Sports Medicine

, Volume 39, Issue 12, pp 995–1009 | Cite as

Encouraging Walking for Transport and Physical Activity in Children and Adolescents

How Important is the Built Environment?
  • Billie Giles-Corti
  • Sally F. Kelty
  • Stephen R. Zubrick
  • Karen P. Villanueva
Review Article

Abstract

In the post-World War II era, there have been dramatic changes to the environment that appear to be having a detrimental impact on the lifestyles and incidental physical activities of young people. These changes are not trivial and have the potential to influence not only physical health, but also mental health and child development. However, the evidence of the impact of the built environment on physical activity to date is inconsistent. This review examines the evidence on the association between the built environment and walking for transport as well as physical activity generally, with a focus on methodological issues that may explain inconsistencies in the literature to date. It appears that many studies fail to measure behaviour-specific environmental correlates, and insufficient attention is being given to differences according to the age of study participants. Higher levels of out-of-school-hours physical activity and walking appear to be significantly associated with higher levels of urban density and neighbourhoods with mixed-use planning, especially for older children and adolescents. Proximate recreational facilities also appear to predict young people’s level of physical activity. However, there are inconsistencies in the literature involving studies with younger children. Independent mobility increases with age. For younger children, the impact of the built environment is influenced by the decision-making of parents as the gatekeepers of their behaviour. Cross-cultural differences may also be present and are worthy of greater exploration. As children develop and are given more independent mobility, it appears that the way neighbourhoods are designed — particularly in terms of proximity and connectivity to local destinations, including schools and shopping centres, and the presence of footpaths — becomes a determinant of whether children are able, and are permitted by their parents, to walk and use destinations locally. If older children and adolescents are to enjoy health and developmental benefits of independent mobility, a key priority must be in reducing exposure to traffic and in increasing surveillance on streets (i.e. ‘eyes-on-the-street’) through neighbourhood and building design, by encouraging others to walk locally, and by discouraging motor vehicle use in favour of walking and cycling. Parents need to be assured that the rights and safety of pedestrians (and cyclists) — particularly child pedestrians and cyclists — are paramount if we are to turn around our ‘child-free streets’, now so prevalent in contemporary Australian and US cities. There remains a need for more age- and sex-specific research using behaviour- and context-specific measures, with a view to building a more consistent evidence base to inform future environmental interventions.

Notes

Acknowledgments

This manuscript was written for work undertaken as part of a Population Health Capacity Building Grant (♯458668). BG-C is supported by an NHMRC Senior Research Fellow (♯503712), SFK by a post-doctoral fellowship funded by the PHCBG (♯458668) and KPV by an Australian Post-Graduate Award. The authors gratefully acknowledge the helpful comments provided by Dr Anna Timperio, Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition, Deakin University, and also three anonymous reviewers.

References

  1. 1.
    WHO. Young people: need to move for health and wellbeing. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2004Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    ASSO. Obesity in Australian children. Australian Society for the Study of Obesity, 2004 [online]. Available from URL: http://www.asso.org.au/freestyler/gui/files//factsheet_children_prevalence.pdf [Accessed 2009 Oct 1]Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Boreham C, Riddoch C. The physical activity, fitness and health of children. J Sports Sci 2001; 19: 915–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Daniels SR, Arnett DK, Eckel RH, et al. AHA scientific statement: overweight in children and adolescents: pathophysiology, consequences, prevention, and treatment. Circulation 2005; 111 (15): 1999–2012PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kelty SF, Zubrick SR, Giles-Corti B. Healthy body, healthy mind: why physically active children are healthier physically, psychologically and socially. In: Beaulieu N, editor. Physical activity and children: new research, Hauppauge (NY): Nova Science Publishers Inc., 2008Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Biddle S, Gorely T, Stensel D. Health-enhancing physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children and adolescents. J Sports Sci 2004; 22 (8): 679–701PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Goldberg B. Sports and exercise for children with chronic health conditions. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics, 1995Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Commonwealth Department of Health and Aging. Australia’s physical activity recommendations for children and young people, 2006 [online]. Available from URL: http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/content/health-pubhlth-strateg-phys-act-guidelines#rec_5_12 [Accessed 2009 Oct 1]Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Janssen I, Katzmarzyk P, Boyce WF, et al. Comparison of overweight and obesity prevalence in school-aged youth from 34 countries and their relationships with physical activity and dietary patterns. Obes Rev 2005; 6: 123–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    van Mechelen W, Twisk J, Post G, et al. Physical activity of young people: the Amsterdam Longitudinal Growth and Health Study. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000; 32 (9): 1610–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hill J, Wyatt H, Reed G, et al. Obesity and the environment: where do we go from here? Science 2003; 299: 853–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Transportation Research Board. Does the built environment influence physical activity? Examining the evidence. Washington, DC: TRB, 2005Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kopelman P. Health risks associated with overweight and obesity. Obes Rev 2007; 8 Suppl. 1: 13–7Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kelty SF, Giles-Corti B, Zubrick SR. Physical activity and young people: the impact of the built environment in encouraging play, fun and being active. In: Beaulieu NP, editor. Physical activity and children: new research. Hauppauge (NY): Nova Science Publishers Inc., 2008Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Newman P, Kenworthy J. Sustainability and cities: overcoming automobile dependence: an international sourcebook. Aldershot: Gower, 1989Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Campbell I. Long working hours in Australia: workingtime regulation and employer pressures. CASR Working Papers Number 2005-2: Centre for Applied Social Research, 2005Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Booth M. What proportion of Australian children are sufficiently active? Med J Aust 2000; 173 Suppl. 7: S6–7Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    WHO. The Ottawa charter for health promotion. Health Prom Int 1986; 1: 3–5Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Van Sluijs E, McMinn A, Griffin S. Effectiveness of interventions to promote physical activity in children and adolescents: systematic review of controlled trials. BMJ 2007 6 Oct; 335: 703–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Green LW, Orleans CT, Ottoson JM, et al. Inferring strategies for disseminating physical activity policies, programs, and practices from the successes of tobacco control. Am J Prev Med 2006 Oct; 31 (4 Suppl.): S66–81Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Giles-Corti B, Salmon J. Encouraging children and adolescents to be more active. BMJ 2007 Oct 6; 335 (7622): 677–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Davison KK, Lawson CT. Do attributes in the physical environment influence children’s physical activity? A review of the literature. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Activity 2006; 3: 19Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    McMillan T. Urban form and a child’s trip to school: the current literature and a model for future research. J Planning Lit 2005; 19 (4): 440–56Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ferreira I, van der Horst K, Wendel-Vos W, et al. Environmental correlates of physical activity in youth: a review and update. Obes Rev 2007 Mar; 8 (2): 129–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Salmon J, Salmon L, Crawford DA, et al. Associations among individual, social, and environmental barriers and children’s walking or cycling to school. Am J Health Prom 2007 Nov-Dec; 22 (2): 107–13Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sallis JF, Glanz K. The role of built environments in physical activity, eating, and obesity in childhood. Future Child 2006 Spring; 16 (1): 89–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pikora T, Giles-Corti B, Bull F, et al. Developing a framework for assessment of the environmental determinants of walking and cycling. Soc Sci Med 2003; 56: 1693–793PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Owen N, Humpel N, Leslie E, et al. Understanding environmental influences on walking: review and research agenda. Am J Prev Med 2004; 27 (1): 67–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Panter JR, Jones AP, van Sluijs EM. Environmental determinants of active travel in youth: a review and framework for future research. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2008; 5: 34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Giles-Corti B, Timperio A, Bull F, et al. Understanding physical activity environmental correlates: increased specificity for ecological models. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2005 Oct; 33 (4): 175–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    National Public Health Partnership. Promoting active transport: an intervention portfolio to increase physical activity as a means of transport. Melbourne (VIC): NPHP, 2001Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Saelens B, Sallis J, Frank L. Environmental correlates of walking and cycling: findings from the transportation, urban design, and planning literatures. Ann Behav Med 2003; 25 (2): 80–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Jago R, Baranowski T. Non-curricular approaches for increasing physical activity in youth: a review. Prev Med 2004; 39 (1): 157–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mason C. Transport and health: en route to a healthier Australia? Med J Aust 2000; 172: 230–2PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    DETR. Encouraging walking: advice to local authorities. London: Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, 2000Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Leyden KM. Social capital and the built environment: the importance of walkable neighborhoods. Am J Pub Health 2003 Sep; 93 (9): 1546–51Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Morris J, Wang F, Lilja L. School children’s travel patterns: a look back and a way forward. Transport Engineer Aust 2001; 7 (1-2): 15–25Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Black C, Collins A, Snell M. Encouraging walking: the case of journey-to-school trips in compact urban areas. Urban Studies 2001 Jun; 38 (7): 1121–41Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Dietz A, Gortmaker S. Preventing obesity in children and adolescents. Ann Rev Pub Health 2001; 22: 337–53Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Harten N, Olds T. Patterns of active transport in 11-12 year old Australian children. Aust NZ J Pub Health 2004; 28: 167–72Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    French S, Story M, Jeffery R. Environmental influences on eating and physical activity. Ann Rev Pub Health 2001; 22: 309–35Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bradshaw R. School children’s travel: the journey to school. Geography 2001 Jan; 86: 77–8Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Roberts I. Safely to school? Lancet 1996 Jun 15; 347 (9016): 1642PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Salmon J, Timperio A, Cleland V, et al. Trends in children’s physical activity and weight status in high and low socioeconomic status areas of Melbourne, Victoria, 1985-2001. Aust NZ J Pub Health 2005 Aug; 29 (4): 337–42Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Evenson K, Huston S, McMillen B, et al. Statewide prevalence and correlates of walking and bicycling to school. Arch Ped Adolesc Med [NLM-Medline] 2003 Sep; 157 (9): 887–92Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Metcalf B, Voss L, Jeffrey A, et al. Physical activity cost of the school run: impact on schoolchildren being driven to school. BMJ 2004; 329: 832–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Carlin JB, Stevenson MR, Roberts I, et al. Walking to school and traffic exposure in Australian children. Aust NZ J Pub Health 1997 Jun; 21 (3): 286–92Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    DiGuiseppi C, Roberts I, Li L, et al. Determinants of car travel on daily journeys to school: cross sectional survey of primary school children. BMJ 1998 May 9; 316 (7142): 1426–8Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Andersen L. Physical activity and health. BMJ 2007; vn334: 1173Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Tester JM. The built environment: designing communities to promote physical activity in children. Pediatrics 2009 Jun; 123 (6): 1591–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    McCormack GR, Giles-Corti B, Bulsara M. Correlates of using neighborhood recreational destinations in physically active respondents. J Phys Act Health 2007 Jan; 4 (1): 39–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Anonymous. School transportation modes: Georgia, 2000. Morbid Mortal Weekly Rep 2002; 51 (32): 704–5Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    EPA. Travel and environmental implications of school siting. Washington, DC: United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2003: report no.: EPA-231-R-03-004Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Timperio A, Ball K, Salmon J, et al. Personal, family, social, and environmental correlates of active commuting to school. Am J Prev Med 2006; 30 (1): 45–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Carver A, Salmon J, Campbell K, et al. How do perceptions of local neighborhood relate to adolescents’ walking and cycling? Am J Health Prom 2005; 20 (2): 139–47Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Dunton GF, Kaplan J, Wolch J, et al. Physical environmental correlates of childhood obesity: a systematic review. Obes Rev 2009 Jul; 10 (4): 393–402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Timperio A, Crawford D, Telford A, et al. Perceptions about the local neighborhood and walking and cycling among children. Prev Med 2004 Jan; 38 (1): 39–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    McMillan TE. The relative influence of urban form on a child’s travel mode to school. Transport Res (Part A: Policy and Practice) 2007; 1 (41): 69–79Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Braza M, Shoemaker W, Seeley A. Neighborhood design and rates of walking and biking to elementary school in 34 California communities. Am J Health Prom 2004; 19 (2): 128–36Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Falb M, Kanny D, Powell KE, et al. Estimating the proportion of children who can walk to school. Am J Prev Med 2007; 33 (4): 269–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Frank LD, Saelens BE, Powell KE, et al. Stepping towards causation: do built environments or neighborhood and travel preferences explain physical activity, driving, and obesity? Soc Sci Med 2007 Jul 16; 65 (9): 1898–914PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Frank L, Schmid T, Sallis J, et al. Linking objectively measured physical activity with objectively measured urban form: findings from SMARTRAQ. Am J Prev Med 2005; 28 (2 Suppl. 2): 117–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Owen N, Cerin E, Leslie E, et al. Neighborhood walkability and the walking behavior of Australian adults. Am J Prev Med 2007 Nov; 33 (5): 387–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Boarnet MG, Anderson CL, Day K, et al. Evaluation of the California Safe Routes to School legislation: urban form changes and children’s active transportation to school. Am J Prev Med 2005 Feb; 28 (2): 134–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kerr J, Rosenberg D, Sallis JF, et al. Active commuting to school: associations with environment and parental concerns. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2006; 38 (4): 787–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    de Vries H. Comment on “modifiable family and school environmental factors associated with smoking status among adolescents in Guangzhou, China”. Prev Med 2007 Aug-Sep; 45 (2-3): 119–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ewing R, Schroeer W, Green W. School location and student travel. Transport Res Rec 2004; 1895: 55–63Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Carver A, Timperio A, Crawford D. Playing it safe: the influence of neighbourhood safety on children’s physical activity (a review). Health Place 2008; 14 (2): 217–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Moon L, Meyer P, Grau J. Australia’s young people: their health and well being. Canberra (ACT): AIHW, 1999: report no.: /AIHW, Cat No. PHE 19Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Cross DS, Hall MR. Child pedestrian safety: the role of behavioural science. Med J Aust 2005; 182 (7): 318–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Macpherson A, Roberts I, Pless I. Children’s exposure to traffic and pedestrian injuries. Am J Public Health 1998 Dec; 88 (12): 1840–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Rao R, Hawkins M, Guyer B. Children’s exposure to traffic and risk of pedestrian injury in an urban setting. Bull NY Acad Med 1997; 74 (1): 65–80Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    LaScala EA, Gruenewald PJ, Johnson FW. An ecological study of the locations of schools and child pedestrian injury collisions. Accid Anal Prevent 2004; 36 (4): 569–76Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Timperio A, Salmon J, Ball K. Evidence-based strategies to promote physical activity among children, adolescents and young adults: review and update. J Sci Med Sport 2004; (7): 20–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Stevenson M, Jamrozik KD, Spittle J. A case-control study of traffic risk factors and child pedestrian injury. Int J Epidemiol 1995; 24 (5): 957–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Anonymous. Barriers to children walking and biking to school: United States, 1999. Morbid Mortal Weekly Rep 2002; 51 (32): 701–4Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Hillman M, Adams J, Whitelegg J. One false move: a study of children’s independent mobility. London: PSI Publishing, 1990Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Evenson KR, Scott MM, Cohen DA, et al. Girls’ perception of neighborhood factors on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and BMI. Obesity 2007; 15 (2): 430–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Jago R, Baranowski T, Zakeri I, et al. Observed environmental features and the physical activity of adolescent males. Am J Prev Med 2005 Aug; 29 (2): 98–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Mota J, Almeida M, Santos P, et al. Perceived neighbourhood environments and physical activity in adolescents. Prev Med 2005; 41: 834–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Ziviani J, Kopeshke R, Wadley D. Children walking to school: parent perceptions of environmental and psychosocial influences. Aust Occupation Ther J 2006; 53 (1): 27–34Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Brodersen NH, Steptoe A, Williamson S, et al. Sociodemographic, developmental, environmental, and psychological correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior at age 11 to 12. Ann Behav Med 2005; 29 (1): 2–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Frank LD, Kerr J, Chapman J, et al. Urban form relationships with walk trip frequency and distance among youth. Am J Health Prom 2007; 21 (4): 305–11Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Cohen DA, Ashwood JS, Scott MM, et al. Public parks and physical activity among adolescent girls. Pediatrics 2006; 118 (5): 1381–9Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Epstein LH, Raja S, Gold SS, et al. Reducing sedentary behavior: the relationship between park area and the physical activity of youth. Psychol Sci 2006; 17 (8): 654–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Norman GJ, Nutter SK, Ryan S, et al. Community design and access to recreational facilities as correlates of adolescent physical activity and body-mass index. J Phys Activity Health 2006; 3 Suppl. 