Sports Medicine

, Volume 39, Issue 9, pp 709–721 | Cite as

Is it Time to Retire the ‘Central Governor’?

Current Opinion Is it Time to Retire the ‘Central Governor’?

Abstract

Over the past 13 years, Noakes and his colleagues have argued repeatedly for the existence of a ‘Central Governor’, a specific brain centre that provides a feed-forward regulation of the intensity of vigorous effort in order to conserve homeostasis, protecting vital organs such as the brain, heart and skeletal muscle against damage from hyperthermia, ischaemia and other manifestations of catastrophic failure. This brief article reviews evidence concerning important corollaries of the hypothesis, examining the extent of evolutionary pressures for the development of such a mechanism, the effectiveness of protection against hyperthermia and ischaemia during exhausting exercise, the absence of peripheral factors limiting peak performance (particularly a plateauing of cardiac output and oxygen consumption) and proof that electromyographic activity is limiting exhausting effort. As yet, there is a lack of convincing experimental evidence to support these corollaries of the hypothesis; furthermore, some findings, such as the rather consistent demonstration of an oxygen consumption plateau in young adults, argue strongly against the limiting role of a ‘Central Governor’.

References

  1. 1.
    Shephard RJ. Physiology and biochemistry of exercise. New York (NY): Praeger Publications, 19820Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Abbis CR, Laursen PB. Models to explain fatigue during prolonged endurance cycling. Sports Med 2005; 35: 865–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ulmer CV. Concept of an extracellular regulation of muscular metabolic rate during heavy exercise in humansby psychophysiological feedback. Experientia 1996; 52: 416–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Noakes TD. How did A.V. Hill understand the V̇O2max and the “plateau phenomenon”? Still no clarity? Br J Sports Med 2008; 42: 574–80 yanong v02 maxGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hill AV, Long CHN, Lupton H. Muscular exercise, lactic acid and the supply and utilisation of oxygen: partsVII-VIII. Proc Roy Soc B 1924; 97: 155–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Noakes TD. Physiological models to understand exercise fatigue and the adaptations that predict or enhanceathletic performance. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2000; 10: 123–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hampson DB, St Clair Gibson A, Lambert MI, et al. The influence of sensory cues on the perception of exertionduring exercise and central regulation of exercise performance. Sports Med 2001; 31: 935–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kay D, Marino FE, Cannon J, et al. Evidence for neuromuscular fatigue during high intensity cycling in warm, humid conditions. Eur J Appl Physiol 2001; 84: 115–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Noakes TD, Peltonen JE, Rusko HK. Evidence that a central governor regulates exercise performance duringacute hypoxia and hyperoxia. J Exp Biol 2001; 204 Pt 18: 3225–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Noakes TD. Linear relationship between the perception of effort and the duration of constant load exercise thatremains. J Appl Physiol 2004; 96: 1571–2PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ansley L, Schabort EJ, St Clair Gibson A, et al. Regulation of pacing strategies during successive 4km time trials. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2004; 38: 1819–25Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Noakes TD, St Clair Gibson A, Lambert EV. From catastrophe to complexity: a novel model of integrative centralneural regulation of effort and fatigue during exercise in humans. Br J Sports Med 2004; 38: 511–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Noakes TD, St Clair Gibson A. Logical limitations to the catastrophe models of fatigue during exercise in humans. Br J Sports Med 2004; 38: 648–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    St Clair Gibson A, Noakes TD. Evidence for complex system regulation and dynamic neural regulation ifskeletal muscle recruitment during exercise in humans. Br J Sports Med 2004; 38: 797–806PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Noakes TD, Calbet JA, Boshel R, et al. Central regulation of skeletal muscle recruitment explains the reducedmaximal cardiac output during hypoxia. Am J Physiol 2004; 287: R996–9Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tucker R, Rauch I, Harley YXR, et al. Impaired exercise performance in the heat is associated with an anticipatoryreduction in skeletal muscle recruitment. Pflüg Archiv 2004; 448: 422–30Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lambert M, St Clair Gibson A, Noakes TD. Complex systems model of fatigue: integrative homeostatic controlof peripheral physiological systems during exercise in humans. Br J Sports Med 2005; 39: 52–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tucker R, Marle T, Lambert EV. The rate of heat storage mediates an anticipatory reduction in exercise intensityduring cycling at a fixed rating of perceived exertion. J Physiol 2006; 574: 905–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Noakes TD. Determining the extent of neural activation during maximal effort [abstract]. