R, Khanh le NB, et al. Validity of two physical activity questionnaires (IPAQ and PAQA) for Vietnamese adolescents in rural and urban areas. IntJ Behav Nutr Phys Act 2008; 5: 37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Booth ML, Okely AD, Chey T, et al. The reliability and validity of the physical activity questions in the WHO health behaviour in school children (HBSC) survey: apopulation study. Br J Sports Med 2001; 35 (4): 263–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Burdette HL, Whitaker RC, Daniels SR. Parental report of outdoor playtime as a measure of physical activity inpreschool-aged children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2004; 158 (4): 353–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Nishikido N, Kashiwazaki H, Suzuki T. Preschool children’s daily activities: direct observation, pedometry orquestionnaire. J Hum Ergol (Tokyo) 1982; 11 (2): 214–8Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Moore HJ, Ells LJ, McLure SA, et al. The development and evaluation of a novel computer program to assess previousdaydietary and physical activity behaviours in schoolchildren: the Synchronised Nutrition and Activity Program(SNAP). Br J Nutr 2008; 99 (6): 1266–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Harro M. Validation of a questionnaire to assess physical activity of children ages 48 years. Res Q Exerc Sport 1997; 68 (4): 259–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Tremblay MS, Inman JW, Willms JD. Preliminary evaluation of a video questionnaire to assess activity levels ofchildren. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001; 33 (12): 2139–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ridley K, Olds TS, Hill A. The Multimedia Activity Recall for Children and Adolescents (MARCA): developmentand evaluation. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2006; 3: 10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kowalski KC, Crocker PR, Faulkner RA. Validation of the physical activity questionnaire for older children. Pediatr Exerc Sci 1997; 9 (2): 174–86Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Janz KF, Medema-Johnson HC, Letuchy EM, et al. Subjective and objective measures of physical activity in relationshipto bone mineral content during late childhood:the Iowa Bone Development Study. Br J Sports Med 2008; 42 (8): 658–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Sallis JF, Strikmiller PK, Harsha DW, et al. Validation of interviewer- and self-administered physical activity checklistsfor fifth grade students. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1996; 28 (7): 840–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Basterfield L, Adamson AJ, Parkinson KN, et al. Surveillance of physical activity in the UK is flawed: validation ofthe Health Survey for England Physical Activity Questionnaire. Arch Dis Child 2008; 93 (12): 1054–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Chen X, Sekine M, Hamanishi S, et al. Validation of a selfreported physical activity questionnaire for schoolchildren. J Epidemiol 2003; 13 (5): 278–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Jurisson A, Jurimae T. The validity of the Godin-Shephard physical activity questionnaire in children. Biol Sport 1996; 13: 291–5Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Moore JB, Hanes Jr JC, Barbeau P, et al. Validation of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children inchildren of different races. Pediatr Exerc Sci 2007; 19 (1): 6–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Weston AT, Petosa R, Pate RR. Validation of an instrument for measurement of physical activity in youth. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1997; 29 (1): 138–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ekelund U, Neovius M, Linne Y, et al. The criterion validity of a last 7-day physical activity questionnaire (SAPAQ) foruse in adolescents with a wide variation in body fat: theStockholm Weight Development Study. Int J Obes (Lond) 2006; 30 (6): 1019–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Wong SL, Leatherdale ST, Manske S. Reliability and validity of a school-based physical activity questionnaire. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2006; 38 (9): 1593–600PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Janz KF, Lutuchy EM, Wenthe P, et al. Measuring activity in children and adolescents using self-report: PAQ-C andPAQ-A. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2008; 40 (4): 767–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kowalski KC, Crocker PR, Kowalski NP. Convergent validity of the physical activity questionnaire for adolescents. Pediatr Exerc Sci 1997; 9 (4): 342–52Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Gao S, Schmitz K, Fulton J, et al. Reliability and validity of a brief tool to measure children’s physical activity. J Phys Act Health 2006; 3 (4): 415–22Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Philippaerts RM, Matton L, Wijndaele K, et al. Validity of a physical activity computer questionnaire in 12- to 18-yearoldboys and girls. Int J Sports Med 2006; 27 (2): 131–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kimm SY, Glynn NW, Kriska AM, et al. Longitudinal changes in physical activity in a biracial cohort duringadolescence. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000; 32 (8): 1445–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Verheul ACM, Prins AN, Kemper HCG, et al. Validation of a weight-bearing physical activity questionnaire in a studyof bone density in girls and women. Pediatr Exerc Sci 1998; 10: 38–47Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hagstromer M, Bergman P, De BI, et al. Concurrent validity of a modified version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-A) in European adolescents: the HELENA study. Int J Obes (Lond) 2008; 32 Suppl.5: S42–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Shiely F, MacDonncha C. Meeting the international adolescent physical activity guidelines: a comparison of objectivelymeasured and self-reported physical activitylevels. Ir Med J 2009; 102 (1): 15–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Biddle SJ, Mitchell J, Armstrong N. The assessment of physical activity in children: a comparison of continuousheart rate monitoring, self-report, and interview recalltechniques. Br J Phys Educ 1991 (Research Suppl.): 5–8Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Narring F, Cauderay M, Cavadini C, et al. Physical fitness and sport activity of children and adolescents: methodologicalaspects of a regional survey. Soz Praventivmed 1999; 44 (2): 44–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Schmidt GJ, Walkuski JJ, Stensel DJ. The Singapore Youth Coronary Risk and Physical Activity Study. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998; 30 (1): 105–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Guyatt GH, Deyo RA, Charlson M, et al. Responsiveness and validity in health status measurement: a clarification. J Clin Epidemiol 1989; 42 (5): 403–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Sallis JF, Saelens BE. Assessment of physical activity by selfreport: status, limitations, and future directions. Res QExerc Sport 2000; 71 (2): S1–14Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Oliver M, Schofield GM, Kolt GS. Physical activity in preschoolers: understanding prevalence and measurement issues. Sports Med 2007; 37 (12): 1045–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Sirard JR, Pate RR. Physical activity assessment in children and adolescents. Sports Med 2001; 31 (6): 439–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Freedson PS, Miller K. Objective monitoring of physical activity using motion sensors and heart rate. Res Q Exerc Sport 2000; 71 (2 Suppl.): S21–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Bassett Jr DR, Ainsworth BE, Swartz AM, et al. Validity of four motion sensors in measuring moderate intensity physicalactivity. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000; 32 (9 Suppl.): S471–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Melanson Jr EL, Freedson PS. Validity of the Computer Science and Applications, Inc. (CSA) activity monitor. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1995; 27 (6): 934–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Slootmaker SM, Chin A Paw, Schuit AJ, et al. Concurrent validity of the PAM accelerometer relative to theMTI Actigraph using oxygen consumption as a reference. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2009; 19 (1): 36–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Ekelund U, Sjostrom M, Yngve A, et al. Physical activity assessed by activity monitor and doubly labeled water inchildren. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001; 33 (2): 275–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Hendelman D, Miller K, Baggett C, et al. Validity of accelerometry for the assessment of moderate intensity physicalactivity in the field. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000; 32 (9 Suppl.): S442–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Welk GJ, Blair SN, Wood K, et al. A comparative evaluation of three accelerometry-based physical activity monitors. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000; 32 (9 Suppl.): S489–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Corder K, Ekelund U, Steele RM, et al. Assessment of physical activity in youth. J Appl Physiol 2008; 105 (3): 977–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Hesketh K, Crawford D, Salmon J. Children’s television viewing and objectively measured physical activity: associations with family circumstance. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2006; 3: 36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Mattocks C, Ness A, Leary S, et al. Use of accelerometers in a large field-based study of children: protocols, designissues, and effects on precision. J Phys Act Health 2008; 5 Suppl. 1: S98–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Bailey RC, Olson J, Pepper SL, et al. The level and tempo of children’s physical activities: an observational study. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1995; 27 (7): 1033–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Tang RB, Lee PC, Chen SJ, et al. Cardiopulmonary response in obese children using treadmill exercise testing. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi (Taipei) 2002; 65 (2): 79–82Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Tudor-Locke C, Williams JE, Reis JP, et al. Utility of pedometers for assessing physical activity: construct validity. Sports Med 2004; 34 (5): 281–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Tudor-Locke C, Williams JE, Reis JP, et al. Utility of pedometers for assessing physical activity: convergent validity. Sports Med 2002; 32 (12): 795–808PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Raudsepp L, Jurimae T. Relationships between somatic variables, physical activity, fitness and fundamental motorskills in prepubertal boys. Biol Sport 1996; 13 (4): 279–89Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Hands B, Larkin D, Parker H, et al. The relationship among physical activity, motor competence and health-relatedfitness in 14-year-old adolescents. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2009; 19 (5): 655–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis Data Information BV 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mai J. M. Chinapaw
    • 1
  • Lidwine B. Mokkink
    • 2
  • Mireille N. M. van Poppel
    • 1
  • Willem van Mechelen
    • 1
  • Caroline B. Terwee
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Public and Occupational Health, the EMGO Institute for Health and Care ResearchVU University Medical CenterAmsterdamthe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, the EMGO Institute for Health and Care ResearchVU University Medical CenterAmsterdamthe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations