Sports Medicine

, Volume 40, Issue 2, pp 113–139 | Cite as

Guidelines for Glycerol Use in Hyperhydration and Rehydration Associated with Exercise

  • Simon Piet van Rosendal
  • Mark Andrew Osborne
  • Robert Gordon Fassett
  • Jeff Scott Coombes
Review Article

Abstract

Dehydration in athletes alters cardiovascular and thermoregulatory function and may inhibit endurance exercise capacity if fluid loss exceeds 2% of bodyweight (BW). If this level of dehydration cannot be prevented when starting from a state of euhydration, then athletes may create a state of hyperhydration by consuming extra fluid prior to exercise. From this hyperhydrated situation, individuals have a greater capacity to tolerate fluid loss before becoming dehydrated. Furthermore, excess pre-exercise fluid intake enhances thermoregulatory ability, as well as increasing plasma volume to maintain cardiac output. However, hyperhydrating before exercise is difficult, because a large fluid intake is typically accompanied by diuresis. Glycerol-containing beverages create an osmotic gradient in the circulation favouring fluid retention, thereby facilitating hyperhydration and protecting against dehydration. Many studies have shown that increases in body water by 1L or more are achievable through glycerol hyperhydration. This article analyses the evidence for glycerol use in facilitating hyperhydration and rehydration, and provides guidelines for athletes wishing to use this compound. An analysis of the studies in this area indicates that endurance athletes intending to hyperhydrate with glycerol should ingest glycerol 1.2 g/kg BW in 26 mL/kg BW of fluid over a period of 60 minutes, 30 minutes prior to exercise. The effects of glycerol on total body water when used during rehydration are less well defined, due to the limited studies conducted. However, ingesting glycerol 0.125 g/kg BW in a volume equal to 5mL/kg BW during exercise will delay dehydration, while adding glycerol 1.0 g/kg BW to each 1.5L of fluid consumed following exercise will accelerate the restoration of plasma volume. Side effects from glycerol ingestion are rare, but include nausea, gastrointestinal discomfort and light-headedness. In summary, glycerol ingestion before, during or following exercise is likely to improve the hydration state of the endurance athlete.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to acknowledge the University of Queensland Graduate School Research Travel Grant for financial assistance. The authors have no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this review.

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Authors and Affiliations

  • Simon Piet van Rosendal
    • 1
  • Mark Andrew Osborne
    • 2
  • Robert Gordon Fassett
    • 1
    • 3
  • Jeff Scott Coombes
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Human Movement StudiesThe University of QueenslandSt Lucia, BrisbaneAustralia
  2. 2.Queensland Academy of SportBrisbaneAustralia
  3. 3.Royal Brisbane and Women’s HospitalBrisbaneAustralia

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