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2007; 39: 2092PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Noakes TD. The central governor of exercise regulation applied to the marathon. Sports Med 2007; 37: 374–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Noakes TD. Testing for maximum oxygen consumption has produced a brainless model of human exercise performance. Br J Sports Med 2008; 42: 551–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Noakes TD, Marino FE. Maximal oxygen uptake is limited by a central nervous system governor. J Appl Physiol 2009; 106: 338–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Crewe H, Tucker R, Noakes TD. The rate of increase of perceived exertion predicts the duration of exercise to fatigueat a fixed power output in different environmentalconditions. Eur J Appl Physiol 2008; 103: 569–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Noakes TD, Tucker R. Do we really need a central governor to explain brain regulation of exercise performance?A response to the letter of Dr Marcora. Eur J Appl Physiol 2008; 104: 933–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kayser B. Exercise starts and ends in the brain. Eur J Appl Physiol 2003; 90: 411–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Abbis CR, Laursen PB. Describing and understanding pacing strategies during athletic competition. Sports Med 2008; 38: 239–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Baron B, Noakes TD, Dekerle J, et al. Why does exercise terminate at the maximal lactate steady state intensity. Br J Sports Med 2008; 42: 528–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Baron B, Deruelle F, Moullan F, et al. The eccentric muscle loading influences the pacing strategies during repeateddownhill sprint intervals. Eur J Appl Physiol 2009; 105: 749–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Castle PC, Macdonald AL, Philp A, et al. Precooling leg muscle improves intermittent sprint exercise performancein hot, humid conditions. J Appl Physiol 2006; 100: 1377–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Clark SA, Bourdon PC, Schmidt W, et al. The effect of acute simulated altitude on power, performance andpacing strategies in well-trained cyclists. Eur J Appl Physiol 2007; 102: 45–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Edwards AM, Mann ME, Marfell-Jones MJ, et al. Influence of moderate hydration on soccer performance:physiological responses to 45 min of outdoor match-playand the immediate subsequent performance of sport-specificand mental concentration tests. Br J Sports Med 2007; 41: 385–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Eston R, Faulkner J, St Clair Gibson A, et al. The effect of antecedent fatiguing activity on the relationship between perceived exertion and physiological activity during aconstant load exercise task. Psychophysiol 2007; 44: 779–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Flouris AD, Cheung SS. Human conscious response to thermal input is adjusted to changes in mean body temperature. Br J Sports Med 2009; 43: 199–203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Joseph T, Johnson B, Battista RC, et al. Perception of fatigue during simulated competition. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2008; 40: 381–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kabitz H-J, Walker D, Schwoerer A, et al. New physiological insights into exercise-induced diaphragmatic fatigue. Resp Physiol Neurobiol 2007; 158: 88–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Morante SM, Brotherhood JR. Autonomic and behavioural thermoregulation in tennis. Br J Sports Med 2008; 42: 679–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Nummela AT, Heath KA, Paavolainen LM, et al. Fatigue during a 5-km running time trial. Int J Sports Med 2008; 29: 738–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Racinais S, Bringard A, Puchaux K, et al. Modulation in voluntary neural drive in relation to muscle soreness. Eur J Appl Physiol 2008; 102: 439–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ross EZ, Middleton N, Shave R, et al. Corticomotor excitability contributes to neuromuscular fatigue followingmarathon running in man. Exp Physiol 2007; 92: 417–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Thomas R, Stephens P. Prefrontal cortex oxygenation and neuromuscular responses to exhaustive exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 2008; 102: 153–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Bergh U, Ekblom B, Åstrand PO. Maximal oxygen uptake “classical” versus “contemporary” viewpoints. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000; 32: 85–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Brink-Elfegoun T, Holmberg H-C, Ekblom MN, et al. Neuromuscular and circulatory adaptations during combinedarm and leg exercise with different maximal workloads. Eur J Appl Physiol 2007; 101: 603–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    di Prampero PE, Capelli C, Ferretti G. Positive effects of intermittent hypoxia (live high:train low) on exerciseperformance are/are not mediated primarily by augmentedred cell volume [comments on point:counterpoint]. J Appl Physiol 2005; 99: 2453–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Snell PG, Stray-Gundersen J, Levine BD, et al. Maximal oxygen uptake as a parametric measure of cardio respiratory capacity. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2007; 39: 103–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Shephard RJ. Is the measurement of maximal oxygen intake passé? Br J Sports Med 2009; 43: 83–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Shephard RJ. Hard evidence for a central governor is still lacking. J Appl Physiol 2009; 106: 343PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Foster C. Untitled. J Appl Physiol 2009; 106: 343PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hopkins WG. The implausible governor. Sportscience 2009; 13: 9–11Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Marino FE. The evolutionary basis of thermoregulation and exercise performance. In: Marino FE, editor. Thermoregulation and human performance: physiological and biological aspects. Basel: Karger Publications, 2008: 1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Noakes TD. Implications of exercise testing for prediction of athletic performance: a contemporary perspective. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1988; 20: 319–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Noakes TD. Maximal oxygen uptake: “classical” versus “contemporary” viewpoints–a rebuttal. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998; 30: 1381–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    St Clair Gibson A, Schabort EJ, Noakes TD. Reduced neuromuscular activity and force generation duringprolonged cycling. Am J Physiol 2001; 281: R187–96Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Mosso A. Fatigue. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1915Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Marino FE. Comparative thermoregulation and the quest for athletic supremacy. In: Marino FE, editor. Thermo regulation and human performance: physiologicaland biological aspects. Basel: Karger Publications, 2008: 14–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Shephard RJ. Human physiological work capacity. London: Cambridge University Press, 1978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Godin G, Shephard RJ. Activity patterns of the Canadian Eskimo. In: Edholm O, Gunderson EK, editors. Human polar biology. Cambridge: Heinemann, 1973Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Lee RB. Kung bushmen subsistence: an input-output analysis. In: Vayda AP, editor. Environment and cultural behavior. New York (NY): Natural History Press, 1969Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Wolfarth B, Rankinen T, Muhlbauer S, et al. Association between a beta2-adrenergic receptor polymorphism andelite endurance performance. Metab Clin Exper 2007; 56: 1649–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Lambert MI, Mann T, Dugas JP. Ethnicity and temperature regulation. In: Marino FE, editor. Thermo regulation and human performance: physiological and biological aspects. Basel: Karger Publications, 2008: 104–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Taylor CR, Schmidt-Nielsen K, Dmi’el R, et al. Effect of hyperthermia on heat balance during running in the African hunting dog. Am J Physiol 1971; 220: 823–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Luke AC, Bergeron MF, Roberts WO. Heat injury prevention practices in high school football. Clin J Sports Med 2007; 17: 488–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Pugh LGCE, Corbett JL, Johnson RH. Rectal temperatures, weight losses and sweat rates in marathon running. J Appl Physiol 1967; 23: 347–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Sutton JR, Coleman MJ, Millar AP, et al. The medical problems of mass participation in athletic competition: the “City to Surf” race. Med J Aust 1972; 2: 127–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Mueller FO, Cantu RC. Twentieth annual report: Fall 1982-Spring 2002, National Center for Catastrophic Sport Injury Research. Chapel Hill (NC): University of North Carolina, National Center for Catastrophic Sport Injury Research, 2004Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Vuori I. Exercise and sudden cardiac death: effects of age and type of activity. Sports Sci Rev 1995; 4 (2): 46–84Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Neilan TG, Yoerger D, Douglas P, et al. Persistent and reversible cardiac dysfunction among amateur marathon runners. Eur Heart J 2006; 27: 1079–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Neilan TG, Jnauzzi JL, Lee-Lewandrowski E, et al. Myocardial injury and ventricular dysfunction related totraining levels among nonelite participants in the Boston marathon. Circulation 2006; 114: 2325–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Whyte GP. Clinical significance of cardiac damage and changes in