1: 118–28Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Roemmich JN, Epstein LH, Raja S, et al. Association of access to parks and recreational facilities with the physical activity of young children. Prev Med 2006; 43: 437–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Gomez JE, Johnson BA, Selva M, et al. Violent crime and outdoor physical activity among inner-city youth. Prev Med 2004; 39 (5): 876–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    de Vries SI, Bakker I, van Mechelen W, et al. Determinants of activity-friendly neighbourhoods for children: results from the SPACE study. Am J Health Prom 2007; 21 (4): 312–659Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Gordon-Larsen P, Nelson MC, Page P, et al. Inequality in the built environment underlies key health disparities in physical activity and obesity. Pediatrics 2006; 117 (2): 417–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Cohen DA, Ashwood S, Scott M, et al. Proximity to school and physical activity among middle school girls: the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls study. J Phys Activity Health 2006; 3 Suppl. 1: S129–38Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Hoefer WR, McKenzie TL, Sallis JF, et al. Parental provision of transportation for adolescent physical activity. Am J Prev Med 2001; 21 (1): 48–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Copperman RB, Bhat CR. An analysis of the determinants of children’s weekend physical activity participation. Transportation 2007; 34: 67–87Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Foster S, Giles-Corti B. The built environment, neighborhood crime and constrained physical activity: an exploration of inconsistent findings. Prev Med 2008; 47 (3): 241–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Molnar BE, Gortmaker SL, Bull FC, et al. Unsafe to play? Neighborhood disorder and lack of safety predict reduced physical activity among urban children and adolescents. Am J Health Prom 2004 May-Jun; 18 (5): 378–86Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Sallis JF, Taylor WC, Dowda M, et al. Correlates of vigorous physical activity for children in grades 1 through 12: comparing parent-reported and objectively measured physical activity. Ped Exerc Sci 2002 Feb; 14 (1): 30–44Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Whitehead SH, Biddle SJH, O’Donovan TM, et al. Social, psychological and physical environmental factors in groups differing by levels of physical activity: a study of Scottish adolescent girls. Ped Exerc Sci 2006; 18 (2): 226–39Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Veitch J, Bagley S, Ball k, et al. Where do children usually play? A qualitative study of parents’ perceptions of influences on children’s active free-play. Health Place 2006; 12 (4): 383–93Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Mota J, Delgado N, Almeida M, et al. Physical activity, overweight, and perceptions of neighborhood environments among Portuguese girls. J Phys Activity Health 2006; 3 (3): 314–22Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Salmon J, Timperio A. Prevalence, trends and environmental influences on child and youth physical activity. Med Sport Sci 2007; 50: 183–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Adkins S, Sherwood NE, Story M, et al. Physical activity among African-American girls: the role of parents and the home environment. Obes Res 2004; 12 Suppl.: 38S–45SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Kligerman M, Sallis JF, Ryan S, et al. Association of neighbourhood design and recreation environment variables with physical activity and body mass index in adolescents. Am J Health Prom 2007; 21 (4): 274–7Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Peterson C. Looking forward through the lifespan: developmental psychology. 4th ed. Sydney (NSW): Prentice Hall, 2004Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Hin L. Built environment and children’s academic performance: a Hong Kong perspective. Habitat Int 2009; 33: 45–51Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Holt NL, Spence JC, Sehn ZL, et al. Neighborhood and developmental differences in children’s perceptions of opportunities for play and physical activity. Health Place 2008 Mar; 14 (1): 2–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Bass S, Pearce G, Bradney M, et al. Exercise before puberty may confer residual benefits in bone density in adulthood: studies in active prepubertal and retired female gymnasts. J Bone Mineral Res 1998; 13 (3): 500–7Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Matthews BL, Bennell KL, McKay HA, et al. Dancing for bone health: a 3-year longitudinal study of bone mineral accrual across puberty in female non-elite dancers and controls. Osteoporosis Int 2006; 17 (7): 1043–54Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Akers RL. Criminological theories: introduction and evaluation. 2nd ed. Los Angeles (CA): Roxbury Publishing, 1997Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Tester J, Baker R. Making the playfields even: evaluating the impact of an environmental intervention on park use and physical activity [online]. Available from URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19463491 [Accessed 2009 Oct 1]Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Sallis JF, Cervero RB, Ascher W, et al. An ecological approach to creating active living communities. Annu Rev Public Health 2006; 27: 297–322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Roemmich JN, Epstein LH, Raja S, et al. The neighborhood and home environments: disparate relationships with physical activity and sedentary behaviors in youth. Ann Behav Med 2007; 33 (1): 29–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Adachi-Meija A, Longacre M, Gibson J, et al. Children with a TV in their bedroom at higher risk for being overweight. Int J Obes 2007; 31: 644–51Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Salmon J, Telford A, Crawford D. The Children’s Leisure Activities Study: summary report. Melbourne (VIC): Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research, 2004Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Billie Giles-Corti
    • 1
  • Sally F. Kelty
    • 1
  • Stephen R. Zubrick
    • 2
  • Karen P. Villanueva
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for the Built Environment and Health, School of Population HealthUniversity of Western AustraliaCrawleyAustralia
  2. 2.Centre for Developmental HealthCurtin University of Technology and Telethon Institute for Child Health ResearchWest PerthAustralia

Personalised recommendations