function after exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2008; 40: 1416–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Shephard RJ. Ischemic heart disease and exercise. London: Croom Helm, 1981Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Clarkson PM. Exertional rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure in marathon runners. Sports Med 2007; 27: 361–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Schiff HB, MacSearraigh ET, Kallmeyer JC. Myoglobinuria, rhabdomyolysis and marathon running. Quart J Med 1978; 47: 463–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Seedat YK, Aboo N, Naicker S, et al. Acute renal failure in the “Comrades Marathon” runners. Renal Failure 1989; 11: 209–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    González-Alonso J. Hyperthermia impairs brain, heart and muscle function in exercising humans. Sports Med 2007; 37: 371–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Cheung SS, Sleivert GG. Multiple triggers for hyperthermic fatigue and exhaustion. Ex Sport Sci Rev 2004;32: 100–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Lagerche A, Prior D. Exercise: is it possible to have too much of a good thing? Heart Lung Circ 2007; 16 Suppl. 3: S102–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    McKechnie JK, Lear WP, Noakes TD, et al. Acute pulmonary edema in two athletes during a 90km running race. S Afr Med J 1979; 56: 261–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Zavorsky GS. Evidence of pulmonary oedema triggered by exercise in healthy humans and detected with various imaging techniques. Acta Physiol 2007; 189: 305–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Shephard RJ. Aerobic fitness and health. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics, 1994Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Andersen P, Saltin B. Maximal perfusion of skeletal muscle in man. J Physiol 1985; 366: 233–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Rowell LB. Human cardio vascular control. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Stray-Gundersen J, Musch TI, Haidet GC, et al. The effect of pericardiectomy on maximal oxygen consumption and maximal cardiac output in untrained dogs. Circulation Res 1986; 58: 523–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Hammond HK, White FC, Bhargava V, et al. Heart size and maximal cardiac output are limited by the pericardium. Am J Physiol 1992; 263: H1675–81Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Leyk D, Egfeld D, Hoffmann U, et al. Postural effect on cardiac output, oxygen uptake and lactate during cycle exercise of varying intensity. Eur J Appl Physiol 1994; 68: 30–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Zhou B, Conlee RK, Jensen R, et al. Stroke volume does not plateau during graded exercise in elite male distance runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001; 33: 1849–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Gledhill N, Cox D, Jamnik R. Endurance athletes’ stroke volume does not plateau: major advantage is diastolic function. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1994; 26: 1116–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    González-Alonso J, Calbet J. Reductions in systemic and skeletal muscle blood flow and oxygen delivery limitmaximal aerobic capacity in humans. Circulation 2003; 107: 824–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Mortensen SP, Dawson EA, Yoshiga CC, et al. Limitations to systemic and locomotor limb muscle oxygen deliveryand uptake during maximal exercise in humans. J Physiol 2005; 566: 273–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Mortensen SP, Damsgaard R, Dawson EA, et al. Restrictions in systemic and locomotor skeletal muscle perfusion,oxygen supply and VO2 during high-intensity whole-bodyexercise in humans. J Physiol 2008; 586: 2621–35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Ekblom B. Point/counterpoint: maximal oxygen intake is not limited by a central nervous system governor. J Appl Physiol 2009; 106: 341–2Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Kaijser L, Grubbstrom J, Berglund B. Myocardial lactate release during prolonged exercise under hypoxemia. Acta Physiol Scand 1993; 149: 427–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Grubbstrom J, Berglund B, Kaijser L. Myocardial blood flow and lactate metabolism at rest and during exercisewith reduced arterial oxygen content. Acta Physiol Scand 1991; 142: 567–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Vatner SF, Higgins CB, Franklin D, et al. Role of tachycardia in mediating the coronary hemodynamic response to severe exercise. J Appl Physiol 1972; 32: 380–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Shephard RJ. Aging, physical activity and health. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics, 1997Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Pugh LGCE. Physiological and medical aspects of the Himalayan Scientific and Mountaineering Expedition,1960-1961. BMJ 1962; 2: 621–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Doherty M, Nobbs I, Noakes TD. Low frequency of the “plateau phenomenon” during maximal exercise in elite British athletes. Eur J Appl Physiol 2003; 89: 619–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Shephard RJ, Allen C, Benade AJS, et al. The maximum oxygen intake: an international reference standard ofcardio-respiratory fitness. Bull WHO 1968; 38: 757–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Myers J, Walsh D, Sullivan M, et al. Effect of sampling on variability and plateau in oxygen uptake. J Appl Physiol 1990; 68: 404–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Shephard RJ, Bouhlel E, Vandewalle H, et al. Muscle mass as a factor limiting physical work. Eur J Appl Physiol 1988; 64: 1472–9Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Astorino TA, Willey J, Kinnahan J, et al. Elucidating determinants of the plateau in oxygen consumption at V̇O2max. Br J Sports Med 2005; 39: 655–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Myers J, Walsh D, Buchanan N, et al. Can maximal cardio pulmonary capacity be recognized by a plateau inoxygen uptake? Chest 1989; 96: 1312–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Day JR, Rossiter HB, Coats EM, et al. The maximally attainable V̇O2 during exercise in humans: the peak vs maximum issue. J Appl Physiol 2003; 95: 1901–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Åstrand PO, Saltin B. Maximal oxygen uptake and heart rate in various types of muscular activity. J Appl Physiol 1961; 16: 977–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Hill AV, Lupton H. Muscular exercise, lactic acid, and the supply and utilisation of oxygen. Quart J Med 1923; 16: 135–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Taylor HL, Buskirk ER, Henschel A. Maximal oxygen intake as an objective measure of cardio-respiratory performance. J Appl Physiol 1955; 8: 73–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Wagner PD. New ideas on limitations to V̇O2max. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2000; 28: 10–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Sloniger MA, Cureton KJ, Prior BM, et al. Lower extremity muscle activation during horizontal and uphill running. J Appl Physiol 1997; 83: 2073–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Kayser B, Narici M, Binzoni T, et al. Fatigue and exhaustion in chronic hypobaric hypoxia: influence of exercising muscle mass. J Appl Physiol 1994; 76: 634–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    St Clair Gibson A, Lambert MI, Noakes TD. Neural control of force output during maximal and submaximal exercise. Sports Med 2001; 31: 637–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Nicol C, Komi PV, Marconnet P. Fatigue effects of marathon running on neuromuscular performance. Scand J Sci Sports 1991; 1: 18–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Garland SJ, McComas A. Reflex inhibition of human soleus muscle during fatigue. J Physiol 1990; 429: 17–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Spriet LL, Soderlund KK, Bergstrom M, et al. Anaerobic energy release in skeletal muscle during electrical stimulation in man. J Appl Physiol 1987; 62: 611–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Hargreaves M. Fatigue mechanisms determining exercise performance: integrative physiology is systems biology. J Appl Physiol 2008; 104: 1541–2PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Tucker R, Lambert MI, Noakes TD. An analysis of pacing strategies during men’s world performances in track athletics. Int J Sports Physiol Perf 2006; 1: 233–45Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Marcora S, Staiano W, Manning V. Mental fatigue impairs physical performance in humans. J Appl Physiol 2009; 106: 857–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Galloway SDR, Maughan RJ. Effect of ambient temperature on the capacity to perform prolonged cycle exercise in man. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1997; 29: 1240–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Tucker R. Thermoregulation, fatigue, and exercise modality. In: Marino FE, editor. Thermoregulation and human performance: physiological and biological aspects. Basel: Karger Publications, 2008: 26–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Savard GK, Nielsen B, Laszczynska J, et al. Muscle blood flow is not reduced in humans during moderateexercise and heat stress. J Appl Physiol 1988; 64: 649–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Tatterson AJ, Hahn AG, Martin DT, et al. Effect of heat and humidity on time trial performance inAustralian national team road cyclists. J Sci Med Sport 2000; 3: 186–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Baldwin J, Snow RJ, Gibala MJ, et al. Glycogen availability does not affect the TCA cycle or TAN pools duringprolonged, fatiguing exercise. J Appl Physiol 2003; 94: 2181–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Weir JP, Beck TW, Cramer JT, et al. Is fatigue all in your head? A critical review of the central governor model. Br J Sports Med 2006; 40: 573–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Physical Education and Health, University of TorontoTorontoCanada
  2. 2.BrackendaleCanada

Personalised recommendations